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Abstract of Completed Researches

Abstract of Completed Researches (2016)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2016)

Luzon Agricultural Research & Extension Center (LAREC)

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND CROP MANAGEMENT (PTCM)

PTCM implemented 47 R and D projects of which 10 were   completed, 16 were   on-going and 13 were new/laid-out.

  • 10 clones passed the selection criteria in the 2011 Preliminary Yield test. Recommended to undergo further testing in the Ecological Test/National Cooperative Test are Phil 11-14-0133, Phil 11-14-0237, Phil 11-159-1683, Phil 11-62-0449, Phil 11-53-0813, Phil-11-74-0827, Phil 11-117-1097, Phil 11-80-1075, Phil 11-81-1051 and Phil 11-80-1077.
  • All 30 Phil 2010 series test clones passed the screening for resistance to smut; 9 were very highly resistant, 7 were highly resistant, were 12 intermediate resistant and 2 were intermediate average.
  • All 10 Phil 2010 series test clones passed the screening for resistance to downy mildew; 5 were very highly resistant, 5 were highly resistant.
  • In the ‘’Performance of selected Phil 2008 series in three mill districts in Luzon’’ (2008 Ecological Test), Phil 2008-0553, Phil 2008-0909, and Phil 2008-1253 are recommended for further evaluation by the Variety Committee. The three varieties had more gains and evens with lesser losses in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield than the other test varieties against the control varieties and passed the selection criteria for resistance to smut and downy mildew.
  • No significant differences were observed in the three yield parameters of Phil 99-1793 using three degrees of farm mechanization in the plant cane. In the first ratoon tractor+manual harvesting significantly outyielded carabao + manual in tonnage and comparable with the carabao+manual+tractor. In sugar content and sugar yield all three degrees of mechanization were comparable. Highest average ROI of 1.52  for the two cropping seasons was given by carabao+manual+tractor indicating that that the use of carabao+ manual+tractor in the culture of Phil 99-1793 is the most efficient and effective combination.
  • The percent N contents of sand, sandy loam, clay, clay loam and loam texture soil samples based on   analysis of organic matter content were significantly lower compared with those obtained from using the N analyzer. Comparable percent N content were obtained on loamy sand and silt loam/silt clay loam.
  • Mixed planting gave more millable stalks, higher cane tonnage and sugar yields than single planting in the plant and ratoon crops. Only Phil 7544 in single planting was infected by downy mildew in the ratoon cane with 2.31 % infection.
  • Tonnage of Phil 99-1793 in the plant cane was not affected by irrigation and different levels of compost fertilization. Means of irrigated canes was significantly higher than non-irrigated canes while means   from 75% to 125% levels of fertilization were significantly higher than the other treatment means. In the ratoon, it was affected by irrigation and levels of fertilization. Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. LKg/TC was not affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization in both plant and ratoon cane. LKg/Ha was significantly affected by irrigation and levels of fertilization in both plant and ratoon cane. Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments.
  • In the plant culture of Phil 99-1793 in soils fertilized purely with composted chicken manure the most profitable intercrop is  peanut. If intercropping is to be continued in the ratoon, Phil 99-1793 intercropped with mung bean is the most profitable. However, a choice between mung bean or peanut is recommended since on the average there is only minimal difference in profits.
  • The 50% Moisture Allowable Deficit (MAD)  of the  soil  was the level which gave higher cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 00-2569 for both the drip and furrow irrigation. This level was also used in the convergence project with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute.
  • Soils Laboratory analyzed 813 soil samples, 311 from sugarcane planters, 399 from Block farm planters, 103 from Government & private entities and researchers and 751 cane juice samples, 139 from planters/other clientele and 612 from SRA researchers.
  • Maintained 78 released Phil, VMC and PSR varieties and 323 preserved insect pests and natural enemies.

COMPLETED PROJECTS

A.  Variety Improvement and Pest Management (4)

Preliminary yield test of Phil 2011 Series (P. Macamos, N. Guiyab, V. Serrano, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra)

 Thirty test clones from 2011   row test series were entered in the preliminary yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic performance with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

 Results of the test showed that while nine clones were comparable to both check varieties in tonnage 23 were comparable in sugar content and three were comparable in sugar yield. Among the test clones only Phil 11-159-1683, Phil 159- 1657, and Phil 80-1075 were comparable to both check varieties in three yield parameters. All other test entries were either significantly lower than one or both check varieties.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 11-14-0133, Phil 11-14-0237, Phil 11-159-1683, Phil 11-62-0449, Phil 11-53-0813, Phil-11-74-0827, Phil 11-117-1097, Phil 11-80-1075, Phil 11-81-1051 and Phil 11-80-1077. These clones were rated resistant to smut and downy mildew and were sparse flowering.

Screening of Phil 2010 series for resistance to smut (A. Casupanan, V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra)

 Thirty clones of the 2010 series were planted and tested for their reaction to sugarcane smut in the plant and ratoon cane.

 Among the thirty clones of 2010  series, nine were rated very highly resistant, namely,   Phil 10-0149, Phil 10-0183, Phil 10-0427, Phil 10-0487, Phil 10-0317, Phil 10-0869, Phil 10-0105, Phil 10-0733, and Phil 10-0471. Rated highly resistant were  Phil 10-0507, Phil 10-0645, Phil 10-1051, Phil 10-0073, Phil 10-0085, Phil 10-0381, and Phil 10-0353; intermediate resistant,  Phil 10-0571, Phil 10-0131, Phil 10-0107, Phil 10-0077, Phil 10-0545, Phil 10-0385, Phil 10-0141, Phil 10-0519, Phil 10-0279, Phil 10-0955, Phil 10-0767, Phil 10-0185; and intermediate average,  Phil 10-0243, Phil 10-0901

Screening of Phil 2009 series for resistance to downy mildew (A.Casupanan, V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra)

 Ten clones of Phil 2009 series were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon cane.

 Among the ten  clones of 2009 series,  Phil 09-0037, Phil 09-1045, Phil 09-1261, Phil 09-1867, Phil 09-1969, were rated very highly resistant while  Phil 09-0015, Phil 09-0081, Phil 09-0093, Phil 09-0323, and Phil 09-0919  were highly resistant

 Performance of selected Phil 2008 series in three mill districts in Luzon (V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra)

 Ten promising Phil 2008 series sugarcane varieties were planted to evaluate their yield performance in three mill districts in Luzon. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with four replications.

 Phil 2008-0553, Phil 2008-0909, and Phil 2008-1253 showed better performance against the check varieties compared with other test varieties  on the gain-even-loss tally. The three varieties had more gains and evens with lesser losses in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield. In terms of yield potential Phil 2008-0553 produced 139.44 TC/Ha and 1.79 LKg/TC, Phil 2008-0909 produced 138.07 TC/Ha and 2.05 LKg/TC and Phil 2008-1253 produced 137.74 TC/Ha and 1.87 LKg/TC.

 In the smut and downy mildew resistance trials, the three test varieties were also rated within the acceptable range of very highly resistant to intermediate average.

Flowering incidence, however, showed that Phil 2008-0553 is a very profuse flowerer in Pampanga. It is therefore, recommended that this variety be planted in April or May to minimize its flowering ability.  These varieties are recommended for further evaluation by the variety committee.

 B.  Production Technology and Crop Management (6)

 Effect of different degrees of farm mechanization on the yield of Phil 99-1793 (P. Macamos, N. Guiyab, V. Serrano A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra)

 The effect of three degrees of mechanization (DM1= carabao+manual; DM2= carabao+ manual+ tractor; DM3= tractor+ manual harvesting) on yield was studied using Phil 99-1793. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with four replications.

 In the plant cane, no significant differences were observed in tonnage (TC/HA), sugar content (LKg/TC) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 99-1793 using the three degrees of mechanization.

  In the first ratoon, tractor+manual harvesting significantly outyielded   carabao + manual in tonnage and comparable with the carabao+manual+tractor. In sugar content and sugar yield all three degrees of mechanization were comparable.

Economic analysis showed that highest average ROI of 1.52  for the two cropping seasons was given by carabao+manual+tractor while the lowest ROI of 1.26 was given by carabao+ manual. This means that the use of carabao+ manual+tractor in the culture of Phil 99-1793 is the most efficient and effective combination.

 Percent total nitrogen content of seven soil types using Walkley-Block and Kjeldahl methods-(L.Yarte, M. Guevarra, and A. Burcer )

 Soil samples collected from Tarlac, Pampanga, Batangas and Cagayan and submitted to SRA-LAREC Soils laboratory were used in the study. These samples represented seven soil types namely, sand, sandy loam, clay, clay loam, loamy sand, loam and silt loam/silt clay loam.

For each soil sample, half was analyzed for organic matter content using the Walkly-Black method while the other half was analyzed for nitrogen content using the Nitrogen analyzer.

The percent N contents of sand, sandy loam, clay, clay loam and loam texture soil samples based on   analysis of organic matter content were significantly lower compared with those obtained from using the N analyzer. Comparable percent N content were obtained on loamy sand and silt loam/silt clay loam.

 Cane and sugar yields as affected by single mixed variety planting (B. Manlapaz, M. Guevarra, A. Bacani and A. Burcer)

 Three sugarcane varieties, Phil 7544, Phil 99-1793 and Phil 00-2569 were planted alone and in mixtures containing equal proportion of two or three varieties and were evaluated to compare cane and sugar yield and disease occurrence in mixed and single variety planting.

 Among the treatments, mixed planting gave more millable stalks, higher cane tonnage and sugar yields than single planting in plant and ratoon crops.

 Only Phil 7544 in single planting was infected by downy mildew in the ratoon cane with 2.31 % infection.

Cane and sugar yields   under irrigated and chicken manure compost fertilized soil  (B. Manlapaz, M. Guevarra, A. Bacani and A. Burcer)

 The study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation and levels of composted chicken manure fertilization on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 in the plant and first ratoon canes.

 Treatments included with and without irrigation and five levels of compost fertilization based on N fertilizer recommendation, namely: 125%, 100%, 75%, 50% and 0%.

 In the plant cane, tons cane (TC)/Ha was not affected by irrigation and different levels of compost fertilization. Means of irrigated canes was significantly higher than non-irrigated canes. Means from 75% to 125% levels of fertilization were significantly higher than the other treatment means. The LKg/TC was not affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization. The LKg/Ha was significantly affected by irrigation and fertilization levels. Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and   non-irrigated plots.

 In the ratoon cane, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were both significantly affected by irrigation and levels of fertilization.   Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The LKg/TC was not also affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization treatments.

 Intercropping peanut, mung bean and kidney bean with Phil 99-1793 in soil fertilized with composted chicken manure (N. Guiyab, V. Serrano A. Casupanan, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra)

Three leguminous crops were tested to determine their suitability in the culture of Phil 99-1793 in soils fertilized with purely composted chicken manure.

 In the plant culture of Phil 99-1793 in soils fertilized purely with composted chicken manure the most profitable intercrop is  peanut. If intercropping is to be continued in the ratoon, Phil 99-1793 intercropped with mung bean is the most profitable. However, a choice between mung bean or peanut is recommended since on the average there is minimal difference in profits.

 As organic materials take time to react in the soil it is suggested to test for earlier application of composted chicken manure using more than the recommended amount.  A wider interrow spacing should also be used to allow more cultivation in the ratoon. 

Smart Water Management Strategies for Sugarcane (Plant Cane- Collaborative project with CLSU) (M. Guevarra, B. Manlapaz, A. Bacani and A. Burcer)

 The 50% Moisture Allowable Deficit (MAD)  of the  soil  was the level which gave higher cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 00-2569 for both the drip and furrow irrigation. This level was also used in the convergence project with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute.

La Granja Agricultural Research & Extension Center (LGAREC)

       A.  COMPLETED PROJECTS

1.  Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2015 Series 

During the 2015 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was late and of short duration with peak of full emergence observed on the first week of November 2015.

 Pollination work which started October 25 and ended December 4, 2015, utilized 68 female and 54 male selected parents. A total of 309 arrows from 221 biparental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 306 arrows from 220 biparental crosses were harvested with three arrows destroyed.

 The sowing of fuzz in 220 seedboxes from November 18 to December 16, 2015 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 220 biparental crosses consisting of 307 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 77.27 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 91 biparental crosses were pricked in 359 seedboxes.

 Seedlings in 575 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June and July 2016.

 2.  Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2014 Series

The 2014 hybridization work which produced a total of 43,614 seedlings from 198 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from July 18 to 22, 2015. From these, 24,565 seedlings from 198 bi-parental crosses survived in the field or a survival rate of 56.32 percent which was mainly due to the effects of poor and much delayed land preparation. All selected promising clones were recommended to the next stage, the Row Test, for further screening.

 Selection in April 2016 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 698 promising clones from 125 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 2.84 percent for seedlings and 63.13 percent for the crosses. All selected promising clones were recommended to the next stage, the Row Test, for further screening.

 3.  Row Test, Phil 2013 Series

Nine hundred six promising clones from the crosses in the Phil 2013 Series Single Seedling Plot test were planted in the Row Test in March 2015. From these, 306 promising clones were selected and forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.

  4.  Multiplication and Disease Screening

 a. Phil 2012 Series

The top thirty clones were selected from Multiplication II, Phil 2012 Series as entries to the next stage, the Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2012 Series based on their agronomic and morphological characteristics.  One thousand canepoints for each clone were provided for LGAREC and LAREC Preliminary Yield Tests in preparation for the Ecological Test.  Multiplication II started in August 2015 and ended in September 2016.

 b. Phil 2013 Series

Three hundred six Phil 2013 Series clones selected from Row Test 2013 were multiplied (Multiplication I) and simultaneously tested for smut.  Multiplication I was laid out and planted in January 2016.  Care and maintenance of sugarcane plants were done based on SRA cultural practices.  Two hundred four clones were selected for Multiplication II and Downy Mildew screening in August 2016 based on their agronomic and morphological characteristics.  Multiplication I, Phil 2013 Series started in January 2016 and ended in November 2016.

 5.  Smut Resistance Tests

 a.   Phil 2011 Series (PYT Stage, Plant Cane & Ratoon)

  Thirty Phil 2011 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut.  In the plant cane, 6 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 3 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon, 5 clones were rated very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant, 2 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

 b.   Phil 2013 Series at Row Test

Two hundred twenty five Phil 2013 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut.  Results showed that 205 clones were very highly resistant, 9 resistant, 7 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 highly susceptible and 2 very highly susceptible to the disease. Clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.

 6.  Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2012 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

One hundred eighty Phil 2012 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 169 clones were rated very highly resistant, 9 highly resistant, 1 resistant and 1 intermediate resistant to the disease.  In the ratoon crop, 89 clones were very highly resistant, 36 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 6 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to the disease. All clones in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.

 7.  Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2011 Series

Thirty Phil 2011 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Five clones were very highly resistant, 13 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average to the disease.

 8.  Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2011 Series

Thirty clones of the Phil 2011 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Six clones were very highly resistant, 14 highly resistant, 8 resistant, 1 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate susceptible to the disease.

