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Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

·         Performance of Selected Phil 2004 Series in Luzon and Mindanao (Ecologic Test of 2004 series)

Ten test varieties selected from the 2004 series Preliminary Yield Test in Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Pampanga were planted to evaluate their yield performance in five mill districts of Luzon and Mindanao.

 

   Phil 2004-0081 showed the best performance against the check varieties. It had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in the gain-          even-loss tally in tonnage, sucrose content, and sugar yield. This variety was also rated intermediate average to smut and highly resistant to downy              mildew.

 

   Phil 2004-0081 is recommended for commercial release.

·         Screening Of Phil 2006 Series For Resistance To Smut

 Twenty eight clones of the 2005 series and two clones of the 2006 series were planted, rationed and screened for their reaction to sugarcane smut.

 

   Four clones were rated very highly resistant, namely; Phil 05-0315, 05-2057, 05-2095 and 05-2119. Four were highly resistant, namely; Phil 05-1763,      05-2141, 05-2659 and 06-0647. Phil 05-2185 was rated resistant. Three were intermediate resistant, namely; Phil 05-0503, 05-1899, 05-1905, and 05-   2335. The remaining clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

 

·         Screening Of Phil 2005 Series For Resistance To Downy Mildew

Eleven clones of Phil 2005 series were tested for their resistance to downy mildew. Eight clones were rated very highly resistant namely; Phil 05-3635, 05-2151, 05-87, 05-483, 05-1379, 05-329, 05-0555, and 05-245. Phil 05-645 was highly resistant. Phil 05-309 was resistant and Phil 05-1197 was intermediate average.

 

Smut infection was higher in the ratoon cane than in the plant cane.

 

·         Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2007 Series 

Thirty test clones from 2007 Row Test series were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC. 

 

Based on the results of the study, ten clones were found to be either comparable or significantly higher than the check variety Phil 80-13 and comparable with Phil 75-44 in terms of tonnage and sugar yield. The clones also passed the selection criteria for smut and downy mildew resistance trials.

 

The clones also passed the selection criteria for smut and downy mildew resistance trials

 

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 07- 0181, Phil 07- 0027, Phil 07- 0573, Phil 07- 0105, Phil 07- 0275, Phil 07- 0025, Phil 07- 2081, Phil 07- 2203, Phil 07- 0199, Phil 07- 0163.

 

·         Ratoon Performance of Selected Phil 2000 Series 

Three recommended varieties Phil 00 -0881, Phil 00 2417 and Phil 00 2155 were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity. Phil 7544 was used as check variety.

 

In TC/ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties:  Phil 00- 0881 by 58.33% and 79.42%,   Phil 00- 2417 by 9.32% and 12.30%, Phil 00- 2155 by 41.90% and 19.21%, and Phil 7544 by 4.14% and 2.44%.

 

In LKG/TC, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following:  Phil 00 -0881 by 9.38%  and  12.15% ,  Phil 00- 2155 by 8.61%  and  9.16%, and  Phil 7544 by 8.24%  and  7.33%. Phil 00- 2417 had a 1.24% decrease in the first ratoon and 0.35% increase in the second ratoon.

 

In LKG/ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following:   Phil 00- 0881 by 62.53% and 82.28%, Phil 00 -2417 by 10.40% and 12.21%, Phil 00- 2155 by 47.27% and 26.95%, and Phil 7544 by 11.81% and 9.04%.

 

In the first ratoon, highest return on investment (ROI) of 3.85 was given by Phil 00- 2417 followed by Phil 7544 with 3.49, Phil 00 -2155 with 3.09 and Phil 00-0881 with 2.91. In the second ratoon, highest ROI of 1.90 was given by Phil 00- 2417 followed by Phil 7544 with 1.73, Phil 00 2155 with 1.68 and Phil 00- 0881 with 0.58.

 

Phil 00- 2417 with an ROI of 1.90 and Phil 00- 2155 with an ROI of 1.68 can still be maintained up to the second ratoon even with a 66.85% and 68.42% stool survival, respectively.  

·         Ratoon Performance of Selected Phil 2003 Series 

Two recommended varieties, Phil 03-0021 and Phil 03-1727 were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity. Phil 7544 was used as check variety.

In TC/Ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties: Phil 03-0021 by 10.08% and 19.73%, Phil 03-1727 by 11.45% and 14.14%, and Phil 7544 by 3.60% and 5.99%.

 

In LKg/TC, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties: Phil 03-1721 by 0.5% and 6.18% and Phil 7544 by 2.76% and 8.84%. Phil 03-0021 had an increase of 10.11% in the first ratoon and 3.37% in the second ratoon.

 

In Lkg/Ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following test varieties:  Phil 03-0021 by 0.65% and 16.74%, Phil 03-1727 by 11.90% and 19.40%, and Phil 7544 by 7.19% and 15.15%.

 

In the first ratoon, highest return on investment (R01) of 3.59 was given by Phil 03-1727 followed by Phil 7544 with 3.50 and Phil 03-0021 with 2.48. In the second ratoon, highest return on investment (R01) of 1.87 was given by Phil 03-0021 followed by Phil 03-1727 with 1.56 and Phil 7544 with 1.50.

