I. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
A. LUZON AGRICULTURAL & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)
1. Preliminary Yield Test of 2004 Series – Casupanan, A.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P.; Serrano, V. and Guevarra M.
Thirty test clones from 2004 Row Test series were entered in the 2004 Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC.
Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both or either check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544, and resistant to smut and downy mildew.
The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1533, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1889, Phil 04-1981, Phil 04-2249 and Phil 04-2319.
2. Yield Performance of Selected Phil and PSR Varieties (NCT3) –Serrano, M.V.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P; Santago L.; Caballero T.; Casupanan A. and Guevarra M.
Fourteen test varieties selected by SRA and Philsurin were laid out in RCBD to determine their performance at LAREC.
Phil 97-2041 and Phil 97-3501 were found to be comparable in sugar yield to Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon canes.
Varieties significantly higher in sugar yield than Phil 80-13 in the ratoon cane and comparable to Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon cane are Phil 98-0255, PSR 00-34, PSR 00-71, PSR 00-343 and PSR 00-161.
None of the test entries gave significantly higher sugar yield than Phil 75-44 in either plant or ratoon cane.
3. Screening of Phil 2003 Series for Resistance to Smut – Casupanan, A; Guiyab, N; Serrano, M.V. and Guevarra, M.
Forty clones of the 2004 series from LGAREC were planted and rationed and screened for their reaction to sugarcane smut.
Among the forty clones, ten clones were rated very highly resistant. These clones are 03-1989, 03-2109, 03-2305, 03-0371, 03-0613, 03-0627, 03-0645, 03-1389, 03-2125 and 03-2177. Six are highly resistant, 03-1925,03-1727, 03-0217, 03-2063, 03-0617 and 03-1471.Thirteen are resistant, 03-0919, 03-0905, 03-0021, 03-0669, 03-0939, 03-1565, 03-1577, 03-1599,03-1619 , 03-1689, 03-1755, 03-1503 and 03-2279. Six are intermediate resistant, 03-0933, 03-2091, 03-0077, 03-0167, 03-1481 and 03-2229 and one intermediate average which is clone 03-1341. The remaining clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.
B. LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)
Variety Improvement and Pest Management (PTCM)
1. Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2008 Series
During the 2008 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of long duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.
A total of 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated using 92 female and 68 male selected parents and from which 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1). The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2008 series crossing program is shown in Table 2.
The sowing of fuzz in 271 seedboxes resulted in the germination of seedlings in 268 bi-parental crosses consisting of 353 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 87 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 136 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 490 seedboxes (Table 3).
Seedlings in 736 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in the field.
2. Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2007 Series
The Phil 2007 Series hybridization work which produced a total of 117,179 seedlings from 272 bi-parental crosses was transplanted from June 3 to July 3, 2008. From these seedlings, 82,109 survived in the field or a survival rate of 70.07 percent (Table 4).
Selection in April 2009 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,291 promising clones from 221 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.57 percent for seedlings and 81.25 percent for the crosses (Table 5).
3. Row Test, Phil 2006 Series
One thousand three hundred sixty four promising clones from the Phil 2006 Series Single Seedling Plot Test were planted in the Row Test on April 4, 2008. From these, 328 promising clones from 142 crosses were selected and forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. The clone selections are listed in Table 7.
4. Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2005 Series
One hundred six promising clones from 70 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 9 clones from 8 crosses of Phil 2004 Series which were re-entered in the Row Test were passed to the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. Multiplication I was conducted from December 21, 2007 to June 30, 2008 at the same time that disease screening for smut was done. Clones with ratings 1-4 for smut were passed to the next stage of multiplication.
Eighty three promising clones from 58 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 3 clones from 3 crosses of Phil 2004 Series were passed to Multiplication II Stage and at the same time screened for downy mildew. The disease resistance ratings of the clonal entries are shown in Table 8. Thirty smut and downy mildew resistant clones were considered as entries to the next stage, the Preliminary Yield Test and at the same time tested further for disease resistance. Continuing propagation of the selected clones was done to ensure adequate planting materials for the Ecologic Test.
5. Smut Resistance Test
- Phil 2004 Series (PYT Stage, Plant Cane & Ratoon)
Thirty Phil 2004 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut. In the plant cane, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 2 susceptible, and 1 highly susceptible. In the ratoon, 24 clones were rated very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 1 resistant and 1 intermediate average (Table 9). Clones with ratings 1-4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.
- Phil 2006 Series at Row Test
Three hundred thirty five Phil 2006 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut. Results showed that 236 clones were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 20 resistant, 32 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 10 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 10 very highly susceptible (Table 10). Clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.
6. Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series and Phil 2004 Series (Plant & Ratoon)
Eighty three Phil 2005 Series and 3 Phil 2004 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane of Phil 2005 Series clones, 48 were rated very highly resistant, 18 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 42 clones were very highly resistant, 12 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible. With Phil 2004 Series plant cane, 1 clone was rated very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant and 1 resistant. In the ratoon crop, 2 clones were highly resistant and 1 resistant to the disease (Table 11). Clones with ratings 1 to 4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.
7. Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series
Thirty Phil 2004 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Two clones were highly resistant, 12 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average and 2 clones were intermediate susceptible (Table 12).
8. Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series
Thirty clones of the Phil 2004 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Seven were found highly resistant, 18 were resistant, 4 were intermediate resistant and 1 was intermediate average to the disease (Table 13).
9. Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2004 Series
The study was laid out in February 2008 to June 2009 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of Phil 2004 Series clones. The 30 clonal entries were selections from Phil 2004 Series Multiplication II which were also simultaneously screened for reaction to the four major diseases and further propagated in preparation for the Ecologic Test. Tables 14 & 15 present the yield data, agronomic characteristics and disease reactions of the test clones.
Twenty eight clones gave comparable TC/Ha as the two control varieties; two clones were of lower tonnage. Tonnage yield ranged from 54.53 to 105.11 tons cane per hectare.
Twenty-five clones were comparable in LKg/TC while 11 clones were comparable in LKg/Ha to Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The rest have significantly lower LKg/TC and LKg/Ha than the two control varieties.
After considering agronomic characteristics and disease reactions, the top ten clones were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test. These clones now referred to as varieties were: Phil 04-0017, Phil 04-0703, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0845, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1011, Phil 04-1195, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1981 and Phil 04-2991.
10. Performance of Selected Phil 2000- and Phil 2002 Series Sugarcane Varieties in Three Negros Mill Districts
The performance of four Phil 2000- and six Phil 2002 Series sugarcane varieties planted in three mill districts of Negros Island from December 2007 to January 2009 was evaluated.
Phil 00-0791 and Phil 02-0359 are recommended for commercial propagation and release. The two are high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering sugarcane varieties. Phil 00-0791 is resistant to smut, downy mildew, and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. Phil 02-0359 is similarly resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and leaf scorch.
The yield data gathered and Gain-Even-Loss Scores are presented in Tables 16-19.
11. Synchronized Disease Screening for Resistance to Downy mildew, Leaf Scorch, Smut and Yellow Spot, Phil 2004 Series
The response of Phil 2004 Series clones to downy mildew was similar in synchronized and separate screenings. For smut and yellow spot, the response was similar in resistant and intermediate clones but not in susceptible clones. For leaf scorch, response of resistant clones was comparable in both synchronized and individual screenings but differed significantly in clones with intermediate reactions. The results were consistent in three consecutive years of testing. Tables 20-21 present the reaction frequency of the clones and Chi-Square Test results of the two disease screening methods.
12. Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance
Table 1. Germplasm inventory as of October 31, 2009
|A. Saccharum officinarum|
|1. Original Nobles||
|2. Noble Selections||
|B. Saccharum spontaneum|
|1. Foreign varieties||
|2. Local varieties||
|3. Hybrid and segregants||
|4. IBPGR collections||
|C. Saccharum senense||
|D. Saccharum sp. (Historical and Commercial Hybrids)|
|1. Foreign varieties||
|2. Phil varieties||
|3. Non-Phil varieties||
Table 2. New sugarcane varieties collected from November 2008 to October 2009
Production Technology and Crop Management (PTCM)
1. Effect of fresh start organic blend fertilizer on the growth and yield of sugarcane
The experiment was laid out at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City from January 2008 to January 2009, to determine the efficacy of Fresh Start Organic Blend fertilizer on growth and yield of sugarcane.
Stalk length of Phil 97-3501 improved (4.3 cm) with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer. Recommended rate (RR) + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer gave an improvement of 18.0 cm in stalk length.
When ½ RR + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer was applied, no improvement in stalk length was observed.
Diameter of Phil 97-3501 was not influenced by the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer.
Millable stalks increased with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer. When combined with RR slight improvement was observed. When combined with ½ RR, no improvement was observed.
Compared with the unfertilized control (T1), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer alone (T5), slightly improved the tonnage of Phil 97-3501. Compared to RR alone (T2), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + RR (T6) likewise improved the tonnage slightly.
Compared with ½ RR (T3), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + ½ RR (T4) decreased the tonnage of Phil 97-3501.
LKg/TC of Phil 97-3501 decreased when applied with 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer, (T4, T5 and T6).
II. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- Annual Compendium of Philippine Refineries, FY 2007 and 2008
An annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements for refining year 2008.