9.  Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2011 Series

Thirty Phil 2011 series clones selected from Multiplication II were planted in April 2015 to evaluate their agronomic and yield performances.

 Fourteen (14) clones stood out in tonnage but were statistically comparable to the two controls, Phil 8013 and VMC 86550. Six clones were lower than the two controls while ten clones were statistically lower than Phil 8013 but comparable to VMC 86550. In LKg/TC, thirteen clones showed high sucrose content but statistically comparable to the two control varieties. Twelve clones were statistically lower than the two controls while five were statistically lower than VMC 86550.   Eight clones showed high LKG/Ha but were statistically comparable to   the two control varieties.  Fifteen clones were low in sugar yield than the two controls while seven were statistically lower than Phil 8013.

 Results of the study showed ten (10) selected promising clones recommended for further evaluation to the next stage of Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program, the Ecologic Test.

 Following are the test clones selected as entries to the Ecologic Test: Phil 2011-14-0237, Phil 2011-159-1683, Phil 2011-69-0899, Phil 2011-62-0449, Phil 2011-74-0827, Phil 2011-116-1121, Phil 2011-80-1075, Phil 2011-148-1631, Phil 2011-173-1711, and Phil 2011-81-1013.

 10. Propagation II, Phil 2011 Series

Thirty selected varieties of Phil 2011 Series were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from November 2015 to August 2016 in preparation for Propagation III, the source of planting materials for the Ecologic Test in different locations nationwide. From these varieties, 10 were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test to be laid out in November 2016. The ten varieties selected and to be propagated in Propagation III are: Phil 2011-14-0237, Phil 2011-159-1683, Phil 2011-69-0899, Phil 2011-62-0449, Phil 2011-74-0827, Phil 2011-116-1121, Phil 2011-80-1075, Phil 2011-148-1631, Phil 2011-173-1711 and Phil 2011-81-1013.

 11.  Ecologic Test, Phil 2008 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

          The plant and ratoon crop performances of ten Phil 2008 series sugarcane varieties were evaluated in four mill districts in Negros and Panay Islands            from November 2013 to February 2016.

 Variety-mean tonnage yield in the plant cane was highest in Phil 2008-0909 (108.36 TC/ha) and lowest in Phil 2008-1307 (78.76 TC/ha) while in the ratoon crop, highest tonnage yield was with Phil 2008-1009 (89.46 TC/ha) and lowest in Phil 2008-1307 (65.10 TC/ha). Location data in plant cane revealed highest tonnage yield in La Carlota followed by Passi, Bais and Victorias with highest potential yield of 116.47 TC/ha attained by Phil 2008-1009 in Victorias. In the ratoon crop, highest tonnage yield was in Victorias followed by Bais, La Carlota and Passi with highest potential yield of 103.79 TC/ha attained by Phil 2008-1009 in Victorias.

 The test varieties in the plant cane were comparable if not lower in sucrose content than the two controls. Phil 8013 had the highest variety mean LKg/TC (2.27 LKg/TC) and Phil 2008-1009 the lowest (1.80 LKg/TC). Canes were sweetest in Bais, followed by La Carlota, Passi and Victorias. In the ratoon crop, sucrose content was highest in VMC 86-550 (2.25 LKg/TC) and lowest in Phil 2008-1009 (1.76 LKg/TC). Sweetest canes were in La Carlota, followed by Passi, Victorias and Bais.

 Variety-mean sugar yield in the plant cane was highest in Phil 2008-0909 (230.88 LKg/ha) and lowest in Phil 2008-0033 (165.45 LKg/ha) while in the ratoon crop, highest sugar yield was in Phil 2008-0909 (173.81 LKg/ha) and lowest in Phil 2008-0747 (138.28 LKg/ha). Sugar yield in plant cane was highest in La Carlota followed by Bais, Passi and Victorias with highest potential sugar yield of 263.94 LKg/ha attained by Phil 2008-0909 in La Carlota. In the ratoon crop, highest sugar yield was in Victorias followed by La Carlota, Bais and Passi with highest potential sugar yield of 216.25 LKg/ha attained by Phil 2008-0909 in Victorias.

 Phil 2008-0161 had the tallest stalks, Phil 2008-0909 the highest in number of millable stalks produced per sqm and Phil 2008-1009 the biggest and heaviest stalks in both plant and ratoon crops.

 Phil 2008-0909 was the only test variety which gained in tonnage and sugar yields in all test locations while Phil 2008-0161 surpassed the local control without incurring losses in tonnage and sugar yields in both plant and ratoon crops. These varieties are high in tonnage, medium to high in sucrose content, not flowering to sparse flowering; resistant to smut, downy mildew, leaf scorch and yellow spot. These varieties were grown in Isabela clay, Guimbala-on loam, Silay fine sandy loam and Alimodian clay soils.  These varieties are recommended for further evaluation by the Variety Committee.

 12. Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance

One thousand two hundred eighty five (1,285) sugarcane accessions were maintained in the Germplasm Collection area for the year 2016. Additional eight new accessions were entries from Ecologic Test Phil 2008 series while eight accessions from the Ecotest 2007 series was found questionable and hence, removed from the collection. Furthermore, 15 accessions from the IBPGR collection did not survive due to animal grazing. Eight hundred thirteen clones/varieties were partially characterized agronomically.  Tiller number, aerial roots and degree of flowering were the data gathered on the characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials

 13. Mass Production of Trichogramma Strips for the Control of Borers

The mass production of Trichogramma as a potential biological control agent against sugarcane stem borers of the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center gave a significant impact to the sugarcane planters as well as to rice, corn and vegetable farmers not just only in the province of Negros Occidental but in Negros Oriental and Panay Region for the past years. Of the Trichogramma species maintained, T. chilonis, the egg parasitoid to stem borers of sugarcane is the most in demand by clients followed by T. japonicum, T. bactrae and T. evanescens for Lepidopterous pests of rice, corn and vegetables.

 The increasing present demand of sugarcane planters and farmers is an evidence of its significance as biological control agent. Trichogramma is an egg parasitoid that kills the pest before it can cause any damage to the plant.

 From January 2016 to December 21, 2016, the project produced 33,551 strips of Trichogramma. A total of 25,466 strips were distributed to clients as follows: sugarcane planters – 19,835 strips, rice farmers – 1,071 strips and sugarcane researchers – 4,560 strips. The rest of the strips were used as starters.

 14. Sugarcane Disease Garden as Source of Inocula for Resistance Trials

Seven varieties namely: Phil 6111, Phil 7464, Phil 7779, Phil 8839, Phil 8013, Phil 56226, VMC 86550 and mixed clones were propagated last January 2016 to augment inocula for disease resistance studies. These varieties served as resistant and susceptible checks for resistance trials to smut, downy mildew, yellow spot and leaf scorch.

 15. National Cooperative Test I (NCT I)

The National Cooperative Test (NCT) is a collaborative study between SRA and UPLB. Promising sugarcane varieties will be evaluated through this project under the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC).  The Sugarcane Technical Working Group (STWG) composed of members from SRA, PHILSURIN, BPI, IPB, UP La Granja, UPLB and PCARRD was organized and mandated to implement this project.

 Selected varieties from the Preliminary Yield Test (PYT) of the two breeding institutions (SRA & IPB-UPLB) will be submitted to STWG for NCT consideration.  These varieties will be tested in 15 locations representing unique agro-ecological zones of sugar producing regions in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao to be divided among the three clusters: LGAREC, LAREC & UPLB  (both plant and ratoon crops) for STWG evaluation.

 A variety can only be released if the yield performance is significantly higher than or at least comparable with the established check varieties.

This project will replace the Ecologic Test which is the 7th Stage of the Breeding Program of SRA to be funded by SIDA.

 Propagation, maintenance and distribution of planting materials for 15 locations of NCT were shouldered by SRA.  These planting materials are now ready for cutback to be shipped to LAREC & UPLB as soon as NCT budget will be downloaded to the different clusters.

 16. Sugarcane Genome Project 2:

 Application of Molecular Breeding Techniques in Sugarcane Improvement”

 Sugar Regulatory Administration was able to select two potential sugarcane parentals namely Phil 2011-49-0809 and Phil 2011-83-1005. Phil 2011-49-0809 being a moderate tillerer with 4 average tillers, has moderate size of stalks with 2.9 cm average stalk diameter, and is very sweet with a Brix reading of 25.4. It also has a slightly above average weight per stalk of 1.2 kg, and is a very sparse flowerer. On the other hand, Phil 2011-83-1005 is a high tillering variety with an average of eight stalks per stool, having big stalks with an average stalk diameter of 3.2 cm, and is very sweet with a Brix reading of 23.6, Moreover; this variety has above average weight per stalk of 1.6 kg and has been observed to be non-flowering. Although this variety was observed to be non-flowering, with a favourable environmental condition for flowering and exceptional moisture and fertilizer stress, this variety could still flower and can be used as a parental.

 Primers for smut, downy mildew and sucrose content were received only on the third week of June of the third year of implementation (2016) or almost two months before the end of the study. As a result, the assembled varieties and clones were only tested on mssCIR10 and mssCIR12, both primers for downy mildew disease. Downy mildew disease resistant control varieties were composed of highly resistant varieties and clones specifically: Phil 97-3933, Phil 8477, Phil 8829, Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601 and Phil 8361. On the contrary, downy mildew disease susceptible control varieties were composed of highly susceptible varieties and clones namely: VMC 86-550, Phil 89-36-0455, Phil 90-19-0085, Phil 93-118-1207 and Phil 93-236-3301. Using mssCIR10 primer, analysis of control varieties both resistant and susceptible gave a correlation value of 0.6901. When tested to forty one clones and varieties including that of the control, analysis of the primer resulted to a correlation value of 0.4970. Likewise, primer mssCIR12 also resulted to 0.8333 correlation value when tested to control varieties with established downy mildew resistance reaction. This indicates that primer mssCIR10 and mssCIR12 are highly associated to downy mildew resistance based on the results of this study and can be used for early selection of sugarcane for downy mildew resistance screening.

 17. Sugarcane Genome Project 3:

 Development of New Sugarcane Varieties   Using Marker-Assisted Selection”

 The Sugar Regulatory Administration selected five promising sugarcane varieties namely Phil 2011-0827, Phil 2011-1097, Phil 2011-1711, Phil 2011-0169 and Phil 2011-1057. Phil 2011-0827 being a heavy tillerer with an average of eight tillers, has big stalks with 3.4 cm average stalk diameter, and is sweet with a Brix reading of 22.0. It also has a moderate stalk weight of 1.0 kg, and is a very sparse flowerer. Phil 2011-1097 is a high tillering variety with an average of seven stalks per stool, having big stalks with an average stalk diameter of 3.0 cm, and is very sweet with a Brix reading of 23.8, Moreover; this variety has slightly above average weight per stalk of 1.3 kg and has been observed to be very sparse flowering. Phil 2011-1711 is a very heavy tillering variety with 12 stalks per stool, considerably big with 3.1 cm average stalk diameter, and is sweet averaging 21.8 Brix reading. In addition, this variety weighs slightly above average with 1.1 kg per stalk and also a very sparse flowerer. Phil 2011-0169 is also a high tillering variety averaging nine stalks per stool, with average big stalks of 3 cm, and is sweet averaging 22,2 Brix reading. A heavy variety with 1.5 kg per stalk and observed to be non-flowering. Last in the list is Phil 2011-1057 with moderate to high tillering of five stalks per stool, has big stalks of 3.2 cm diameter, and is likewise sweet averaging 22.0 in Brix reading. Likewise, it is a heavy variety averaging 1.6 kg per stalk and was observed to be non-flowering.

 Primers for smut, downy mildew and sucrose content were received only on the third week of June of the third year of implementation (2016) or almost two months before the end of the study. As a result, the assembled varieties and clones were only tested on mssCIR10 and mssCIR12, both primers for downy mildew disease. Downy mildew disease resistant control varieties were composed of highly resistant varieties and clones specifically: Phil 97-3933, Phil 8477, Phil 8829, Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601 and Phil 8361. On the contrary, downy mildew disease susceptible control varieties were composed of highly susceptible varieties and clones namely: VMC 86-550, Phil 89-36-0455, Phil 90-19-0085, Phil 93-118-1207 and Phil 93-236-3301. Using mssCIR10 primer, analysis of control varieties both resistant and susceptible gave a correlation value of 0.8333. When tested to forty one clones and varieties including that of the control, analysis of the primer resulted to a correlation value of 0.61546. Likewise, primer mssCIR12 also resulted to 0.8333 correlation value when tested to control varieties with established downy mildew resistance reaction. This indicates that primer mssCIR10 and mssCIR12 are highly associated to downy mildew resistance based on the results of this study and can be used for early selection of sugarcane for downy mildew resistance.

                                                                  

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2015)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2015)

Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

  • Cane and Sugar Yields as Affected by Percent  Germination (February 2014 – March 2015)

Significantly higher number of tillers and millable stalks were produced at 100% germination.  TC/Ha at 100% was comparable with 80-95 %   and significantly higher than that of 75.  Percent loss in yield decreases from 75% to 95%.

Sugar yield in LKg/TC was not significantly affected by percent germination. Sugar yield in LKG/Ha was significantly lowered at 85%. Percent sugar yield loss decreases from 75 to 95%.

The results have shown the increase in yield losses with increase in percent canepoint germination which is an important parameter in the conduct crop loss estimation.

  • Cane and Sugar Yield as Affected by Detrashing (February 2014 – March 2015)

The experiment was conducted in  Randomized Complete Block Design in two factorial,  using two varieties, Phil 99-1793 and Phil 00-2569  and treated with non-detrashing and detrashing  at nine months after planting (MAP) with trashes either left  along  the  furrows or  removed in the field.

The six treatments   gave comparable length and diameter of millable stalks and   cane yield (tons cane/hectare) and sugar yields (LKg/TC and LKg/Ha). Although the cane and sugar yields tend to increase with detrashing   of stalks, the differences with non-detrashing were not significant.

It appears  from the results that  while detrashing contribute to enhanced  harvesting of clean cane  and other  benefits  it  does not improve the yields.

  • Cane and Sugar Yields as Affected by Lodging (November 2013 – March 2015)

The experiment was conducted in  Randomized Complete Block Design in two factorial,  using three varieties, Phil 93-1601, Phil 99-1793 and Phil 00-2569  and subjected to natural lodging and  control  of lodging  with  bamboo- supported  and propped canes on the eight month.

The three treatments without support lodged but heavy rains and winds that passed during the year was not enough for the lodged canes to touch the ground. The six treatments with support were prevented from lodging.

The means of the nine treatments    did not significantly differ on cane yield (tons cane/ha) and sugar yields (LKg/TC and LKg/Ha).   Likewise, means of lodged canes and bamboo supported and propped canes were comparable.  Variety means significantly differ on LKg/TC and LKg/Ha.   This shows that lodging without touching the ground and without stalk breakage would not affect the yields.