 

Phil 03-0021 with an ROI of 1.87 and Phil 03-1727 with an ROI of 1.56 can still be maintained up to the second ratoon even with a 53.67% and 66.82% stool survival, respectively.

 

·         Yield Performance of Selected Sugarcane Varieties Under Waterlogged Conditions (Performance of varieties in poorly drained Soil)  

Fifteen selected sugarcane varieties were planted to determine the effects of natural waterlogged condition on their growth and yield response at SRA-LAREC.

 

The varieties were significantly different in number of millable stalks, cane tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha).  Among the test varieties, Phil 04-1011 had the most number of millable stalks per plot followedby Phil 80-13, Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081, Phil 74-64 and Phil 01-0295. The mean length and diameter of millable stalks of the test varieties were not significantly different under natural waterlogged condition.

 

In sucrose content the mean of the test varieties were not significantly different. Phil 7464 gave the highest TC/Ha comparable with nine other varieties. Phil 01-0295, Phil 74-64 and Phil 04-1011 produced significantly higher sugar yield.

 

Based on the results of the study none of the test varieties can be considered tolerant or resistant to waterlogged conditions.

 

·         Cane and Sugar Yields under Irrigated and Chicken Manure Compost Fertilized Soil (Organic Fertilization of Sugarcane)  

The study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation and levels of composted chicken manure fertilization on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 in the plant and first ratoon canes.

 

Treatments included with and without irrigation and five levels of compost fertilization based on N fertilizer recommendation, namely: 125%, 100%, 75%, 50% and 0%.

 

In the plant cane, tons cane (TC)/Ha was not affected by irrigation and different levels of compost fertilization. Means of irrigated canes was significantly higher than non-irrigated canes. Means from 75% to 125% levels of fertilization were significantly higher than the other treatment means. The LKg/TC was not affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization. The LKg/Ha was significantly affected by irrigation and fertilization levels. Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and   non-irrigated plots.

 

In the ratoon cane, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were both significantly affected by irrigation and levels of fertilization.   Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The LKg/TC was not also affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization treatments.

  •   Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2012 Series

Thirty test clones from 2011   row test series were entered in the preliminary yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic performance with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on tonnage and sugar yield, six clones were found to be either significantly higher, comparable or significantly lower with the check variety Phil 8013 and Phil 7544. The clones also passed the selection criteria for disease resistance to smut and downy mildew. 

The clones which are recommended to undergo National Cooperative  Testing are Phil 2012-465, Phil 2012-1019, Phil 2012-11, Phil 2012 475, Phil  2012-1263 and Phil 2012-609.   

·         Screening of Phil 2011 Series for Resistance to Smut 

Thirty clones of the 2011 from LGAREC were plant and ratooned and tested for their reaction to sugarcane smut. 

      Rating of the thirty clones of 2011 series were as follows: five very highly resistant, namely, Phil 11-0131, Phil 11-0899, Phil 11-1371, Phil 11-1013 and Phil 11-1077; five highly resistant, Phil 11-0227, Phil 11-1367, Phil11-1693, Phil 11-0965 and Phil 11-1121; eleven intermediate resistant, Phil 11-0237, Phil 11-0745, Phil 11-0733, Phil 11-1725, Phil 11-1719, Phil 11-1585, Phil 11-0449, Phil 11-0813, Phil 11-0827, Phil11-1097, Phil 11-1711; six intermediate average, Phil 11- 0133, Phil 11-0365, Phil 11—1683, Phil 11-1075, Phil 11-1631, Phil 11-1051, one susceptible, Phil 11-0169, one  highly susceptible, Phil 11-1057 and one rated very highly susceptible which is Phil 11-1657. 

All clones of 2011 series tested in plant and ratoon cane were rated very highly resistant to very highly susceptible.  

·         Screening of Phil 2011 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew.

 

Ten clones of Phil 2011 series from LGAREC were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant cane.

 

Based on the results all ten clones of Phil 2011 series were rated very highly resistant. These clones are Phil 11-0365, Phil 11-1367, Phil 11-1725, Phil 11-1683, Phil 11-449, Phil 11-827, Phil 11-1097, Phil 11-1075, Phil 11-1051 and Phil 11-1077. 

·         Screening of Phil 2010 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew. 

Twelve clones of Phil 2010 series from LGAREC were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

 

Among the twelve clones of 2010 series, elevenwere rated very highly resistant, namely, Phil 10-0427, Phil 10-0131, Phil 10-0645, Phil 10-0077, Phil 10-1051, Phil 10-0545, Phil 10-0317, Phil 0141, Phil 10-0085, Phil 10-0149 and Phil 10-0183. One clone, Phil 10-0107 was rated highly resistant.  

  • Performance of Selected Phil 2009 Series of Sugarcane Varieties in Four Mill Districts in Luzon

 Varietal response in terms of productivity is largely determined by soil factor, climatic conditions and cultural practices in the locality. Thus, yield performance and other agronomic responses of sugarcane varieties may vary from location to location according to adaptability.  In Luzon and Mindanao the mill districts differ in their agro-climatic conditions.  