  • 2010 Preliminary Yield Test (April 2014 – June 2015)

Thirty test clones from 2010 row test series were entered in the preliminary yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on sugar yield, three clones gave significantly higher sugar yield than Phil 7544 and comparable with Phil 8013, one was comparable to both check varieties,13 were comparable to Phil 7544 but significantly lower than Phil 8013. All other test entries were significantly lower than both check varieties. The clones were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew. All clones were sparse flowering.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 10-4-0149, Phil 10-5-0183,, Phil 10-36-0427,  Phil 10-12-0131,  Phil 10-9-0107, Phil 10-48-0645, Phil 10-40-0545, Phil 10-6-0085, Phil 10-61-0955  and Phil 10-73-0901.

  • Screening of Phil 2009 series  for  resistance to smut (May 2013 – June 2015)

Thirty clones of the 2009 series were planted and tested for their reaction to sugarcane smut in the plant and ratoon canes.

 Among the thirty clones of 2009  series, twenty four  clones were rated very highly resistant, namely, Phil 09-0015, 09-0037, 09-0081,09-0093, 09-0125, 09-0249,   09-0323,  09-0539,  09-0691,  09-0919, 09-1045,  09-1141, 09-1145, 09-1261, 09-1295, 09-1437, 09-1483, 09-1821, 09-1867,  09-1943, 09-1955,  09-1985,  09-2145 and  09-2147. Phil 09-1963 and 09-1969 were rated highly resistant; Phil 09-1597 was resistant; Phil 09-0097, 09-0863 and 09-1567 were intermediate resistant.

  • Screening of Phil 2008 series for resistance to downy mildew (July 2013 – June 2015)

Twelve clones of Phil 2008 series were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

Among the twelve clones of 2008 series, Phil 08-1123 was rated highly resistant; Phil 08-0161 and Phil 08-1957 were rated intermediate resistant; Phil 08-0909, Phil 08-1175 and Phil 08-1891 were intermediate average. Six clones were rated very highly susceptible, namely, Phil 08-0129, Phil 08-0155, Phil 08-0553, Phil 08-0747, Phil 08-1231 and Phil 08-1253.

  • Ratoon performance of recommended Phil 2000 – 2001 series varieties (November 2011 – June 2015)

Recommended varieties from 2000-2001 series, Phil 00-1491, Phil 00-2569, Phil 00-1419, Phil 00-1893, Phil 01-0577 and Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 as check varieties were planted using RCBD to evaluate their ratoon performance.

Phil 00-2569 has the highest tonnage comparable with other varieties except with Phil 00-1893 which has significantly the lowest yield in the plant cane. In the first and second ratoon, respectively, Phil 00-1419 and Phil 7544 had the highest yields. All varieties decreased in the first and second ratoon except Phil 00-1419 which increased in the first ratoon. Phil 8013 has the highest average percent decrease of 25.22 while Phil 00-1893 has the lowest with 8.82.

Phil 80-13 has the highest sugar rendement in the plant cane and first ratoon while Phil 00-1893 has the highest yield in the second ratoon.  Phil 00-1419 has significantly the lowest yield from plant cane up to the second ratoon.  Only Phil 00-1419 and Phil 01-0577 did not decrease in yield in both ratoons. Phil 00-1419 has the highest average increase of 5.48% while Phil 7544 has the highest decrease of 9.67.

Phil 00-2569 has the highest sugar yield in the plant cane and first ratoon while Phil 01-0577 has the highest in the second ratoon. All varieties decreased in the first and second ratoon except Phil 00-1419 which increased in the first ratoon. Phil 8013 has the highest average percent decrease of 26.99 while Phil 00-1893 has the lowest with 9.44.

All test entries increased in ROI in the first and second ratoon compared to plant cane. Phil 8013 performed best among the test varieties in the ratoon while Phil 00-1419 performed the least. All test entries are profitable to maintain up to the second ratoon at 85 percent stool survival.

  • Ratoon performance of recommended Phil 2005  series varieties (February 2012 – June 2015)

 Two recommended varieties from the ecological test of Phil 2005 series, Phil 05-55 and Phil 05-483 were observed in two ratoon crops to determine their ratooning capacity. The ratoon performance of Phil 75-44, a commercial variety with good ratooning capacity, was also observed.

In TC/ha, all the varieties decreased in the first and second ratoon.

In LKG/TC, Phil 05-0055 and Phil 75-44 increased in the first and second ratoon. Phil 05-483 increased in the first ratoon but decreased in the second ratoon.

The LKG/ha of Phil 05-55 and Phil 05-483 decreased in the first and second ratoon. Phil 75-44 increased in the first ratoon but decreased in the second ratoon.

In the first and second ratoon respectively, Phil 05-55 had a Return on Investment (ROI) of 2.10 and 3.27, Phil 05-483 had   2.13 and 2.95 while Phil 75-44 had 2.63 and 3.03.

 Based on the result of ROI, Phil 05-55 and Phil 05-483 are still profitable to maintain up to the second ratoon at percent stool survival of 76.66 and 76.67 respectively.

  • Ratoon performance of recommended varieties from Ecological Test of    Phil 2006 series (February 2013 – May 2015)

 Two recommended varieties from the ecological test of Phil 2006 series, Phil 05-1763 and Phil 02-0421 were observed in two ratoon crops to determine their ratooning capacity. The ratoon performance of Phil 75-44, a commercial variety with good ratooning capacity, was also observed.

 In TC/ha, Phil 05-1763 and Phil 02-0421 decreased in the first and second ratoon. Phil 7544 increased in the first ratoon but decreased in the second ratoon.

In LKG/TC, Phil 05-1763 and Phil 75-44 increased in the first ratoon but decreased in the second ratoon while Phil 02-0421 decreased in both ratoons.

In LKG/ha Phil 05-1763 and Phil 02-0421 decreased in the first and second ratoon. Phil 75-44 increased in the first ratoon but decreased in the second ratoon.

In the first and second ratoon respectively, Phil 05-1763 had a Return on Investment (ROI) of 2.21 and 0.90, Phil 02-0421 had 1.64 and 1.20 while Phil 75-44 had 2.59 and 1.35.

Based on the result of ROI, only Phil 02-0421 is still profitable to maintain up to the second ratoon at percent stool survival of 55.75.

  • Cane and Sugar yields as   affected by Flowering (November 2013 – May 2015)

The ½ hectare area planted to Phil 99-1793 to be used for collecting stalk samples produced almost negligible flowering stalks that it was no longer used for the study. Two areas planted with first ratoon canes of Phil 00-2569 and Phil 99-1793 and ratooned on April 20, 2014 and March 27, 2014, respectively, were instead used for sampling.

In each sampling date, stalk samples without flower, stalks on stage of   tassel initiation and stalks with emerged flowers were randomly collected in three locations in each area. The stalks were weighed and   crushed and the juices were analysed in the laboratory.

For Phil 00-2569, stalks were sampled from 7 mos + 11 days to 12 mos + 9 days for a total of 16 sampling periods. LKg/TC of stalks without flower generally increased from the 1st sampling period of 1.56 to the last sampling period of 2.18.  The same trend was observed  for stalks  on  stage of   tassel initiation   till the  12th  sampling  periods and  for stalks  with emerged flowers till the last sampling period. On the average, stalks on tassel initiation   and with emerged flowers had lower LKg/TC.

On stalk weight average, stalks without flower were higher with 1.47 kg compared with stalks on tassel initiation of 1.25 and emerged flower of 1.24.

For Phil 99-1793, 12 sampling periods were done from 8 mos + 7 days to 12 mos + 12 days.  For stalks without flowers, the LKg/TC tend to increase from the 12 sampling periods from 1.92 to 2.23.  Stalks on stalk initiation   was slightly lower with 1.89 at the start and reached 2.19 on the on the 6th sampling period, after which no more samples were collected.    Stalks with emerged   flowers showed higher LKg/TC (2.00) at the start and afterwards fluctuated    from 1.93 to 2.25 till the 12th sampling period.

On stalk weight,  stalks without  flower generally produced  lighter  stalks on the first  six sampling periods which later increased  till  the  last sampling period. Stalks with flowers were heavier on the first six sampling periods which later on decreased on the 7th to the last sampling period.  Stalks with and without flowers had comparable average LKg/TC.

La Granja Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

Variety Improvement and Pest Management (VIPM)

  • The Phil 2014 Series Breeding Program produced 284 arrows from 202 bi-parental crosses using 62 female and 57 male selected parents.
  • In the Single Seedling Pilot Test for Phil 2013 Series, 907 promising clones from 181 bi-parental crosses were selected as entries to the Row Test.
  • In the Row Test of Phil 2012 series, 247 promising clones from 171 crosses were selected, propagated under Multiplication I and tested for smut.    One hundred forty four (144) clones were found resistant to the disease. Two hundred (200) clones were propagated under Multiplication II and tested for downy mildew.
  • For Phil 2011 series, all clones out tested were found resistant to downy mildew and recommended for further multiplication and testing. The top 30 clones were considered entries to the Preliminary Yield Test, further propagated, verified for reaction to smut and simultaneously screened for leaf scorch and yellow spot diseases.
  • For Phil 2010 series, smut test at PYT stage showed that 12 clones in the plant cane and 12 clones in the ratoon rated resistant to the disease; 20 clones were resistant to leaf scorch and 6 clones were moderate to yellow spot.
  • The following selected clones from the Preliminary Yield Test for Phil 2010 Series were considered as entries to the Ecologic Test; Phil 2010-4-0149, Phil 2010-38-0487, Phil 2010-9-0107, Phil 2010-48-0645, Phil 2010-6-0077, Phil 2010-42-0385, Phil 2010-12-0105, Phil 2010-81-0733, Phil 2010-26-0353, and Phil 2010-73-0901.
  • In the Ecologic Test Phil 2008 Series, Phil 2008-0909, Phil 2008-0161 and Phil 2008-1355 were the promising varieties among the 10 entries in the plant cane.  The three varieties are high in tonnage and sucrose content.  Phil 2008-0909 performed best in Bais, La Carlota and Passi Mill Districts with an average yield of 108.36’ 2.13 LKg/TC and 230.88 LKG/ha.   Phil 2008-1355 also performed in these districts with an average yield of 88.23 TC/ha 2.20 LKg/TC and 194.06 LKg/ha.  Phil 2008-0161 in Bais and La Carlota Mill districts had yields of 98.79 TC/ha, 2.04 LKg/TC and 202.33 LKg/ha.  Flowering was not observed during the test.    Phil 2008-0909 and Phil 2008-0161 are moderately resistant to smut and highly resistant to downy mildew, leaf scorch and yellow spot.  Phil 2008-1355 is highly resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but moderate to yellow spot.
  • One thousand two hundred ninety (1,290) sugarcane accessions were planted in the Germ plasm Collection as of December 31, 2015. Eight (8) new Phil varieties from the Ecologic Test were added to the collection. Eight hundred twenty one (821) clones/varieties were partially characterized according to number of millable stalks, brix reading, stalk diameter and leaf width.
  • The Genome Project to increase productivity, profitability, sustainability and global competitiveness in the sugar industry was renewed for its 3rd year of implementation.  Isolation and analysis of DNA from sugarcane samples is still going on.  Seven potential sugarcane parental were already identified. Molecular characterization of entries will start in the first quarter of 2016 upon the arrival of specific markers from UPLB.
  • Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2014 Series

 During the 2014 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was late and of short duration with peak of full emergence observed on the last week of October to first week of November 2014.

 Pollination work which started October 2016 and ended November 27, 2014, utilized 62 female selected parents. A total of 284 arrows from 202 biparental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 277 arrows form 198 biparental crosses were harvested with three arrows destroyed.

 The sowing of fuzz in 202 seedboxes from November 18 to December 16, 2014 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 198 biparental crosses consisting of 277 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 77.27 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 84 biparental crosses were pricked in 330 seedboxes.

Seedlings in 528 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June and July 2015.

  • Propagation I, Phil 2011 Series

 Thirty promising Phil 2011 series clones form the Preliminary Yield Test were planted and propagated in SRA-LGRAEC from April 2015 to October 2015 in preparation for Propagation II. The canepoints produced were further propagated to increase number of planting materials needed for Ecologic test in different locations nationwide.

  • Multiplicaton I, Phil 2012 Series

 Two hundred forty seven Phil 2012 Series clones selected from Row Test 2012 were multiplied (Multiplication I) and simultaneously tested for smut. Multiplication I was laid out and planted in January 2015. Care and maintenance of sugarcane plants were done based on SRA cultural practices. One hundred eighty clones were selected for Multiplication II and Downy Mildew screening in August 2015 based on their agronomic and morphological characteristics. Multiplication I, Phil 2012 series started in January 2015 and ended in November 2015.

  • Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2011 Series (Plant Cane and Ratoon)

 Two hundred Phil 2011 series clones selected from the first multiplication stage of the sugarcane variety Improvement Program were evaluated for their resistance to downy mildew disease of sugarcane. The test was laid out in September 2014 to November 2015 following the natural method of infection under La Granja conditions. The method consisted of planting naturally infected canes or spreader rows. Seeds of sweet corn were drilled within the spreader rows to serve as additional source of infection. Result of the plant cane showed that 188 clones were rated very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 3 resistant and 1 intermediate resistant to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 156 clones were very highly resistant, 30 highly resistant, 9 resistant and 5 intermediate to the disease.

  • SVIP Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance

 A total of 1,295 sugarcane varieties were maintained in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2015. Ten new Phil varieties from the Ecologic Test Phil 2007 Series were added to the collection; however, fifteen (15) IPBGR accessions did not survive after replanting. 821 clones/varieties were partially characterized agronomically. Brix reading, flowering, stalk diameter and leaf width were the data gathered on the characterization to primarily provide necessary information for the selection of parent materials.

  • Row Test 2012 Series

 Row Test 2012 series was conducted in March 2014 to January 2015 as the 4th stage of the Breeding Program of SRA-LGAREC where 906 clones were selected form the crosses in Phil 2011 Single Seedling Plot Test. From these, 247 clones with good agronomic characteristics based on brix reading, average tiller per stool, average diameter, weight per stalk and lowering observation were selected for the next stage of the Breeding program, the Multiplication I and Disease Screening Stage.

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND CROP MANAGEMENT (PTCM)

Completed researches

  • Comparative effect of rock phosphate from different sources in Negros Island on Yield of Sugarcane

Rock phosphate from different sources in Negros Island namely  Toboso, Sipalay, Ilog, Escalante, San Carlos was  used in a four years study as sources of phosphorous for  growth and yield of sugarcane.  The yearly application of rock phosphates from different sources gave comparable yields of Phil 2000-2569 compared with chemical fertilizers.   Soil analyses results also showed similar results.  The results imply the reliability of these areas as sources of rock phosphates which can reduce cost of production due to phosphorus.

  • Effect of N enhancers on the Growth and Yield of Phil 99-1793 ratoons

 No significant results on cane and sugar yields were obtained on two ratoons of Phil 99-1793 applied with the recommended rates of ordinary urea, coated urea at 105-70-60 NPK/ha and ordinary urea added with mycorrhiza.  Increasing the rates of N to 185 kg/ha with constant P and K likewise produced non-significant results although the highest yield was observed on 145-70-60 per hectare and with the addition of mycorrhiza.  These increases in yields should be equated with the added costs due to coating and mycorrhiza as yield enhancers.

  • Effect of 18-6-0, Silicon and Boron Fertilizer on growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 ratoon

On the effect of micronutrients, the addition of 1 kg silicon/ha and 100 g Boron to the recommended rate of NPK improved the sugar rendement, cane and sugar yields of  Phil 99-1793.  The experiment was laid out on Guimbalaon soils.  Verification trials should be conducted in other soil types.

  • Yield performance of Phil 2004-1011 applied with different fertilization packages

Phil 2004-1011 subjected to either of the following fertilization packages gave higher benefits than the recommended rate of 140-105-60 NPK:

a.  Recommended N + 25% of P from 18-46-0 + Recommended K + rock phosphate

b.  75% N + Rock phosphate + Rec. K + 8 gals. BMO

c.  75% N+ Rock phosphate + Rec. K + 100 g. Boron

d.  ½ NPK + 5 tons mudpress

e.  ½ NPK + 5 tons/ha mudpress + 2 tons calcitic lime

f.   ½ NPK + 5 tons/ha mudpress + 8 gals BMO+2 tons calcitic lime

g.  1 bags 18-6-0 + 4 bags Urea + 100 g Boron + 1 kg silicon

The choice of the farmer on above packages would depend on availability of resources. 

  • Row Test 2012 Series

 Row Test 2012 series was conducted in March 2014 to January 2015 as the 4th stage of the Breeding Program of SRA-LGAREC where 906 clones were selected from the crosses in Phil 2011 Single Seedling Plot Test. From these, 247 with good agronomic characteristics based on brix reading, average tiller per stool, average diameter, weight per stalk and flowering observation were selected for the next stage of the Breeding Program, the Multiplication I and Disease Screening Stage.

  • Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2010 Series (PYT – Plant Cane & Ratoon)

 Thirty clones selected from the Preliminary Yield Test were tested for resistance to smut disease. The trial was conducted from February – August 2014 for the plant cane, continued to first ratoon from September to February 2015. Test clones were soaked in smut spore suspension for 10 minutes and incubated for 48 hours prior to planting.

 Result of the plant cane showed that 11 clones were resistant, 7 moderate and 12 were susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon, 5 clones were very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant, 2 resistant, 4 intermediate resistance, 6 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible to the disease.

  • Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2010 Series

 The trial was conducted from February 2014 to February 2015. Natural method of infection was effected by planning diseased clones in between 2 rows of test clones. Out of the 30 clones tested, 6 were moderate and 24 were susceptible to the disease.

  • Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2010 Series

 The trial was conducted from February 2014 to February 2015 to determine the reaction of 30 Phil 2010 Series clones to leaf scorch. The method of infection employed was a combination of artificial and natural means. Disease reaction of the test clones was assessed 10 months after planting. Four clones were found very highly resistant, 6 highly resistant, 8 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease.

Abstract of Completed Researches (2014)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2014)

Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

  • 2009 Preliminary Yield Test (May 2012 – May 2014)

Thirty test clones from 2009 row test series were entered in the preliminary yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544, under natural field condition at LAREC.

Based on the tonnage and sugar yield, ten clones were found to be comparable with check variety Phil 8013 and Phil 7544. The clones also passed the selection criteria for disease resistance to smut and downy mildew.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 09-1-0015, Phil 09-2-0037, Phil 09-7-0081, Phil 09-7-0093, Phil 09-27-0323, Phil 09-77-0919, Phil 09-86-1045, Phil 09-94-1145, Phil 09-107-1261 and Phil 09-217-1969

  • Screening of Phil 2008 series for resistance to smut (May 2012 – May 2014)

Thirty clones of the 2008 series PYT from LGAREC were planted and tested for their reaction to sugarcane smut in the plant and ratoon cane

Among the thirty clones, rated  very highly resistant were  Phil 08-0004, 08-0155, 08-0161, 08-1001, 08-1009, 08-1123, 08-1451 and 08-1643; highly resistant, Phil 08-1005 08-1891,  and 08-1957;  resistant, Phil 08-0129, 08-0909, 08-1175,  08-1231 and 08-1253;   intermediate resistant, Phil 08-003, 08-0553, 08-0649, 08-0747, 08-1307, 08-1355 and 08-1443; intermediate average, Phil 08-0415, 08-0571, 08-1003, 08-1179 and 08-1181. The remaining clones rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible to the disease.

  • Screening of Phil 2007 series for resistance to downy mildew (July 2012 – May 2014)

Ten clones of Phil 2007 series from LGAREC were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon cane.

Among the ten clones of 2007 series, five clones were rated very highly resistant. These clones are Phil 06-0025, Phil 07-0027, Phil 07-0021, Phil 07-0243 and Phil 07-0573. Two were highly resistant, namely: Phil 07-0181 and Phil 07-0275.  Phil 07-2081 was rated resistant. Phil 07-0299 was rated intermediate resistant while Phil 07-2319 was rated susceptible to downy mildew.

  • Performance of Selected Phil Varieties in Luzon and Mindanao (20016 Ecological Test) (June 2011 – June 2014)

Ten test varieties selected from the 2006 series Preliminary Yield Test were planted to evaluate their yield performance in six mill districts of Luzon and Mindanao.

Among the test varieties, Phil 02-0421 and Phil 05-1763 showed better performance against the check varieties. The two varieties had more gains and/or evens than losses over the check varieties in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield. Phil 02-421 has a potential yield of 178.60 TC/Ha and 1.92 LKg/TC. Phil 05-1763 has a potential yield of 178.96 TC/Ha and 2.01 LKg/TC . Phil 02-0421 is resistant and very highly resistant to smut and downy mildew, respectively while Phil 05-1763 is highly resistant to both smut and downy mildew

Phil 02-0421 and Phil 05-1763 are recommended for further evaluation by the variety committee.

  • Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI) of Sugarcane Varieties Under Irrigated and Non – Irrigated  Conditions  (January 2012 – May 2014)

Leaf sampling on 4 month old canes in the plant crop and 3 month old canes in the ratoon crop which showed consistency in the chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI) values in both the irrigated and non-irrigated areas were selected as sampling periods.

Color, size and degree of rolling of leaves did not show consistency in relation to the CSI values.

The TC/Ha of the varieties in both irrigated and non – irrigated areas generally were significantly different.

Among the varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 99-1793 which had highly stable CSI also produced higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha under non – irrigated conditions.

CSI has the potential as tool for selection for resistance to dry or moisture stress conditions but sufficient data still has to be generated for its use.

  • Cane and Sugar Yields as  Affected by Variety and Season of Planting under Conventional Farming (November 2012 – May 2014)

Cane and sugar yields were significantly affected by variety (Phil 97-3501, Phil 97-3533, Phil 98-0255, Phil 99-1793 Phil 00-0659 and Phil 02-0359) and season of planting (early season in November, middle season in January and late season planting in March)

Highest TC/Ha was obtained on Phil 99-1793 in the early and late season planting and on Phil 00 -2569 in middle season planting LKg/TC was highest on Phil 97-3933 in early and middle season planting and on Phil 97-3501 in late season planting.

Highest LKg/Ha was obtained on Phil 97-3933, Phil 97-3501 and Phil 97- 1793 in early, middle and late season planting, respectively.

  • Performance of Selected Phil 2007 Varieties in Three Mill Districts in Luzon (2007 Ecological Test) (July 2012 – November 2014)

Ten test varieties selected from the 2007 series Preliminary Yield Test were planted to evaluate their yield performance in three mill districts of Luzon.

Among the test varieties, Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07-0243 showed better performance against the check varieties. The two varieties have more gains and/or evens than losses over the check varieties in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield. Phil 07- 0221 has a potential yield of 148.32 TC/Ha and 2.10 LKg/TC. Phil 07-0243 has a potential yield of 148.13 TC/HA and 2.03 LKg/TC. Phil 07-0221 is very highly resistant to both smut and downy mildew while Phil 07-0243 is intermediate resistant to smut and very highly resistant to downy mildew.

Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07- 0243 are recommended for further evaluation by the variety committee.

La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

  • Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2012 Series

The 2012 hybridization work which produced a total of 57,662 seedlings from 257 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 29 to July 11, 2013. From these, 34,115 seedling form 256 bi-parental crosses survived in the field or a survival rate of 59.16 percent which was mainly due to the effects of poor and much delayed land preparation. Selection in April 2014 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 939 promising clones from 171 bi-parental crosses. All promising clones were recommended to the next stage, the Row Test for further screening. The project was conducted form May 2013 to May 2014.

  • Multiplication I, Phil 2011 Series

Three hundred fifty Phil 2011 Series clones selected from Row Test were multiplied (Multiplication I) and simultaneously tested for smut. Multiplication I was laid out and planted in January 2014. Number of clones will be selected again for Multiplication II and Downy mildew screening on July 2014 based on their agronomic and morphological characteristics. Multiplication I, Phil 2011 Series started in January 2014 and ended in June 2014.

  • Multiplication II, Phil 2010 Series  

The top thirty clones were selected from Multiplication II, Phil 2010 series as entries to the next stage, the Preliminary Yield Test 2010 based on their agronomic and morphological characteristics. One thousand canepoints for each clone were provided for LGAREC and LAREC Preliminary Yield Tests in Preparation for the Ecologic Test. Multiplication II started in August 2013 and ended in May 2014.

  • Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2009 Series

The Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2009 Series was conducted at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City from March 2013 to June 2014 to determine the yield and agronomic performance of sugarcane clones under representative environmental conditions and to select and recommend promising clones/varieties for ecological testing. There were 30 entries selected from Phil 2009 series Multiplication II with Phil 8013 and VMC 86550 as control varieties. Preliminary Yield Test is the Stage VI of the on-going Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program of SRA. The yield performance of Phil 2009 series clones showed that twelve clones stood out in tonnage over the two control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86550. One clone was statistically higher in tonnage over the control, four clones were comparable. Two clones were numerically higher in LKg/TC but statistically comparable to the controls as well as the rest of the fourteen clones and fourteen clones were statistically lower than the two control varieties. LKg/Ha, two clones showed statistically higher sugar yield over the control Phil 8013 and VMC 86550, five were statistically lower to control varieties while the rest were statistically comparable. Results of the study showed ten selected promising clones recommended for further evaluation to the next stage of SVIP, the Ecologic Test.

  • Propagation II, Phil 2009 Series

Thirty selected varieties of Phil 2009 Series were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from November 2013 to May 2014 in preparation for Propagation III, the source of planting materials for the Ecologic Test in different locations nationwide. From these varieties, 10 were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test to be laid out in November 2014. The ten varieties selected and to be propagated in Propagation III are: Phil 2009-1963, Phil 2009-1867, Phil 2009-1969, Phil 2009-0125, Phil 2009-1567, Phil 2009-0037, Phil 2009-2147, Phil 2009-0097, Phil 2009-0919 and Phil 2009-0015.

  • Ecologic Test, Phil 2007 Series

The performance of eight Phil 2007 series sugarcane varieties was evaluated in five mill districts in Negros and Panay islands from November 2012 to June 2014. The eight test varieties were as follows: Phil 07-0027, Phil 07-0243, Phil 07-0359, Phil 07-0411, Phil 07-0573, Phil 07-2018, Phil 07-2319, and Phil 07-0563. Phil 8013 was the national control variety and VMC 86550 was the local control. The study was laid out in had. Progreso, Isabela, Negros Occidental; Had. Tamaraw, Manapla, Negros Occidental; Sycip Plantation Farmworkers Multipurpose Cooperative Farm, Manjuyod, Negros Oriental; SRA La Granja, La Carlota City and Had. Hermont, Dingle, Iloilo. Results of the study in the different locations are being evaluated and report writing is in progress.

  • Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2010 Series (Plant Cane and Ratoon)

 The test was conducted in SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City from July 2013 to June 2014. One hundred ninety seven Phil 2010 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 184 clones were rated very highly resistant, 9 highly resistant, 3 resistant and 1 intermediate average to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 157 clones were very highly resistant, 27 highly resistant, 10 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate to the disease. All clones in the plant cane are recommended for further testing in the next stage.

  • Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2011 Series (Row Test)

Three hundred fifty Phil 2009 series clones selected from the Row Test were evaluated for their resistance to smut disease of sugarcane from January to June 2014. Twenty single-eyed cuttings were used per test clone and 2 standard varieties were included as susceptible and resistant check varieties. Dipping method was followed in inoculating each entry. Inoculation was done by dipping the cane cuttings of the test clones and standard varieties in standardized smut spore suspension with a concentration of 5×106  spores/ml for 10 minutes. Inoculated seedpieces were incubated for 24 hours under plastic sheet covering before planting in plastic bags. Observations on the appearance of smut ships was done a month after planting and weekly thereafter until the plant reached 6 months old. Result of the experiment will be finalized after the last data collection scheduled on the last week of June 2014.

  • Efficacy Test on the Use of Mycorrhizal Fungi (Mycoplex or Endoroots ) on Sugarcane

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center, La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in Guimbalaon clay foam soil from February 2013 to February 2014. This was laid out in a randomized complete block design 9RCBD) replicated four times, generally, to determine the effectiveness of mycoplex or endoroots in promoting growth and yield of sugarcane in Guimbalaon clay loam soil and specifically (1) To determine the effectiveness of mycoplex or endoroots combination with 100% P and 100% NK or 50% P and 100% NK as manifested on yield of sugarcane and (2) to compare the yield of the recommended rate of NPK with or without mycoplex or endoroots.

Phil 99-1793 applied with mycoplex gave an improvement in tonnage yield by 20.02 TC/Ha over the unfertilized control without mycoplex.

Mycoplex plus the recommended NPK gave higher tonnage (117.02 TC/Ha) than the recommended rate (111.19) TC/Ha). A difference of 5.83 TC/Ha was realized. Likewise mycoplex + recommended NK without P gave an increase of 7.03 TC/Ha against recommended NK without P.

Mycoplex added to 50% recommended P and 100% NK gave an increase of 12. 32 TC/Ha agains 50% recommended P and 100% NK did not decrease the tonnage yield of Phil 99-1793 when supplemented with mycoplex.

Endoroots application improved the tonnage by 15.48 TC/Ha agains the unfertilized control without endoroots.

Endoroots added to recommended rate NK + 50% P improved the tonnage by 5.3 TC/Ha over RR NK + 50% P.

Recommended rate NK + endoroots gave an increase of 8.08 TC/Ha more than the recommended rate of NK.

  • Ratoon Performance of Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569 and Phil 2002-0359

The experiments were conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from February 2011 to February 2014. The study aims to evaluate the ratoon performance of the new sugarcane HYVs, Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0295 and Phil 2002-0359. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design using 6m x 9m experimental plots, replicated four times (4x).