Ten promising Phil 2009 series sugarcane varieties and two check varieties in each location were evaluated in four mill districts in Luzon. Phil 80-13 was used as national check while Phil 75-44 was used as the local check in Pampanga and Balayan and Phil 66-07 in Pensumil and Carsumco. The varieties were planted in a 6 rows by 9 meters plots in RCBD to evaluate their yield performance in plant cane only. This test aims to evaluate and identify promising varieties for adaptation in the different mill districts in Luzon having distinct agro-climatic conditions based on their yield performance and resistance to smut and downy mildew which are the two major diseases in Luzon.  

 Among the test varieties, Phil 2009-1867 showed the best yield performance against all check varieties. In tonnage (TC/Ha),   it was comparable to the two check varieties Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and Phil 80-13 and Phil 66-07 in Carsumco.  In Balayan and Pensumil it was comparable only to Phil 80-13 and Phil 66-07, respectively. It gave significantly higher sucrose content or the number of 50kg bags of raw sugar produced per ton cane (LKg/TC) than Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) than Phil 66-07 in Pensumil. It was comparable in LKg/TC to the two check varieties in Balayan and Pensumil and comparable in sugar yield to two check varieties in three mill districts.  In the gain-even-loss tally in three yield parameters, it has the fewest losses over the check varieties than the other test varieties.  

Phil 2009-1867 has a potential yield of 178.52 TC/Ha and 2.01 LKg/TC.  It is very highly resistant to both smut and downy mildew and did not flower in the four mill districts.   

·         Performance of selected Phil 2010 series in four mill districts in Luzon  

Ten promising Phil 2010 series sugarcane varieties were planted to evaluate their yield performance in the mill districts of Pampanga, Balayan, Pensumil and Carsumco in Luzon.  

Among the test varieties, Phil 2010-0107 showed the best yield performance against the check varieties.  In tonnage (TC/Ha),   it was comparable to both check varieties in the four mill districts. It produced significantly higher sucrose content (LKg/TC) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) than VMC 84-524 in Carsumco. It produced the highest mean tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield across locations. 

Phil 2010-0107 has a potential yield of 143.67 TC/Ha and 2.21 LKg/TC.  It is intermediate resistant to smut, highly resistant to downy mildew and very sparse flowerer. 

·         Ratoon Performance of Recommended Phil 2007 Series Varieties 

Two selected varieties  from 2007 series,  Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07 -0243 and standard check  variety Phil 7544  were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity.  

In TC/ha, of the Phil 07-0221, there was an increase in first and second ratoon.  Phil 07-0243 and Phil 7544 increased in first ratoon but decreased in second ratoon. On the third ratoon all varieties decreased.  

In LKG/TC, all varieties have same trend in sucrose content during plant cane, second and third ratoon but in first ratoon all the varieties decreased.  

In Lkg/Ha, Phil 07-0221 and Phil 7544 increased in the first and second ratoon while Phil 07-0243 decreased in the first ratoon but increased in the second ratoon. All varieties the decreased in the third ratoon.  

In the first, second and third ratoon, Phil 07-0221 had an average return on investment (ROI) of 1.33, Phil 07-0423 with 1.38 and Phil 7544 with 1.36.     Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07-0423 can still be maintained up to the third ratoon.  

·         Performance of Newly Released HYVs in Semi Commercial Production 

Phil 2000-1419 and Phil 2000-2155 were planted in 26 rows x 30 meters plots to test their yield performance in semi-commercial-scale production in the plant and ratoon cane. Phil 99-1973, a commercial variety, was also observed. 

Cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) decreased from plant to ratoon cane. Phil 2000-1419 has a high decrease of 31.15 TC/Ha and 23.20 Lkg/Ha, respectively, while Phil 2000-2155 gave a decrease of 4.65 TC/Ha and 6.21 Lkg/Ha. Sugar content of Phil 2000-2155 increased from plant to ratoon while Phil 2000-1419 and Phil 99-1793 both decreased.  

Phil 2000-1419 has a return of investment (ROI) of 0.64 and 0.53 in the plant and ratoon cane, respectively, Phil 2000-2155 has 0.61 and 0.64, while Phil 99-1793 had 0.60 for both plant and ratoon.  On the average, Phil 2000-2155 gave the highest ROI. 

·         Evaluation of Selected HYVs for Early Milling at Pensumil Mill District  

 Nine selected High Yielding Varieties (HYV’s) and a local variety, Phil 6607, were entered in the evaluation using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)  to identify which of these sugarcane varieties give satisfactory cane and sugar yield during early milling season and under natural climatic condition in PENSUMIL Mill District.  

 Phil 00-2569 maintained having the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield in the crop cycle. Although Phil 04-0081 was comparable with Phil 00-2569 in TC/ha and LKG/ha in the plant cane, its yield parameters decreased abruptly in the first ratoon.    

Phil 93-1601 gave the lowest reduction from plant cane to first ratoon in cane yield (TC/ha), sugar rendement (LKG/ha) and sugar yield (LKG/ha). It obtained the second highest LKG/TC in the plant cane and ranked first in the first ratoon. Its sugar yield in the first ratoon was still comparable with Phil 00-2569.  

Phil 00-2569 and Phil 93-1601 are recommended for early milling and variety diversification in   PENSUMIL Mill District.  

·         Growth and Yield Performance of Ten High Yielding Varieties of Sugarcane for Early Milling at Carsumco Mill District  

The study determined the growth and yield performance often HYVs   for early milling at    Carsumco   Mill District.  