Plant cane tonnage did not vary among test varieties but data showed that Phil 2000-2569 obtained the highest cane tonnage (109.61 TC/Ha) and lowest cane tonnage was noted in Phil 2001-0295 (84.78 TC/Ha)

First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly obtained the highest cane tonnage (103.43) but result was comparable with Phil 2000-2569 (98.16 TC/Ha) and Phil 99-1793 (93.59 TC/Ha). Phil 2002-0359 had 83.49 TC/Ha, while Phil 2001-0295 consistently gave the lowest cane tonnage (66.46 TC/Ha). It was noted that there was a reduction of 10.73% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was due to its longer stalks compared to the other test varieties.

Second ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 consistently got the highest cane tonnage (89.27 TC/Ha) but statistically comparable with Phil 99-1793 (77.63 TC/Ha), and significantly higher than Phil 2000-2569 (73.75 TC/Ha), Phil 2002-0359 (55.52 TC/Ha) and Phil 2001-0295 with the lowest cane tonnage of 31.82 TC/Ha. There was a great reduction of about 34.22% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was likewise attributed to longer stalk per plot and most number of millable stalks per plot.

Sugar yield did not differ among varieties on the plant cane but differed in the first and second ratoon. Sugar yield had a mean value of 210.22 LKg/Ha in the plant crop while the first ratoon had a mean value of 197.51 thereby having a reduction of 6.05 percent. First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly produced the highest sugar yield of 231.73 LKg/Ha but statistically similar with Phil 2000-2569 (214.44), Phil 99-1793 (211.45) AND Phil 2002-0359 (193.87). The lowest LKg/Ha was still noted on Phil 2001-0295 (136.04 LKg/Ha).

Second ratoon crop likewise exhibited significant results in sugar yield among test varieties. Sugar yield had a mean value of 152.15 LKg/Ha and the reduction of 27.62 percent over the plant cane was obtained. Phil 2000-0791 consistently produced the highest sugar yield of 210.71 LKg/Ha, statistically similar with Phil 99-1793 with 181.10 LKg/Ha but significantly higher than the other test varieties. The lowest sugar yield was still observed in Phil 2001-0295 (67.55 LK/Ha).

Sucrose content of the plant crop significantly differed among test varieties with Phil 99-1793 obtaining the highest LK/TC (2.33), comparable with Phil 2000—0791 (2.20) and Phil 2002-2569 (1.91). Sucrose content of the plant crop had a mean value of 2.13 LKg/TC.

First ratoon crop LKg/TC ranged from 2.06 to 2.32 LKg/TC ranged from 2.06 to 2.32 LKg/TC with a mean value of 2.21, higher than the plant cane by 3.62 percent. It was noted that Phil 2002-0359 obtained the highest LKg/TC on the first ratoon (2.32), however statistically comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.25 LKg/TC), Phil 99.1793 (2.26 LKg/TC) and Phil 200-2569 (2.18 LKg/TC) but statistically higher than Phil 2001-0295 (2.06).

Second ratoon sucrose content ranged from 2.07 LKg/TC to 2.45 LKg/TC and had a mean value of 2.29 which was higher than the plant cane by about 6.99 percent. Phil 2002-0359 gave the highest LKg/TC (2.45), comparable with Phil 99-1793 (2.33) and Phil 2000-0791 (2.37 and statistically higher than Phil 2000-2569 (2.24) and Phil 2001-0295 (2.07).

Phil 2000-0791 is considered a good ratooner, giving the highest cane and sugar yield and had a lesser percent yield reduction when compared to other test varieties in the first and second ratoon, however it is best recommended up to the second ratoon only.

  • Effect of Different Foliar Fertilizers on Canepoint Production (Cutback) of Phil 2003-1389 Micropropagated Plantlets

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC) from October 2012 to October 2013.

Hardened micropropagated plantlets of Phil 2003-1389 were planted in the field and applied with different foliar fertilizers and evaluated for its canepoint production.

No significant differences were observed on the plant height and tiller number of Phil 2003-1389 applied with different foliar fertilizers.

Although not significant, the highest plant height was observed on Humipure Nitrogen (T8) both on 3 and 6 months after planting (MAP) at 77.4 cm and 199.6 cm, respectively. The lowest plant height was at Better Yield (T5) and IBG (T4) at 53.4 and 144.8 cm for 3 and 6 months after planting, respectively.

For ratoon crop, the highest plant height was obtained on the control (T1) at 128.0 cm and 240.o cm FOR 3 TO 6 MAR, respectively.

At 3 and 6 MAP, the highest tiller number was both observed at T8 and 3.8 and 3.0, respectively. For ratoon crop, all treatments has equal number of tillers (4) both at 3MAR and 6MAR except at T7 for 6 MAR which has 5 number of tillers.

Plant cane canepoint production of Phil 2003-1389 was highly significant among treatments. Highest canepoin production was obtained at Humipure Nitrogen (T8) at 53.0 lacsa/hectare and the lowest was obtained at Better Yield (T5) at 22.0 lacsa/hectare.

For ratoon crop, no significant differences were observed among treatments for canepoint production. Although not significant, the highest number of canepoints was obtained on T8 (58.0 lacsa/hectare while the lowest was obtained at 48.0 lacsa/hectare both at T4 and T5.

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of Phil 99-1793 were comparable among the different treatments. Generally canes applied with mycoplex gave higher LKg/TC than canes applied with endoroots.

Phil 99-1793 applied with mycoplex gave an increase in sugar yield by 44.55 LKg/Ha compared with the unfertilized control.

Mycoplex plus the recommended rate gave higher sugar yield than the recommended rate with a difference of 6.57 LKg/Ha. Likewise application of mycoplex + recommended NK gave more in sugar by 20.35 LKg/Ha over the recommended NK.

Phil 99-1793 highest sugar yield of 274.91 LKg/Ha was obtained on 50% P + 100% NK + 50 kgs/ha mycoplex. Improvement in sugar yield against 50% recommended P and 100% NK without mycoplex was 31.75/Ha.

Application of endoroots increased the sugar yield by 31.19 LKg/Ha over the unfertilized control.

Endoroots added to recommended rate NK + 50% P improved the sugar yield by 7.46 LKg/Ha compared with RR NK + 50% P.

Recommended rate NK without P + endoroots gave an increase of 23.59 LKg/Ha against recommended rate NK.

Application of mycoplex alone gave higher sugar yield of 13.36 LKg/Ha compared with endoroots alone.

Improvements in TC/Ha and LKg/Ha of Phil 99-1793 was due to improvement in all parameters with the application of mycoplex and endoroots.

  • Efficacy Trial On The Use Of High Yield (18-6-0) On Sugarcane (Cooperative study between PHILVIN and SRA)

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in a Guimbalaon sandy loam soil from November 2012 to November 2013. This was laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated four times, (1) to evaluate the growth and yield response of sugarcane to application ofHigh Yield, (2) to evaluate the combined effect of high yield, urea, better yield and microsil; and (3) to evaluate the economics of using High Yield fertilizer on sugarcane.

Application of 11 bags/ha High Yield fertilizer (HY)+ 4 bags/ha urea + 1 kg/ha better yield (BY) + 4 kgs/ha microsil gave the highest sugar yield of 238.06 LKg/Ha with a difference of 70.64 LKg/Ha against the control (167.42 LKg/Ha) and 20.92 LKg/Ha against the recommended rate (217.14 LKg/Ha).

Application of 15 bags/ha HY gave higher sugar yield of 208.24 LKg/Ha, a difference of 40.82 LKg/Ha against the control.

Addition of 15 bags/ha HY to one-half of the recommended rate gave 226.37 LKg/Ha, a difference of 25.02 LKg/Ha against one-half of the recommended rate alone (201.35 LKg/Ha).

Addition of 7.5 bags/ha HY to the recommended rate gave an increase of 15.66 LKg/Ha over the recommended rate alone (232.80 LKg/Ha vs. 217.14 LKg/Ha).

All fertilized canes gave slightly higher LKg/TC (2.15-2.21 LKg/TC) than the unfertilized (2.14 LKg/TC).

Application of 11 bags/ha High Yield fertilizer (HY) + 4 bags/ha urea + 1 kg/ha better yield (BY) + 4 kgs/ha microsil gave the highest tonnage of 109.79 TC/Ha, a difference of 30.89 TC/Ha against the control and 8.42 TC/Ha against the recommended rate (78.90 and 100.87 TC/Ha, respectively).

Application of 15 bags/ha HY gave higher tonnage of 96.49 TC/Ha, a difference of 17.59 TC/Ha against the control.

Addition of 15 bags/ha HY to one-half of the recommended rate gave an increase of10.22 TC/Ha over tonnage obtained from one-half of the recommended rate alone (92.41 TC/Ha).

On the other hand, addition of 7.5 bags/ha HY to the recommended rate gave an increase of 7.21 TC/Ha over the recommended rate alone (108.08 TC/Ha vs. 100.87 TC/Ha).

Highest net benefit per hectare in the amount of PhP 110,564.42 was obtained on the application of 11 bags/ha High Yield + 4 bags/ha urea + 1 kg/ha better yield + 4 kgs/ha microsil; next highest net benefit of PhP 104,159.34 was obtained on the recommended rate of fertilizer + 7.5 bags/ha High Yield; third was obtained on the recommended rate of fertilizer (PHP102,813.37); and, the lowest was on the control.

  • Effect Of New Neb Formula (Neb-F) And (Neb-Fa) On The Growth And Yield Of Sugarcane (Cooperative study between AGMOR INC. and SRA)

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in a Guimbalaon clay loam soil from December 2012 to December 2013. This was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated four times, (1) to evaluate the efficacy of new NEB formula on the growth and yield of sugarcane; and (2)  to determine if the experimental formulas NEB-F and NEB-FA for sugarcane is more  effective than the standard NEB formula

Tonnage yield (TC/Ha) of Phil 99-1793 applied with the different formulation of NEB (NEB SC 107) gave higher tonnage yield than the control without NEB.  The tonnage difference ranged from 3.66 to 5.72 TC/Ha.

Rendement (LKg/TC) of Phil 99-1793 were observed to be lower in all NEB treated canes compared with the untreated.

Sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 99-1793 applied with the different formulation of NEB gave higher sugar yield than the control without NEB. Among the NEB treated canes, highest sugar yield was obtained on NEB Formula B + NEB SC Powder # 2 (269.07 LKg/Ha) while the lowest was at Standard NEB-SC (261.33 LKg/Ha).  Canes without NEB had 257.43 LKg/Ha.  Yield difference of NEB treated canes against the control without NEB ranged from 3.9 LKg/Ha to 11.64 LKg/Ha.

Phil 99-1793 treated with NEB SC 108 gave higher tonnage than the control without NEB.  Among the NEB treated canes highest tonnage (110.98 TC/Ha) was observed on NEB FA (1000 ml/ha) while the lowest (106.47 TC/Ha) was observed on NEB F (800 ml/ha).  The difference between the tonnage yield of NEB FA (1000 ml/ha and the control was 6.34 TC/Ha. The tonnage yield difference of NEB applied canes against the control ranged from 1.83 TC/Ha to 6.34 TC/Ha.

Sugar rendement of canes applied with standard NEB F SC (1000 ml/ha) was observed to be the highest (2.38 LKg/TC) while the lowest (2.30 LKg/TC) was observed on Standard NEB SC (800 ml/ha).

Sugar yield of all NEB treated canes were higher than the control (without NEB).  Among the NEB applied canes standard NEB SC (1000 ml/ha) gave the highest LKg/Ha of 258.56 while the lowest was obtained on NEB F (800 ml/ha) with 247.51 LKg/Ha.  The sugar yield difference of NEB treated canes against the control ranged from 2.53 LKg/Ha to 13.58 LKg/Ha.

  • Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2013 Series 

During the 2013 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with peak of full emergence observed on the last week of October 2013.

Pollination work which started October 16 and ended November 25, 2013, utilized 88 female and 79 male selected parents. A total of 401 arrows from 285 biparental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 398 arrows from 285 biparental crosses were harvested with three arrows destroyed.

The sowing of fuzz in 285 seedboxes from November 16 to December 12, 2013 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 283 biparental crosses consisting of 396 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 82.69 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 117 biparental crosses were pricked in 375 seedboxes.

Seedlings in 658 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June and July 2014.

  • Planting Methods and Vermicast Fertilization to Improve Cutback Production of Phil 2000-2569

Production and distribution of high yielding varieties is mainly through the use of cutback. This could be one of the reasons for under-supplied of planting materials specifically of newly released varieties. A study on vermicast fertilization and planting methods was conducted at SRA LGAREC on April 2013 t April 2014. Phil 2000-2569 variety was used. The study was laid out with two fertilizations schemes (10 tons vermicast +1/2 recommended rate of inorganic fertilizer and recommended rates of inorganic fertilizers) and five planting methods (hole planting at 6 setts per hole, hole planting at 8 setts per hole, zigzag, double and single planting) to find out desirable planting method and fertilization scheme for cutback production of Phil 2000-2569. Results showed that Phil 2000-2569 produced higher number of cutback with double planting than other planting methods. Fertilization using vermicast did not significantly affect cutback production of test variety.

  • Propagation I, Phil 2010 Series

Thirty promising Phil 2010 series clones from the Preliminary Yield Test were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from April 2014 to October 2014 in preparation for Propagation II. The canepoints produced were further propagated to increase number of planting materials needed for Ecologic test in different locations nationwide.

  • Propagation III, Phil 2009 Series

The selected varieties of Phil 2009 Series from the Preliminary Yield Test were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from June 2014 to December 2014 in preparation for the Ecologic Test in different locations nationwide. The 10 varieties selected as entries to the Ecologic Test were” Phil 2009-1963, Phil 2009-1867, Phil 2009-1969, Phil 2009-0125, Phil 2009-1567, Phil 2009-0037, Phil 2009-2147, Phil 2009-0097, Phil 2009-0919 and Phil 2009-0015.

  • SVIP Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance

A total of 1,299 sugarcane varieties were maintained in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2014. Eight new Phil varieties from the Ecologic Test were added to the collection; however, ten (10) IPBGR accessions were not able to survive after replanting. Eight hundred sixteen (816) clones/varieties were partially characterized agronomically. Brix, stalk diameter, number of tillers and degree of flowering were the data gathered on the characterization to primarily to provide necessary information for selection of parent materials for the Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2015 Series Project.

  • Mass Production of Trichogramma Strips for the Control of Borers

The mass production of Trichogramma as a potential biological control agent against sugarcane stem borers of the SRA LGAREC gave a significant impact to the sugarcane planters as well as to rice, corn and vegetabe farmers not just only in the province of Negros Occidental but in Negros Oriental and Panay Region for the past years of the Trichogramma species maintained, T. chilonis, the egg parasitoid to stem borers of sugarcane in themost in demand by clients followed by T. japonicum, T. bactrae and T. evanescens for Lepidopterous pests of rice, corn and vegetables.

The increasing present demand of sugarcane planters and farmers is an evidence of its significance as biological control agent. Trichogramma is an egg parasitoid that kills the pest before it can cause any damage to the plant.