Planting in November for early milling influenced some growth parameters which affected the TC/Ha and LKg/ha yield parameters. In both plant and ratoon canes, the Lkg/TC of the varieties were comparable.

Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081 and Phil 99-1793 produced higher TC/Ha which also gave higher LKg/Ha in the plant cane.  The LKg/Ha of the varieties were comparable in the ratoon cane.  

·         Yield Performance of Selected Sugarcane Varieties Under Waterlogged Conditions  

Fifteen selected sugarcane varieties were planted to determine the effects of natural waterlogged condition on their growth and yield response at SRA-LAREC.

The varieties were significantly different in number of millable stalks, cane tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha).  Among the test varieties, Phil 04-1011 had the most number of millable stalks per plot followed by Phil 80-13, Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081, Phil 74-64 and Phil 01-0295.  The mean length and diameter of millable stalks of the test varieties were not significantly different under natural waterlogged condition. 

In sucrose content the mean of the test varieties were not significantly different. Phil 7464 gave the highest TC/Ha comparable with nine other varieties. Phil 01-0295, Phil 74-64 and Phil 04-1011 produced significantly higher sugar yield. 

Based on the results of the study none of the test varieties can be considered tolerant or resistant to waterlogged conditions. 

·         Cane and Sugar Yields of Phil Varieties Under Chicken Manure Compost Fertilization 

The cane and sugar yields of  10 each of selected  Phil series 2002, 2005 and 2006 varieties (Set 1) and selected Phil series 2008 varieties (Set 2) including Phil 7544 and Phil 8013 for each set were tested under  chicken manure compost  fertilization in the plant and ratoon crops. 

In the Set 1 test, Phil 8013 generally performed better  in  both TC/Ha  and  LKg/Ha in the  plant  and  ratoon   crops  while Phil  7544 showed better performance in the  ratoon   crop.  The other varieties which showed potential to produce high LKg/Ha in the ratoon crop are Phil 02-421 and Phil 05-2525.  Compost fertilization did not influence the LKg/TC of the varieties. 

In the  Set 2 test,  Phil 8013  and Phil 7544  consistently  gave better  cane  and sugar  yields in  the plant  and  ratoon  crops.  Other varieties with potential to produce high LKg/Ha in the plant and ratoon crops are Phil 08-0909, Phil 08-1123 and Phil 08-1253.                             

For the two sets of tests, Phil 8013 consistently gave better TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/Ha. 

·         Effect of Method of Cutting and Delay in Planting on Germination of Three HYVs  

The study determined the influence of slanting and perpendicular methods of cutting canepoints, and length of delay (0, 3,7,10 days) in the planting of Phil 00-2569, Phil 00-2155, and Phil 99-1793.  

Cutting methods did not affect percent canepoint germination (%). High mean percent germination (95.84%) was observed with no delay (0 day) in planting canepoints after cutting and was even higher (98.49%) up to 3 days of delay. The highest percent canepoint germination was observed from Phil 99-1793 among the three varieties tested (92.21%). 

Cane yield (TC/Ha) was also not affected by the cutting methods and the highest mean cane yield was observed from a 3-day delay of planting after cutting (115.64 TC/Ha). Among the three varieties, Phil 00-2569 gave the highest mean cane yield of 203.89 TC/Ha. 

Sucrose content (Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (Lkg/Ha) were both not affected by the cutting method. Highest mean sucrose content (2.17 Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (250.46 Lkg/Ha) was observed from a 3-day delay of planting after cutting, and the Phil 99-1793 variety gave the highest mean sucrose content with 2.07 Lkg/TC while Phil 00-2569 has the highest mean sugar yield of 239.67 Lkg/Ha, among the three varieties tested.  

The effect of cutting methods statistically has no significant effect on all parameters observed. Delaying the number of days of delay of planting after cutting from 0-day to a 3-day delay can give higher % germination, TC/Ha, Lkg/TC, and TC/Ha while the effect of variety on the parameters tested are variety-specific.  

·         Performance of Selected HYVs in Wet Season Planting at Pampanga Mill District  

Ten high yielding varieties were planted at the Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center using randomized complete block design to determine their adaptability to wet season planting.  

Results showed that among the varieties, Phil 75-44, Phil 93-1601, Phil 97-3933, Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-1419, Phil 2000-2155, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2003-0021 and Phil 2004-0081 with the exception of Phil 03-1727 can be planted during the wet season under LAREC conditions. The varieties generally exhibited high mean tonnage and average sucrose content.  

·         Effects of Different Patterns and Densities of Planting on Canepoint Production of Phil 99-1793  

The experiment was conducted at the Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC) to find out the best combination of planting patterns and densities for canepoint propagation of Phil 99-1793. 

Planting pattern and density significantly affected the germination, tiller count and number of millable stalks of Phil 99-1793 in the plant cane. The height of the variety was not significantly affected. 

The interaction did not significantly affect the stool count in the ratoon crop but significantly affected the number of millable stalks. 

In the plant cane and ratoon crop, planting pattern and density did not significantly affect the canepoint production of Phil 99-1793. 

On the average, Return on Investment (ROI) was highest with single row planting in 1 meter furrow distance at planting density of 4.5 lacsa per hectare. 

·         Sugarcane Production with Chicken Manure Compost Fertilization 

The study determined the effects of levels of chicken manure compost fertilization on the growth and cane and sugar yields of Phil 99-1793. The compost test levels were equivalent to 0 (without compost) and 70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the recommended nitrogen fertilization based on soil analysis of the experimental area. 

In the plant cane, the application of chicken manure compost did not influence the growth parameters to include percent germination of canepoints, number of tillers/plot, plant height at 7 MAP, number of millable stalks/plot, stalk length and stalk diameter.

The insignificant influence on all the growth parameters of the application of manure composts were also observed on cane yield per ha (TC/Ha), sugar recovery per ton cane (LKg/TC) and sugar yield per ha (LKg/Ha).       

The test was done in the plant crop where the long term effects of manure compost application in improving the physical and chemical properties of the sandy loam soil of the experimental area to produce significant influence may not have been fully realized. 

·         Efficacy of GRO Plant Booster on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane (FPA-Bio Efficacy Test)  

The efficacy trial was laid-out in the experimental farm of the Sugar Regulatory Administration – Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (SRA-LAREC) in Paguiruan, Floridablanca, and Pampanga based on the approved Experimental Unit Permit (EUP) from the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA). 

The study determined the effects of GRO Plant Booster on the growth and yield of sugarcane for purposes of product registration for label expansion for sugarcane. 

The Recommended Rate of GRO Plant Booster (RR-GRO) or 1.5RR-GRO each applied alone or in combination with the Recommended Rate of Chemical Fertilizer (RR-CF) did not influence the growth and yield parameters.    

Application of either RR-GRO or 1.5 RR-GRO in combination with ½RR-CF had the same effects as RR-CF on plant height at 7 months after planting (MAP). Combining ½ RR-CF with 1.5 RR-GRO gave comparable effects on length of millable stalks and cane yield (TC/Ha) with RR-CF. 

The nine treatments were comparable on tiller count, plant height at 5 MAP, millable stalk diameter, number of millable stalks and LKg/TC. 

On sugar yield (LKg/Ha), GRO Plant Booster did not show effect at RR or 1.5RR or in combinations with RR-CF or ½ RR-CF. 

GRO Plant Booster did not show effectiveness   as supplemental fertilizer for either RR-CF or ½ RR-CF in sugar production.

·         Efficacy of Hyfer Plus (Growth Enhancer) Foliar Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane (FPA-Bioefficacy Test) 

The efficacy trial was planted in the experimental farm of the Sugar Regulatory Administration – Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (SRA-LAREC) in Paguiruan, Floridablanca, Pampanga based on the approved Experimental Unit Permit (EUP) from the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA). 

The study determined the effects of Hyper Plus (Growth enhancer) on the growth and yield of sugarcane for purposes of product registration for label expansion for sugarcane. 

Application of one half of the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR-CF) in combination with Hyper Plus in full dose (RR-HP) or one half of recommended rate (1/2 RR-HP) had the same effects with the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF) in increasing the millable stalk length and caneyield per hectare TC/Ha.  

Hyper plus foliar fertilizer is significantly effective in improving sucrose content (LKg/TC) than the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF). On sugar yield (LKg/Ha), application of one half recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR-CF) together with the Hyper plus in full (RR-HP) or 1/2 of the recommended rate of Hyper plus (1/2 RR-HP) also appeared as good as the influence of recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF).     

With the above mentioned results on the comparative performance of the application of Hyper Plus at full (RR-HP) or one half of recommended rates (1/2 RR-HP) in combination with one half of recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR- CF), and the comparable effects of said treatments with recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF) on some growth and yield parameters, Hyper Plus has the potential for use as supplemental fertilizer in sugarcane production.

La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

 

·      Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

Thirty Phil 2007 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut from April 2011 to March 2012.  In the plant cane, 9 clones were rated very highly resistant,7 highly resistant,2 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 1,susceptible, 1 highly susceptible, and 1 very highly susceptible. In the ratoon, 5 clones were rated highly resistant, 8 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 2 very highly susceptible to the disease. 

·      Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) 

Thirty Phil 2006 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut from March 2011 to February 2012.  In the plant cane, 28 clones were rated very highly resistant and 2 were highly resistant.In the ratoon, 22 clones were rated very highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 2 resistant and 1 intermediate resistant to the disease.  

·      Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series

 

Thirty Phil 2007 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. One clone was intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 16 very highly susceptible to the disease. The test started in April 2011 and ended in March 2012.

 

·      Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series

    

Thirty Phil 2006 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Two clones were resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 11 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible to the disease. The test started in March 2011 and ended in February 2012.

 

·      Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series

 

     Thirty clones of the Phil 2007 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Twenty six clones were found very highly resistant, while 4 clones were highly resistant to the disease. The test started in April 2011 and ended in March 2012.

 

·      Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series

 

Thirty clones of the Phil 2006 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. All the clones tested were found very highly resistant to the disease. The test started in March 2011 and ended in February 2012.

 

·         Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2010 Series

 

The 2010 hybridization work which produced a total of 57,419 seedlings from 200 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 23 to July 13, 2011. From these seedlings, 43,170 survived in the field or a survival rate of 75.18 percent.