From January 2014 to December 2014, the project produced 32,498 strips of Trchogramma. A total of 24, 892 strips were distributed to clients as follows: sugarcane planters – 21,442 strips; rice farmers – 1,571 strips; sugarcane researchers – 1,864 strips and vegetable farmers – 15 strips. The rest of the strips were used as starters.

  • Sugarcane Disease Garden as Source of Inocula for Resistance Trials

Seven varieties namely; Phil 6111, Phil 7464, Phil 7779, Phil 8839, Phil 8013, Phil 56226, VMC 86550 and mixed clones were propagated in an area of 5,000 sq.m. from January 2014 to December 2014. These were maintained as ratoon plants. These varieties served as resistance trials to smut, downy mildew, yellow spot and leaf scorch.

Abstract of Completed Researches (2013)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2013)

Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

 Variety Tests 

1.  Ten  clones from the Preliminary yield  test of Phil  2008 series recommended  to undergo ecological test are: Phil 08-0909, Phil 08-1253, Phil 08-1123, Phil 08-1891, Phil 08-0553,Phil 08-1957,Phil 08-0747,Phil 08-0649, Phil 08-1307 and Phil 08-1231.

2. Phil 2007 series clones  which showed resistant reaction to  sugarcane  smut were: five very highly resistant (Phil 07-0021, 07-0423, 07-0573,07-2319 and 07-0563),  two highly resistant (Phil 07-0059,  and 07-0355),  five resistant (Phil 07-0025, 07-0099, 07-0241, 07-0415 and 07-0055) and   seven  intermediate resist- ant (Phil 07-0119, 07-0243, 07-0253, 07-0299,07-0279, 07-0411, and 07-2203).

3. Clones from Phil 2005-2006 series and Phil 02-0421  with showed  resistant reaction  to sugarcane downy mildew were:  six very highly resistant (Phil 05-0315, 05-2057, 05-2191, 05-2335, 05-2585 and 02-0421), three highly resistant (Phil 06-0647, 05-1763, and 05-2527 and one resistant (Phil 05-1681).

4.  In the 2005 Ecological Test, Phil 05-0055 and Phil 05-0483 which showed better performance against the check varieties and with very highly resistance reaction   to smut and downy mildew are recommended for release.

PTCM Projects

1. There was no interaction between Variety (Phil 7544, 991793 and Phil 00-2569) and Age of harvest (11,12,13 and 14 months after planting) when planted in  February 2012 (late planting) in organically (vermi-compost and chicken manure)-fertilized soil.  Variety and age of harvest means for TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha were significantly different with Phil 99-1793 and 12 MAP age as highest while LKg/TC means were comparable.

2. In the test for ratoon performance of selected Phil 2004 series varieties, results showed that Phil 04-0081 had an ROI of 3.0 in the first ratoon and an ROI of 2.01 in the second   ratoon at 76.84% survival rate. Phil 04-0081 is profitable to maintain up to the second ratoon.

La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

 In the commercial hybrid production program, significant findings are as follows:

•    The Phil 2012 Series Breeding Program produced 331 arrows from 256 bi-parental crosses using 85 female and 76 male selected parents.

•    In the Single Seedling Pilot Test for Phil 2011 Series, 912 promising clones from 147 bi-parental crosses were selected as entries to the Row Test.

•    In the Row Test for Phil 2010 series, 255 promising clones from 131 crosses were selected, propagated under Multiplication I and tested for smut.    Two hundred four (204) clones were found resistant to the disease. One hundred ninety seven (197) clones were propagated under Multiplication II and tested for downy mildew.

•    For Phil 2009 series, 199 clones out of 201 clones tested were found resistant to downy mildew and recommended for further multiplication and testing. The top 30 clones were considered entries to the Preliminary Yield Test, further propagated, verified for reaction to smut and simultaneously screened for leaf scorch and yellow spot diseases.

•    For Phil 2008 series, smut test at PYT stage showed that 24 clones in the plant cane and 23 clones in the ratoon rated resistant to the disease; 10 clones were resistant to yellow spot and 28 clones were resistant to leaf scorch.

•    The following selected clones from the Preliminary Yield Test for Phil 2008 Series were considered as entries to the Ecologic Test; Phil 08-06-0033, Phil 08-17-0161, Phil 08-55-0553, Phil 08-79-0747, Phil 08-88-0909, Phil 08-93-1009, Phil 08-105-1231, Phil 08 108-1307, Phil 08-108-1327 and Phil 08-109-1355.

•    In the Ecologic Test Phil 2006 Series, Phil 2006-1899 gained over the two controls without incurring losses in tonnage and sugar yields. Phil 2006-2289 gave even scores for sucrose content.  Phil 2006-1899 is high in tonnage, medium to high sucrose content and a sparse flowering variety.   Phil 2006-2289 is medium to high in tonnage, high in sucrose content and a very sparse flowering variety.  The two varieties are resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch, Phil 2006-1899 and Phil 2006-2289 are recommended for further evaluation by the Variety Committee.

•    One thousand two hundred ninety seven (1,297) sugarcane accessions were planted in the Germplasm Collection as of October 2013. Eight (8) new accessions came from the Ecologic Test Phil 2006 project. Eight hundred twenty one (821) clones/varieties were partially characterized according to number of millable stalks, brix reading and stalk diameter.

In the production technology, significant findings are:

•    Phil 2000-2569 and Phil 99-1793 ratoon applied with acetobacter gave higher average sugar yields ranging from 107.15 to 111.45 LKg/ha compared with the control with 100.59LKg/Ha.

Regardless of volumes and frequencies of acetobacter application , Phil 2000-2569 ratoon gave higher yield (130.7 LKg/Ha.) than Phil 99-1793 ratoon (92.5LKg/Ha.) obtained when applied 1 and 2 MAR and 1, 2 and 3 MAR respectively. The lowest sugar yield on both varieties was on the control without acetobacter. Phil 2000-2569 ratoon average mean sugar yield of 126.85 LKg/Ha. was significantly higher than Phil 99-1793 with 88.33 LKg/Ha., the sugar yield difference was 38.52 LKg/Ha.

Phil 99-1793 ratoon, mean sugar yield of acetobacter treated canes ranging from 110.15 to 119.35 LKg/Ha. was higher than the untreated (103.52 LKg/ha) however statistically comparable.

Similar with the plant cane, higher tonnage of Phil 2000-2569 ratoon compared with Phil 99-1793 was due to more number of millable stalks of the former variety.

•    Phil 99-1793 ratoon applied with mudpress gave higher sugar yield than without mudpress with differences of 6.44 LKg/Ha. Ratoon sugar yield difference between acetobacter and untreated was 7.62 LKg/Ha.; 15.84 LKg/Ha.; 7.97 LKg/Ha.; 6.63 LKg/Ha. for strain 10069, strain 10071, strain 10078 and strain 10081 respectively.

Strain 10071 gave the highest mean tonnage of 53.17 TC/Ha. statistically comparable    with strain 10078 (49.55 TC/Ha., strain 10069 (49.79TC/Ha. and strain 10081 (49.28 TC/Ha.) and the control (56.04TC/Ha.).

Mudpress in combination with the different strains gave significantly higher tonnage mean than without mudpress (50.976TC/Ha. against 48.28TC/Ha.). Highest average net benefit of Php 56,686.26 was obtained with acetobacter diazotrophicus (strain 10071) application. The net benefit difference over the control was Php 15,400.08.  Highest net benefit of PhP 56,686.26 was obtained with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (strain 10071) application.  The net benefit difference over the control was PhP 15,400.08.

•    Phil 2000-2569 ratoon applied with mycorrhiza gave higher sugar yield (161.56 LKg/ha.) than without mycorrhiza   (154.31LKg/Ha.) The difference was 7.25LKg/Ha. Among the different strains 10071 gave the higher sugar yield of 163.13 LKg/ha when combined with mycorrhiza. Similarly without mycorrhiza strain 10071 still gave the highest yield (159.37 LKg/Ha.).

Tonnage of Phil 2000-2569 ratoon applied with mycorrhiza was higher (81.65/Ha.) than without mycorrhiza (76.81TC/Ha.). The difference was 4.84TC/Ha. Strain 10071 consistently gave the highest mean tonnage yield of 79.77TC/Ha. Similar with plant cane, mycorrhiza plus the mixture of the four strains gave comparable yield with the single strain.

Improvement of sugar yield and tonnage yield of Phil 2000-2569 with the application of mycorrhiza and BNFs was due to improvement of the yield parameters such as stalk length, diameter and weight per stalk as well as the number of millable stalks.

Among the combinations of mycorrhiza and BNF strains, highest net benefit of Php 99,471.72 was obtained on strain 10071.

•    Rock phosphate from different sources in Negros Occidental containing different total percentages of P2O5 applied to sugarcane ratoon as source of P fertilizer gave comparable results with either 18-46-0 or 16-20-0 in terms of TC/ha, LKg/TC and LKg/ha.

•    Phil 99-1793 applied with either recommended rate of NPK of 1/2NP + full K + mycorrhiza gave significantly higher tonnage (119.68TC/ha) and mean sugar (267.99LKg/ha) than without mycorrhiza (112.11TC/ha) and 251.44 LKg/ha with a difference of 7.57 TC/ha and 16.55 LKg/ha On the other hand, BNFs combined with ½NP and full of K gave higher tonnage than canes with the same fertilizer treatments without BNF. Among the different BNFs strain 10076 gave the highest sugar yield with or without mycorrhiza.

Higher tonnage and sugar yield of Phil 99-1793 with the application of mycorrhiza and BNFs was due to improvement of the yield parameters such as length, diameter and weight per stalk as well as the number of millable stalks.

•    Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0295 and Phil 2002-0359 first ratoon showed that tonnage, sugar rendement and sugar yield were significantly different. Phil 2000-0791 exhibited the highest cane tonnage (103.43TC/ha) and sugar yield (231.73 LKg/ha) than the other test varieties. Phil 2000-2569 ranked second in cane tonnage (98.16TC/ha) and sugar yield (214.44 LKg/ha) Phil 99-1793 (93.59TC/ha, 211.45LKg/ha), Phil 2002-0359 (83.49TC/ha, 193.87LKg/ha) while Phil 2001-0295 gave the lowest cane tonnage and sugar yield (66.48TC/ha, 136.04 LKg/ha).

Phil 2002-0359 significantly gave the highest sucrose content of 2.32 LKg/TC, comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.25LKg/TC), Phil 2000-2569 (2.18 LKg/TC) and Phil 99-1793 (2.26 LKg/TC and significantly higher than Phil 2001-0295 (2.06LKg/TC).

•    Phil 99-1793 ratoon sugar yield was higher when NEB coated with urea was used instead of ordinary urea. Yield of NEB coated urea ranged from 263.75 to 302.75 LKg/ha while yield of ordinary urea range from 266.75 to 287.39 LKg/ha. Ordinary urea + mycoplex gave a sugar yield ranging from 275 LKg/ha to 293.70 LKg/ha.

Highest difference in sugar yield and tonnage was 25.23LKg/ha and 9.09TC/ha respectively in NEB coated urea (145 Kg N/ha) against ordinary urea (145 Kg N/ha).

Sugar yield improvement of 11.24 LKg /ha was obtained on urea (145 Kg N/ha) in combination with mycoplex compared with urea alone at the same rate.

Tonnage of Phil 99-1793 ratoon with NEB coated urea ranged from 109.25 to 122.92TC/ha, while ordinary urea gave 107.03 to 117.06 TC/ha.  Urea in combination with mycoplex gave 111.83 to 118.48TC/ha.

Abstract of Completed Researches (2012)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2012)

Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

·         Performance of Selected Phil 2004 Series in Luzon and Mindanao (Ecologic Test of 2004 series)

Ten test varieties selected from the 2004 series Preliminary Yield Test in Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Pampanga were planted to evaluate their yield performance in five mill districts of Luzon and Mindanao.

 

   Phil 2004-0081 showed the best performance against the check varieties. It had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in the gain-          even-loss tally in tonnage, sucrose content, and sugar yield. This variety was also rated intermediate average to smut and highly resistant to downy              mildew.

 

   Phil 2004-0081 is recommended for commercial release.

·         Screening Of Phil 2006 Series For Resistance To Smut

 Twenty eight clones of the 2005 series and two clones of the 2006 series were planted, rationed and screened for their reaction to sugarcane smut.

 

   Four clones were rated very highly resistant, namely; Phil 05-0315, 05-2057, 05-2095 and 05-2119. Four were highly resistant, namely; Phil 05-1763,      05-2141, 05-2659 and 06-0647. Phil 05-2185 was rated resistant. Three were intermediate resistant, namely; Phil 05-0503, 05-1899, 05-1905, and 05-   2335. The remaining clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

 

·         Screening Of Phil 2005 Series For Resistance To Downy Mildew

Eleven clones of Phil 2005 series were tested for their resistance to downy mildew. Eight clones were rated very highly resistant namely; Phil 05-3635, 05-2151, 05-87, 05-483, 05-1379, 05-329, 05-0555, and 05-245. Phil 05-645 was highly resistant. Phil 05-309 was resistant and Phil 05-1197 was intermediate average.

 

Smut infection was higher in the ratoon cane than in the plant cane.

 

·         Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2007 Series 

Thirty test clones from 2007 Row Test series were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC. 

 

Based on the results of the study, ten clones were found to be either comparable or significantly higher than the check variety Phil 80-13 and comparable with Phil 75-44 in terms of tonnage and sugar yield. The clones also passed the selection criteria for smut and downy mildew resistance trials.

 

The clones also passed the selection criteria for smut and downy mildew resistance trials

 

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 07- 0181, Phil 07- 0027, Phil 07- 0573, Phil 07- 0105, Phil 07- 0275, Phil 07- 0025, Phil 07- 2081, Phil 07- 2203, Phil 07- 0199, Phil 07- 0163.

 

·         Ratoon Performance of Selected Phil 2000 Series 

Three recommended varieties Phil 00 -0881, Phil 00 2417 and Phil 00 2155 were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity. Phil 7544 was used as check variety.

 

In TC/ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties:  Phil 00- 0881 by 58.33% and 79.42%,   Phil 00- 2417 by 9.32% and 12.30%, Phil 00- 2155 by 41.90% and 19.21%, and Phil 7544 by 4.14% and 2.44%.

 

In LKG/TC, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following:  Phil 00 -0881 by 9.38%  and  12.15% ,  Phil 00- 2155 by 8.61%  and  9.16%, and  Phil 7544 by 8.24%  and  7.33%. Phil 00- 2417 had a 1.24% decrease in the first ratoon and 0.35% increase in the second ratoon.

 

In LKG/ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following:   Phil 00- 0881 by 62.53% and 82.28%, Phil 00 -2417 by 10.40% and 12.21%, Phil 00- 2155 by 47.27% and 26.95%, and Phil 7544 by 11.81% and 9.04%.

 

In the first ratoon, highest return on investment (ROI) of 3.85 was given by Phil 00- 2417 followed by Phil 7544 with 3.49, Phil 00 -2155 with 3.09 and Phil 00-0881 with 2.91. In the second ratoon, highest ROI of 1.90 was given by Phil 00- 2417 followed by Phil 7544 with 1.73, Phil 00 2155 with 1.68 and Phil 00- 0881 with 0.58.

 

Phil 00- 2417 with an ROI of 1.90 and Phil 00- 2155 with an ROI of 1.68 can still be maintained up to the second ratoon even with a 66.85% and 68.42% stool survival, respectively.  

·         Ratoon Performance of Selected Phil 2003 Series 

Two recommended varieties, Phil 03-0021 and Phil 03-1727 were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity. Phil 7544 was used as check variety.

In TC/Ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties: Phil 03-0021 by 10.08% and 19.73%, Phil 03-1727 by 11.45% and 14.14%, and Phil 7544 by 3.60% and 5.99%.

 

In LKg/TC, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following varieties: Phil 03-1721 by 0.5% and 6.18% and Phil 7544 by 2.76% and 8.84%. Phil 03-0021 had an increase of 10.11% in the first ratoon and 3.37% in the second ratoon.

 

In Lkg/Ha, a decrease in the first and second ratoon, respectively, were given by the following test varieties:  Phil 03-0021 by 0.65% and 16.74%, Phil 03-1727 by 11.90% and 19.40%, and Phil 7544 by 7.19% and 15.15%.

 

In the first ratoon, highest return on investment (R01) of 3.59 was given by Phil 03-1727 followed by Phil 7544 with 3.50 and Phil 03-0021 with 2.48. In the second ratoon, highest return on investment (R01) of 1.87 was given by Phil 03-0021 followed by Phil 03-1727 with 1.56 and Phil 7544 with 1.50.

 

Phil 03-0021 with an ROI of 1.87 and Phil 03-1727 with an ROI of 1.56 can still be maintained up to the second ratoon even with a 53.67% and 66.82% stool survival, respectively.

 

·         Yield Performance of Selected Sugarcane Varieties Under Waterlogged Conditions (Performance of varieties in poorly drained Soil)  

Fifteen selected sugarcane varieties were planted to determine the effects of natural waterlogged condition on their growth and yield response at SRA-LAREC.

 

The varieties were significantly different in number of millable stalks, cane tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha).  Among the test varieties, Phil 04-1011 had the most number of millable stalks per plot followedby Phil 80-13, Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081, Phil 74-64 and Phil 01-0295. The mean length and diameter of millable stalks of the test varieties were not significantly different under natural waterlogged condition.

 

In sucrose content the mean of the test varieties were not significantly different. Phil 7464 gave the highest TC/Ha comparable with nine other varieties. Phil 01-0295, Phil 74-64 and Phil 04-1011 produced significantly higher sugar yield.

 

Based on the results of the study none of the test varieties can be considered tolerant or resistant to waterlogged conditions.

 

·         Cane and Sugar Yields under Irrigated and Chicken Manure Compost Fertilized Soil (Organic Fertilization of Sugarcane)  

The study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation and levels of composted chicken manure fertilization on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 in the plant and first ratoon canes.

 

Treatments included with and without irrigation and five levels of compost fertilization based on N fertilizer recommendation, namely: 125%, 100%, 75%, 50% and 0%.

 

In the plant cane, tons cane (TC)/Ha was not affected by irrigation and different levels of compost fertilization. Means of irrigated canes was significantly higher than non-irrigated canes. Means from 75% to 125% levels of fertilization were significantly higher than the other treatment means. The LKg/TC was not affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization. The LKg/Ha was significantly affected by irrigation and fertilization levels. Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and   non-irrigated plots.

 

In the ratoon cane, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were both significantly affected by irrigation and levels of fertilization.   Compost fertilized plots were significantly higher than unfertilized plots in both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The LKg/TC was not also affected by both irrigation and levels of fertilization treatments.

  •   Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2012 Series

Thirty test clones from 2011   row test series were entered in the preliminary yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic performance with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on tonnage and sugar yield, six clones were found to be either significantly higher, comparable or significantly lower with the check variety Phil 8013 and Phil 7544. The clones also passed the selection criteria for disease resistance to smut and downy mildew. 

The clones which are recommended to undergo National Cooperative  Testing are Phil 2012-465, Phil 2012-1019, Phil 2012-11, Phil 2012 475, Phil  2012-1263 and Phil 2012-609.   

·         Screening of Phil 2011 Series for Resistance to Smut 

Thirty clones of the 2011 from LGAREC were plant and ratooned and tested for their reaction to sugarcane smut. 

      Rating of the thirty clones of 2011 series were as follows: five very highly resistant, namely, Phil 11-0131, Phil 11-0899, Phil 11-1371, Phil 11-1013 and Phil 11-1077; five highly resistant, Phil 11-0227, Phil 11-1367, Phil11-1693, Phil 11-0965 and Phil 11-1121; eleven intermediate resistant, Phil 11-0237, Phil 11-0745, Phil 11-0733, Phil 11-1725, Phil 11-1719, Phil 11-1585, Phil 11-0449, Phil 11-0813, Phil 11-0827, Phil11-1097, Phil 11-1711; six intermediate average, Phil 11- 0133, Phil 11-0365, Phil 11—1683, Phil 11-1075, Phil 11-1631, Phil 11-1051, one susceptible, Phil 11-0169, one  highly susceptible, Phil 11-1057 and one rated very highly susceptible which is Phil 11-1657. 

All clones of 2011 series tested in plant and ratoon cane were rated very highly resistant to very highly susceptible.  

·         Screening of Phil 2011 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew.

 

Ten clones of Phil 2011 series from LGAREC were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant cane.

 

Based on the results all ten clones of Phil 2011 series were rated very highly resistant. These clones are Phil 11-0365, Phil 11-1367, Phil 11-1725, Phil 11-1683, Phil 11-449, Phil 11-827, Phil 11-1097, Phil 11-1075, Phil 11-1051 and Phil 11-1077. 

·         Screening of Phil 2010 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew. 

Twelve clones of Phil 2010 series from LGAREC were screened and evaluated for resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

 

Among the twelve clones of 2010 series, elevenwere rated very highly resistant, namely, Phil 10-0427, Phil 10-0131, Phil 10-0645, Phil 10-0077, Phil 10-1051, Phil 10-0545, Phil 10-0317, Phil 0141, Phil 10-0085, Phil 10-0149 and Phil 10-0183. One clone, Phil 10-0107 was rated highly resistant.  

  • Performance of Selected Phil 2009 Series of Sugarcane Varieties in Four Mill Districts in Luzon

 Varietal response in terms of productivity is largely determined by soil factor, climatic conditions and cultural practices in the locality. Thus, yield performance and other agronomic responses of sugarcane varieties may vary from location to location according to adaptability.  In Luzon and Mindanao the mill districts differ in their agro-climatic conditions.  

Ten promising Phil 2009 series sugarcane varieties and two check varieties in each location were evaluated in four mill districts in Luzon. Phil 80-13 was used as national check while Phil 75-44 was used as the local check in Pampanga and Balayan and Phil 66-07 in Pensumil and Carsumco. The varieties were planted in a 6 rows by 9 meters plots in RCBD to evaluate their yield performance in plant cane only. This test aims to evaluate and identify promising varieties for adaptation in the different mill districts in Luzon having distinct agro-climatic conditions based on their yield performance and resistance to smut and downy mildew which are the two major diseases in Luzon.  

 Among the test varieties, Phil 2009-1867 showed the best yield performance against all check varieties. In tonnage (TC/Ha),   it was comparable to the two check varieties Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and Phil 80-13 and Phil 66-07 in Carsumco.  In Balayan and Pensumil it was comparable only to Phil 80-13 and Phil 66-07, respectively. It gave significantly higher sucrose content or the number of 50kg bags of raw sugar produced per ton cane (LKg/TC) than Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) than Phil 66-07 in Pensumil. It was comparable in LKg/TC to the two check varieties in Balayan and Pensumil and comparable in sugar yield to two check varieties in three mill districts.  In the gain-even-loss tally in three yield parameters, it has the fewest losses over the check varieties than the other test varieties.  

Phil 2009-1867 has a potential yield of 178.52 TC/Ha and 2.01 LKg/TC.  It is very highly resistant to both smut and downy mildew and did not flower in the four mill districts.   

·         Performance of selected Phil 2010 series in four mill districts in Luzon  

Ten promising Phil 2010 series sugarcane varieties were planted to evaluate their yield performance in the mill districts of Pampanga, Balayan, Pensumil and Carsumco in Luzon.  

Among the test varieties, Phil 2010-0107 showed the best yield performance against the check varieties.  In tonnage (TC/Ha),   it was comparable to both check varieties in the four mill districts. It produced significantly higher sucrose content (LKg/TC) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) than VMC 84-524 in Carsumco. It produced the highest mean tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield across locations. 

Phil 2010-0107 has a potential yield of 143.67 TC/Ha and 2.21 LKg/TC.  It is intermediate resistant to smut, highly resistant to downy mildew and very sparse flowerer. 

·         Ratoon Performance of Recommended Phil 2007 Series Varieties 

Two selected varieties  from 2007 series,  Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07 -0243 and standard check  variety Phil 7544  were observed in the ratoon crop to determine their ratooning capacity.  

In TC/ha, of the Phil 07-0221, there was an increase in first and second ratoon.  Phil 07-0243 and Phil 7544 increased in first ratoon but decreased in second ratoon. On the third ratoon all varieties decreased.  

In LKG/TC, all varieties have same trend in sucrose content during plant cane, second and third ratoon but in first ratoon all the varieties decreased.  

In Lkg/Ha, Phil 07-0221 and Phil 7544 increased in the first and second ratoon while Phil 07-0243 decreased in the first ratoon but increased in the second ratoon. All varieties the decreased in the third ratoon.  

In the first, second and third ratoon, Phil 07-0221 had an average return on investment (ROI) of 1.33, Phil 07-0423 with 1.38 and Phil 7544 with 1.36.     Phil 07-0221 and Phil 07-0423 can still be maintained up to the third ratoon.  

·         Performance of Newly Released HYVs in Semi Commercial Production 

Phil 2000-1419 and Phil 2000-2155 were planted in 26 rows x 30 meters plots to test their yield performance in semi-commercial-scale production in the plant and ratoon cane. Phil 99-1973, a commercial variety, was also observed. 

Cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) decreased from plant to ratoon cane. Phil 2000-1419 has a high decrease of 31.15 TC/Ha and 23.20 Lkg/Ha, respectively, while Phil 2000-2155 gave a decrease of 4.65 TC/Ha and 6.21 Lkg/Ha. Sugar content of Phil 2000-2155 increased from plant to ratoon while Phil 2000-1419 and Phil 99-1793 both decreased.  

Phil 2000-1419 has a return of investment (ROI) of 0.64 and 0.53 in the plant and ratoon cane, respectively, Phil 2000-2155 has 0.61 and 0.64, while Phil 99-1793 had 0.60 for both plant and ratoon.  On the average, Phil 2000-2155 gave the highest ROI. 

·         Evaluation of Selected HYVs for Early Milling at Pensumil Mill District  

 Nine selected High Yielding Varieties (HYV’s) and a local variety, Phil 6607, were entered in the evaluation using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)  to identify which of these sugarcane varieties give satisfactory cane and sugar yield during early milling season and under natural climatic condition in PENSUMIL Mill District.  

 Phil 00-2569 maintained having the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield in the crop cycle. Although Phil 04-0081 was comparable with Phil 00-2569 in TC/ha and LKG/ha in the plant cane, its yield parameters decreased abruptly in the first ratoon.    

Phil 93-1601 gave the lowest reduction from plant cane to first ratoon in cane yield (TC/ha), sugar rendement (LKG/ha) and sugar yield (LKG/ha). It obtained the second highest LKG/TC in the plant cane and ranked first in the first ratoon. Its sugar yield in the first ratoon was still comparable with Phil 00-2569.  

Phil 00-2569 and Phil 93-1601 are recommended for early milling and variety diversification in   PENSUMIL Mill District.  

·         Growth and Yield Performance of Ten High Yielding Varieties of Sugarcane for Early Milling at Carsumco Mill District  

The study determined the growth and yield performance often HYVs   for early milling at    Carsumco   Mill District.  

Planting in November for early milling influenced some growth parameters which affected the TC/Ha and LKg/ha yield parameters. In both plant and ratoon canes, the Lkg/TC of the varieties were comparable.

Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081 and Phil 99-1793 produced higher TC/Ha which also gave higher LKg/Ha in the plant cane.  The LKg/Ha of the varieties were comparable in the ratoon cane.  

·         Yield Performance of Selected Sugarcane Varieties Under Waterlogged Conditions  

Fifteen selected sugarcane varieties were planted to determine the effects of natural waterlogged condition on their growth and yield response at SRA-LAREC.

The varieties were significantly different in number of millable stalks, cane tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha).  Among the test varieties, Phil 04-1011 had the most number of millable stalks per plot followed by Phil 80-13, Phil 00-2569, Phil 04-0081, Phil 74-64 and Phil 01-0295.  The mean length and diameter of millable stalks of the test varieties were not significantly different under natural waterlogged condition. 

In sucrose content the mean of the test varieties were not significantly different. Phil 7464 gave the highest TC/Ha comparable with nine other varieties. Phil 01-0295, Phil 74-64 and Phil 04-1011 produced significantly higher sugar yield. 

Based on the results of the study none of the test varieties can be considered tolerant or resistant to waterlogged conditions. 

·         Cane and Sugar Yields of Phil Varieties Under Chicken Manure Compost Fertilization 

The cane and sugar yields of  10 each of selected  Phil series 2002, 2005 and 2006 varieties (Set 1) and selected Phil series 2008 varieties (Set 2) including Phil 7544 and Phil 8013 for each set were tested under  chicken manure compost  fertilization in the plant and ratoon crops. 

In the Set 1 test, Phil 8013 generally performed better  in  both TC/Ha  and  LKg/Ha in the  plant  and  ratoon   crops  while Phil  7544 showed better performance in the  ratoon   crop.  The other varieties which showed potential to produce high LKg/Ha in the ratoon crop are Phil 02-421 and Phil 05-2525.  Compost fertilization did not influence the LKg/TC of the varieties. 

In the  Set 2 test,  Phil 8013  and Phil 7544  consistently  gave better  cane  and sugar  yields in  the plant  and  ratoon  crops.  Other varieties with potential to produce high LKg/Ha in the plant and ratoon crops are Phil 08-0909, Phil 08-1123 and Phil 08-1253.                             

For the two sets of tests, Phil 8013 consistently gave better TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/Ha. 

·         Effect of Method of Cutting and Delay in Planting on Germination of Three HYVs  

The study determined the influence of slanting and perpendicular methods of cutting canepoints, and length of delay (0, 3,7,10 days) in the planting of Phil 00-2569, Phil 00-2155, and Phil 99-1793.  