 

Selection in March to April 2012 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 778 promising clones from 149 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.80 percent for seedlings and 74.50 percent for the crosses.

 

All selected promising clones per cross were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test.

 

·         Propagation II, Phil 2007 Series

Thirty selected varieties of Phil 2007 Series were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from November 2011 to May 2012 in preparation for Propagation III, the source of planting materials for the Ecologic Test in different locations nationwide. From these varieties, eight were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test to be laid out in November 2012. The eight varieties selected and to be propagated in Propagation III are: Phil 07-57-0573, Phil 07-01-0027, Phil 07-43-0411, Phil 07-234-2319, Phil 07-16-0243, Phil 07-55-0563, Phil 07-200-2081 and Phil 07-40-0359. 

·         Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2008 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

 

One hundred eighty seven Phil 2008 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane from August 2011 to June 2012. In the plant cane, 185 clones were considered very highly resistant, 1 was highly resistant and another one clone was resistant to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 169 clones were very highly resistant, 10 were highly resistant, 4 were resistant, and another 4 clones were intermediate resistant to the disease. Based on plant cane rating, all the 187 test clones were recommended for further multiplication and testing. 

 

·         Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2009 Series at Row Test  Stage

 

Three hundred fifty Phil 2009 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut resistance from January to June 2012.  Results showed that 146 clones were very highly resistant, 27 highly resistant, 28 resistant, 17 intermediate resistant, 13 intermediate average, 8 intermediate susceptible, 8 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. Ninety four clones with less than 50% germination rated very highly resistant. Two hundred eighteen clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.

·         Multiplication II (Phil 2008 Series) 

 

Two hundred fifty four Phil 2008 series clones were multiplied (M1) and simultaneously screened for smut from January to June 2011.  After six months, 233 clones were found resistant to the disease and considered for further multiplication in the next stage (M2) and for simultaneous screening against downy mildew. Only 187 of the selected clones were actually passed to the next stage because of insufficient planting materials.

 

·         Pollination, Sowing, and Seedling care – Phil 2011 Series 

During the 2011 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with peak of full emergence observed on the last week of October 2011.

 Pollination work which started October 16 and ended November 21, 2011 utilized 99 female and 63 male selected parents. A total of 290 arrows from 211 biparental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 289 arrows from 211 biparental crosses were harvested with one arrow destroyed.

 The sowing of fuzz in 211 seedboxes from November 16 to December 10, 2011 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 208 biparental crosses consisting of 286 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 86.26 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 83 biparental crosses were pricked in 303 seedboxes. 

Seedlings in 511 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivationprior to transplanting in May and June 2012.   

·         Propagation I, Phil 2008 Series

 

Thirty promising Phil 2008 Series clones/varieties were propagated in SRA-LGAREC from April to October 2012. These were cutbacked six (6) months after planting. The canepoints produced were further propagated to increase number of planting materials needed for Ecologic test in different locations nationwide. Ratoons of these clones/varieties were also maintained and cultured to facilitate additional supply of planting materials

 

·         SVIP Germplasm Collection

 

A total of 1,287 sugarcane varieties were planted in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2012. Ten new Phil varieties from the Ecologic Test were added to the collection; however, another ten old Phil varieties did not survive in the germplasm collection. Eight hundred twenty clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically.  Brix, stalk diameter and number of tillers were the data gathered on the year 2012 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials.

 

·         Mass production of Trichogramma Strips for the Control of Borers 

From November 2011 to October 31, 2012, the project produced 20,200strips of Trichogramma. A total of 10,793 strips were distributed to clients as follows: sugarcane planters – 7,371 strips;rice farmers – 266 strips; rice/corn farmers – 520; rice/sugarcane planters – 2,533 strips; sugarcane/vegetable raisers – 40 strips and sugarcane researchers – 63 strips. The rest of the strips were used as starters.

·         Efficacy of Some Commercial Alternative Fertilizers for Growth and Yield 99-1793

 

The study was conducted at the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC) from December 2009- December 2011. It followed a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates of 6 x 9 meters plots. Nine commercially available alternative fertilizers were evaluated to determine its efficacy and economic viability.  The fertilizers were applied following product’s protocol. Test variety used was Phil 99-1793.

 

All test fertilizers gave statistically comparable results relative to the control (Recommended rate of NPK) on all growth and yield parameters except on plant height at three months after planting using AF2 in combination with 2 bags 16-20-0, 4 bags urea and 4 bags potash having significantly highest value.

 

AF9 in combination with recommended rates of inorganic fertilizers gave the highest return of investments (ROI) among the test products both on plantcane and ratoon crops. 

 

·         Response of Sugarcane to Acetobacter diazotrophicus Applied in Different Volumes & Frequencies (Plant cane)

 

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in a Guimbalaon sandy loam soil from November 2010 to November 2012. This was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times, (1) to determine the influence of partitional spraying of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus strain 10071 on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569 and (2) to determine the influence of spraying frequency on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569.

 

Highest mean sugar yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569 plant cane (170.47 LKg/Ha) was obtained with acetobacter applied one month after planting (MAP) and two months after planting, significantly higher than the control with 140.3 LKg/Ha but comparable with 1,2, and 3 MAP; 1, 2, 3 and  4 MAP; and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 MAP spraying with 164.39 LKg/Ha, 164.16 LKg/Ha and 159.20 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

Phil 2000-2569 plant cane gave higher mean sugar yield of 200.45 LKg/Ha compared with Phil 99-1793 with 145.46 LKg/Ha on treatment where acetobacter was applied 1, 2, 3 and 4 MAP., while the lowest sugar yield on both varieties was on the control without acetobacter.

 

Phil 2000-2569 plant cane average mean sugar yield of 184.4 LKg/ha was significantly higher than Phil 99-1793 with 135.0 LKg/Ha. The sugar yield difference was 49.4 LKg/Ha.

 

Phil 2000-2569 and Phil 99-1793 gave an average sugar yields ranging from 107.15 to 111.45 Lkg/Ha with acetobacter, higher than the control without acetobacter (100.59 LKg/Ha).

 

Regardless of volume and frequencies Phil 2000-2569 gave higher yield (130.7 LKg/Ha) than Phil 99-1793 (92.5 LKg./Ha) obtained on treatment with acetobacter applied 1 and 2 MAP and 1, 2 and 3 MAP respectively. The lowest sugar yield on both varieties was on the control without acetobacter. Phil 2000 2569 ratoon average mean sugar yield of 126.85 LKg/ha was significantly higher than Phil 99-1793 with 88.33 LKg/Ha. The sugar yield difference was 38.52 LKh/Ha.

 

Plant cane average mean LKg/TC of Phil 99-1793 (2.20) was higher than Phil 2000-2569 (2.18), however statistically comparable. In contrast with the plantcane, average mean LKg/TC of Phol 2000-2569 ratoon (2.25) was higher than Phil 99-1793 (2.13) but statistically comparable.

 

Highest mean tonnage yield of both varieties in both crop was higher with acetobacter application, sprayed 1 and 2 MAP, higher than the control without acetobacter.

 

Phil 2000-2569 gave higher mean tonnage yield compared with Phil 99-1793 both on plant and ratoon cane.

 

Higher tonnage of Phil 2000-2569 compared with Phil 99-1793 was due to heavier stalks and more number of millable stalks of the former variety.

 

·         Response of Phil 99-1793 to inoculation of different strains of Acetobacter diazotrophicus with or without mudpress application (Plant cane).

 

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in Guimbalaon sandy loam soil from November 2010 to November 2012. This was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times, (1) to evaluate the influence of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus strain 10069, 10071, 10078, and 10081 alone or in combination with mudpress on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and (2) to identify the best strain(s) of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus that can improve the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793. 

Phil 99-1793 plant crop highest mean sugar yiled of 156.95 LKg/Ha was obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10069 (152.48 LKg/Ha), strain 10078 (149.34 LKg/Ha) and strain 10081 (147.29 LKg/Ha), but significantly higher than the control with 115.45 LKg/Ha. On the ratoon crop, although statistically comparable, mean sugar yield of acetobacter treated canes ranging from 110.15 to 119.36 LKg/Ha were likewise higher than the untreated (103.52 LKg/Ha). 

Plant cane sugar yield difference between mudpress treated and untreated was 8.16 LKg/Ha, while on the ratoon, 6.44 LKg/Ha.  Plant cane sugar yield difference between acetobacter applied and unapplied was 41.50 LKg/Ha (strain 10071), 37.03 LKg/Ha (strain10069), 33,89 LKg/Ha (strain 10078) and 31.84 LKg/Ha (strain 10081). On the ratoon, sugar yield difference was 7.62 LKg/Ha (strain 10069), 15.84 LKg/Ha (strain 10071, 7.97 LKg/Ha (strain 10078) and 6.63 LKg/Ha (strain 10081). 

Plant cane highest average mean tonnage of 74.05 TC/Ha was obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10078 (70.50 TC/Ha), strain 10069 (69.47) and strain 10081 (69.39 TC/Ha), but significantly higher than the control with 46.35 TC/Ha. 

Ratoon crop highest mean tonnage of 53. 17TC/Ha wa likewise obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10078 (49.55 TC/Ha, strain 1006 (49.79 TC/Ha) and strain 10081 (49.28 TC/Ha) and the control (56.04 TC/Ha). 

Mudpress in combination with the different strains gave significantly higher tonnage mean than without mudpress in plpant crop (70.64 TC/Ha against 65.14 TC/Ha) and ratoon crop (50.97 TC/Ha against 48.28 TC/Ha). 

With or without mudpress, strain 10071 consistently gave higher mean tonnage and sugar yield on plant crop and ratoon crop. 

Phil 99-1793 plant cane applied with different strains of acetobacter exhibited higher mean LKg/TC than the control, however in the ratoon no definite trend was observed. Mudpress treated canes gave lower LKg/TC (2.10) than the untreated canes (2.15) in the plant crop, however in the ratoon slightly higher LKg/TC was observed in the mudpress treated canes.

 

Highest average net benefit of Php 56,686.26 was obtained with acetobacter diazotrophicus (strain 10071) application. The net benefit difference over the control was Php 15,400.08.

 

·         Ratoon performance Phil 94-0913, Phil 97-0693, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-3933 and Phil 98-0255.

 

The study was conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from October 2007 to October 2011 to determine the ratooning capacity of Phil 94-0913,Phil 97-0693,Phil 97-2041 Phil 97-3501, Phil 97-3933 and Phil 98-0255. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design replicated four times using 6m x 9m experimental plots.

 

Cane tonnage, sugar yield and sugar rendement did not show significant differences among test varieties in the ratoon crops.

 

Phil 94-0913 obtained the highest four year average tonnage of 81.48 TC/Ha, LKg/TC of 2.11, and sugar yield of 174.30 LKg/Ha.

 

Tonnage yield mean of the six varieties were 112.90 TC/Ha for plant cane, 76.78 TC/Ha for the first ratoon and 66.03 and 51.32 TC/Ha respectively for second and third ratoon.

 

Mean average sugar yield of the six varieties were 246.16, 161.60, 137.14 and 93.38 LKg/ha in plant cane, first, second and third ratoon respectively.

 

The average reduction of tonnage ranged from 30.1%- 49%, while sugar yield reduction ranged from 29.66%-52.77%.

 

Phil 97-3933 was the best in performance among the test varieties in first and second ratoon due to lowest percentage reduction in cane and sugar yield and an increase in sugar rendement. 

Compared with the other test varieties, Phil 94-0913 obtained the highest total net benefit of Php 418,487.80 in four croppings. 

·         Ratoon performance of new sugarcane HYVs (Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0925, and Phil 2002-0359.

 

The experiments were conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from February 2011 to February 2014. The study aims to evaluate the ratoon performance of the new sugarcane HYV’s, Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0295and Phil 2002-0359. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design using 6m x 9m experimental plots, replicated 4 times.

 

Plant cane tonnage did not vary among test varieties but data showed that Phil 2000-2569 obtained the highest cane tonnage (109.61 TC/Ha) and the lowest cane tonnage was noted in Phil 2001-0259 (84.78 TC/Ha).

 

First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly obtained the highest cane tonnage (103.43) but result was comparable with Phil 2000-2569 (98.16 TC/Ha) and Phil 99-1793 (93.59 TC/Ha). Phil 2002-0359 had 83.49 TC/Ha, while Phil 2001- 0259 consistently gave the lowest cane tonnage (66.48 TC/Ha). It was noted that there was a reduction of 10.73% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was due to its longer stalks compared to the other test varieties.

 

Second ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 consistently got the highest cane tonnage (89.27 TC/Ha) but statistically comparable with Phil 99-1793 (77.63 TC/Ha), and significantly higher than Phil 2000-2569 (73.75 TC/Ha), Phil 2002-0359 (55.52 TC/Ha) and Phil 2001-0259 with the lowest cane tonnage of (31.82 TC/Ha). There was a great reduction of about 34.22% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was likewise attributed to longer stalk per plot and most number of millable stalks per plot. 

Sugar yield did not differ among varieties on the plant cane but differed in the first and second ratoon. Sugar yield had a mean value of 210.22 LKg/Ha in the plant crop while the first ratoon had a mean value of 197.51 thereby having a reduction of 6.05 percent. First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly produced the highest sugar yield of 231.73 LKg/Ha but statistically similar with Phil 2000-2569 (214.44), Phil 99-1793 (211.45) and Phil 2002-0359 (193.87). The lowest LKg/Ha was still noted on Phil 2001-0295 (136.04 LKg/Ha). 

Second ratoon crop likewise exhibited significant results in sugar yield among test varieties. Sugar yield had a mean value of 152.15 LKG/Ha and the reduction of 27.62% over the plant cane was obtained. Phil 2000-0791 consistently produced the highest sugar yield of 210.71 LKG/Ha, statistically similar with Phil 99-1793 with 181.10 LKG/Ha but significantly higher than the other test varieties. The lowest sugar yield was still observed in Phil 2001-0295 (67.55 LKG/Ha).

 

Sucrose content of the plant crop significantly differed among test varieties with Phil 99-1793 obtaining the highest LKg/TC (2.33), comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.20) and Phil 2002-0359 (2.17) and statistically higher than Phil 2001-0295 (2.04) and Phil 2000-2569 (1.91). Sucrose content of the plant crop had a mean value of 2.13 LKg/TC.

 

First ratoon crop LKg/TC ranged from 2.06 to 2.32 LKg/TC with a mean value of 2.21, higher than the plant cane by 3.62 percent. It was noted that Phil 2002-0359 obtained the highest LKG/TC on the first ratoon (2.32), however statistically comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.25 LKg/TC), Phil 99-1793 (2.26 LKg/TC) and Phil 2000-2569 (2.18 LKg/TC) but statistically higher than Phil 2001-0296 (2.06).

Second ratoon sucrose content ranged from 2.07 LKg/TC to 2.45 LKg/TC and had a mean value of 2.29 which was higher than the plant crop by 6.99 percent. Phil 2002-0359 gave the highest LKg/TC (2.45), comparable with Phil 99-1793 (2.33) and Phil 2000-0791 (2.37) and statistically higher than Phil 2000-2569 (2.24) and Phil 2001-0295 (2.07).

Phil 2000-0791 is considered a good ratooner, giving the highest cane and sugar yield and had a lesser percent yield reduction when compared to other test varieties in the first and second ratoon, however it is best recommended up to the second ratoon only.