Cutting methods did not affect percent canepoint germination (%). High mean percent germination (95.84%) was observed with no delay (0 day) in planting canepoints after cutting and was even higher (98.49%) up to 3 days of delay. The highest percent canepoint germination was observed from Phil 99-1793 among the three varieties tested (92.21%). 

Cane yield (TC/Ha) was also not affected by the cutting methods and the highest mean cane yield was observed from a 3-day delay of planting after cutting (115.64 TC/Ha). Among the three varieties, Phil 00-2569 gave the highest mean cane yield of 203.89 TC/Ha. 

Sucrose content (Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (Lkg/Ha) were both not affected by the cutting method. Highest mean sucrose content (2.17 Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (250.46 Lkg/Ha) was observed from a 3-day delay of planting after cutting, and the Phil 99-1793 variety gave the highest mean sucrose content with 2.07 Lkg/TC while Phil 00-2569 has the highest mean sugar yield of 239.67 Lkg/Ha, among the three varieties tested.  

The effect of cutting methods statistically has no significant effect on all parameters observed. Delaying the number of days of delay of planting after cutting from 0-day to a 3-day delay can give higher % germination, TC/Ha, Lkg/TC, and TC/Ha while the effect of variety on the parameters tested are variety-specific.  

·         Performance of Selected HYVs in Wet Season Planting at Pampanga Mill District  

Ten high yielding varieties were planted at the Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center using randomized complete block design to determine their adaptability to wet season planting.  

Results showed that among the varieties, Phil 75-44, Phil 93-1601, Phil 97-3933, Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-1419, Phil 2000-2155, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2003-0021 and Phil 2004-0081 with the exception of Phil 03-1727 can be planted during the wet season under LAREC conditions. The varieties generally exhibited high mean tonnage and average sucrose content.  

·         Effects of Different Patterns and Densities of Planting on Canepoint Production of Phil 99-1793  

The experiment was conducted at the Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC) to find out the best combination of planting patterns and densities for canepoint propagation of Phil 99-1793. 

Planting pattern and density significantly affected the germination, tiller count and number of millable stalks of Phil 99-1793 in the plant cane. The height of the variety was not significantly affected. 

The interaction did not significantly affect the stool count in the ratoon crop but significantly affected the number of millable stalks. 

In the plant cane and ratoon crop, planting pattern and density did not significantly affect the canepoint production of Phil 99-1793. 

On the average, Return on Investment (ROI) was highest with single row planting in 1 meter furrow distance at planting density of 4.5 lacsa per hectare. 

·         Sugarcane Production with Chicken Manure Compost Fertilization 

The study determined the effects of levels of chicken manure compost fertilization on the growth and cane and sugar yields of Phil 99-1793. The compost test levels were equivalent to 0 (without compost) and 70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the recommended nitrogen fertilization based on soil analysis of the experimental area. 

In the plant cane, the application of chicken manure compost did not influence the growth parameters to include percent germination of canepoints, number of tillers/plot, plant height at 7 MAP, number of millable stalks/plot, stalk length and stalk diameter.

The insignificant influence on all the growth parameters of the application of manure composts were also observed on cane yield per ha (TC/Ha), sugar recovery per ton cane (LKg/TC) and sugar yield per ha (LKg/Ha).       

The test was done in the plant crop where the long term effects of manure compost application in improving the physical and chemical properties of the sandy loam soil of the experimental area to produce significant influence may not have been fully realized. 

·         Efficacy of GRO Plant Booster on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane (FPA-Bio Efficacy Test)  

The efficacy trial was laid-out in the experimental farm of the Sugar Regulatory Administration – Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (SRA-LAREC) in Paguiruan, Floridablanca, and Pampanga based on the approved Experimental Unit Permit (EUP) from the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA). 

The study determined the effects of GRO Plant Booster on the growth and yield of sugarcane for purposes of product registration for label expansion for sugarcane. 

The Recommended Rate of GRO Plant Booster (RR-GRO) or 1.5RR-GRO each applied alone or in combination with the Recommended Rate of Chemical Fertilizer (RR-CF) did not influence the growth and yield parameters.    

Application of either RR-GRO or 1.5 RR-GRO in combination with ½RR-CF had the same effects as RR-CF on plant height at 7 months after planting (MAP). Combining ½ RR-CF with 1.5 RR-GRO gave comparable effects on length of millable stalks and cane yield (TC/Ha) with RR-CF. 

The nine treatments were comparable on tiller count, plant height at 5 MAP, millable stalk diameter, number of millable stalks and LKg/TC. 

On sugar yield (LKg/Ha), GRO Plant Booster did not show effect at RR or 1.5RR or in combinations with RR-CF or ½ RR-CF. 

GRO Plant Booster did not show effectiveness   as supplemental fertilizer for either RR-CF or ½ RR-CF in sugar production.

·         Efficacy of Hyfer Plus (Growth Enhancer) Foliar Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane (FPA-Bioefficacy Test) 

The efficacy trial was planted in the experimental farm of the Sugar Regulatory Administration – Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (SRA-LAREC) in Paguiruan, Floridablanca, Pampanga based on the approved Experimental Unit Permit (EUP) from the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA). 

The study determined the effects of Hyper Plus (Growth enhancer) on the growth and yield of sugarcane for purposes of product registration for label expansion for sugarcane. 

Application of one half of the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR-CF) in combination with Hyper Plus in full dose (RR-HP) or one half of recommended rate (1/2 RR-HP) had the same effects with the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF) in increasing the millable stalk length and caneyield per hectare TC/Ha.  

Hyper plus foliar fertilizer is significantly effective in improving sucrose content (LKg/TC) than the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF). On sugar yield (LKg/Ha), application of one half recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR-CF) together with the Hyper plus in full (RR-HP) or 1/2 of the recommended rate of Hyper plus (1/2 RR-HP) also appeared as good as the influence of recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF).     

With the above mentioned results on the comparative performance of the application of Hyper Plus at full (RR-HP) or one half of recommended rates (1/2 RR-HP) in combination with one half of recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (1/2 RR- CF), and the comparable effects of said treatments with recommended rate of chemical fertilizer (RR-CF) on some growth and yield parameters, Hyper Plus has the potential for use as supplemental fertilizer in sugarcane production.

La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

 

·      Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

Thirty Phil 2007 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut from April 2011 to March 2012.  In the plant cane, 9 clones were rated very highly resistant,7 highly resistant,2 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 1,susceptible, 1 highly susceptible, and 1 very highly susceptible. In the ratoon, 5 clones were rated highly resistant, 8 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 2 very highly susceptible to the disease. 

·      Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) 

Thirty Phil 2006 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut from March 2011 to February 2012.  In the plant cane, 28 clones were rated very highly resistant and 2 were highly resistant.In the ratoon, 22 clones were rated very highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 2 resistant and 1 intermediate resistant to the disease.  

·      Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series

 

Thirty Phil 2007 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. One clone was intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 16 very highly susceptible to the disease. The test started in April 2011 and ended in March 2012.

 

·      Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series

    

Thirty Phil 2006 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Two clones were resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 11 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible to the disease. The test started in March 2011 and ended in February 2012.

 

·      Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2007 Series

 

     Thirty clones of the Phil 2007 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Twenty six clones were found very highly resistant, while 4 clones were highly resistant to the disease. The test started in April 2011 and ended in March 2012.

 

·      Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2006 Series

 

Thirty clones of the Phil 2006 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. All the clones tested were found very highly resistant to the disease. The test started in March 2011 and ended in February 2012.

 

·         Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2010 Series

 

The 2010 hybridization work which produced a total of 57,419 seedlings from 200 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 23 to July 13, 2011. From these seedlings, 43,170 survived in the field or a survival rate of 75.18 percent.

 

Selection in March to April 2012 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 778 promising clones from 149 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.80 percent for seedlings and 74.50 percent for the crosses.

 

All selected promising clones per cross were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test.

 

·         Propagation II, Phil 2007 Series

Thirty selected varieties of Phil 2007 Series were planted and propagated in SRA-LGAREC from November 2011 to May 2012 in preparation for Propagation III, the source of planting materials for the Ecologic Test in different locations nationwide. From these varieties, eight were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test to be laid out in November 2012. The eight varieties selected and to be propagated in Propagation III are: Phil 07-57-0573, Phil 07-01-0027, Phil 07-43-0411, Phil 07-234-2319, Phil 07-16-0243, Phil 07-55-0563, Phil 07-200-2081 and Phil 07-40-0359. 

·         Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2008 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon)

 

One hundred eighty seven Phil 2008 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane from August 2011 to June 2012. In the plant cane, 185 clones were considered very highly resistant, 1 was highly resistant and another one clone was resistant to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 169 clones were very highly resistant, 10 were highly resistant, 4 were resistant, and another 4 clones were intermediate resistant to the disease. Based on plant cane rating, all the 187 test clones were recommended for further multiplication and testing. 

 

·         Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2009 Series at Row Test  Stage

 

Three hundred fifty Phil 2009 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut resistance from January to June 2012.  Results showed that 146 clones were very highly resistant, 27 highly resistant, 28 resistant, 17 intermediate resistant, 13 intermediate average, 8 intermediate susceptible, 8 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. Ninety four clones with less than 50% germination rated very highly resistant. Two hundred eighteen clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.

·         Multiplication II (Phil 2008 Series) 

 

Two hundred fifty four Phil 2008 series clones were multiplied (M1) and simultaneously screened for smut from January to June 2011.  After six months, 233 clones were found resistant to the disease and considered for further multiplication in the next stage (M2) and for simultaneous screening against downy mildew. Only 187 of the selected clones were actually passed to the next stage because of insufficient planting materials.

 

·         Pollination, Sowing, and Seedling care – Phil 2011 Series 

During the 2011 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with peak of full emergence observed on the last week of October 2011.

 Pollination work which started October 16 and ended November 21, 2011 utilized 99 female and 63 male selected parents. A total of 290 arrows from 211 biparental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 289 arrows from 211 biparental crosses were harvested with one arrow destroyed.

 The sowing of fuzz in 211 seedboxes from November 16 to December 10, 2011 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 208 biparental crosses consisting of 286 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 86.26 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 83 biparental crosses were pricked in 303 seedboxes. 

Seedlings in 511 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivationprior to transplanting in May and June 2012.   

·         Propagation I, Phil 2008 Series

 

Thirty promising Phil 2008 Series clones/varieties were propagated in SRA-LGAREC from April to October 2012. These were cutbacked six (6) months after planting. The canepoints produced were further propagated to increase number of planting materials needed for Ecologic test in different locations nationwide. Ratoons of these clones/varieties were also maintained and cultured to facilitate additional supply of planting materials

 

·         SVIP Germplasm Collection

 

A total of 1,287 sugarcane varieties were planted in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2012. Ten new Phil varieties from the Ecologic Test were added to the collection; however, another ten old Phil varieties did not survive in the germplasm collection. Eight hundred twenty clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically.  Brix, stalk diameter and number of tillers were the data gathered on the year 2012 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials.

 

·         Mass production of Trichogramma Strips for the Control of Borers 

From November 2011 to October 31, 2012, the project produced 20,200strips of Trichogramma. A total of 10,793 strips were distributed to clients as follows: sugarcane planters – 7,371 strips;rice farmers – 266 strips; rice/corn farmers – 520; rice/sugarcane planters – 2,533 strips; sugarcane/vegetable raisers – 40 strips and sugarcane researchers – 63 strips. The rest of the strips were used as starters.

·         Efficacy of Some Commercial Alternative Fertilizers for Growth and Yield 99-1793

 

The study was conducted at the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC) from December 2009- December 2011. It followed a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates of 6 x 9 meters plots. Nine commercially available alternative fertilizers were evaluated to determine its efficacy and economic viability.  The fertilizers were applied following product’s protocol. Test variety used was Phil 99-1793.

 

All test fertilizers gave statistically comparable results relative to the control (Recommended rate of NPK) on all growth and yield parameters except on plant height at three months after planting using AF2 in combination with 2 bags 16-20-0, 4 bags urea and 4 bags potash having significantly highest value.

 

AF9 in combination with recommended rates of inorganic fertilizers gave the highest return of investments (ROI) among the test products both on plantcane and ratoon crops. 

 

·         Response of Sugarcane to Acetobacter diazotrophicus Applied in Different Volumes & Frequencies (Plant cane)

 

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in a Guimbalaon sandy loam soil from November 2010 to November 2012. This was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times, (1) to determine the influence of partitional spraying of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus strain 10071 on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569 and (2) to determine the influence of spraying frequency on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569.

 

Highest mean sugar yield of Phil 99-1793 and Phil 2000-2569 plant cane (170.47 LKg/Ha) was obtained with acetobacter applied one month after planting (MAP) and two months after planting, significantly higher than the control with 140.3 LKg/Ha but comparable with 1,2, and 3 MAP; 1, 2, 3 and  4 MAP; and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 MAP spraying with 164.39 LKg/Ha, 164.16 LKg/Ha and 159.20 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

Phil 2000-2569 plant cane gave higher mean sugar yield of 200.45 LKg/Ha compared with Phil 99-1793 with 145.46 LKg/Ha on treatment where acetobacter was applied 1, 2, 3 and 4 MAP., while the lowest sugar yield on both varieties was on the control without acetobacter.

 

Phil 2000-2569 plant cane average mean sugar yield of 184.4 LKg/ha was significantly higher than Phil 99-1793 with 135.0 LKg/Ha. The sugar yield difference was 49.4 LKg/Ha.

 

Phil 2000-2569 and Phil 99-1793 gave an average sugar yields ranging from 107.15 to 111.45 Lkg/Ha with acetobacter, higher than the control without acetobacter (100.59 LKg/Ha).

 

Regardless of volume and frequencies Phil 2000-2569 gave higher yield (130.7 LKg/Ha) than Phil 99-1793 (92.5 LKg./Ha) obtained on treatment with acetobacter applied 1 and 2 MAP and 1, 2 and 3 MAP respectively. The lowest sugar yield on both varieties was on the control without acetobacter. Phil 2000 2569 ratoon average mean sugar yield of 126.85 LKg/ha was significantly higher than Phil 99-1793 with 88.33 LKg/Ha. The sugar yield difference was 38.52 LKh/Ha.

 

Plant cane average mean LKg/TC of Phil 99-1793 (2.20) was higher than Phil 2000-2569 (2.18), however statistically comparable. In contrast with the plantcane, average mean LKg/TC of Phol 2000-2569 ratoon (2.25) was higher than Phil 99-1793 (2.13) but statistically comparable.

 

Highest mean tonnage yield of both varieties in both crop was higher with acetobacter application, sprayed 1 and 2 MAP, higher than the control without acetobacter.

 

Phil 2000-2569 gave higher mean tonnage yield compared with Phil 99-1793 both on plant and ratoon cane.

 

Higher tonnage of Phil 2000-2569 compared with Phil 99-1793 was due to heavier stalks and more number of millable stalks of the former variety.

 

·         Response of Phil 99-1793 to inoculation of different strains of Acetobacter diazotrophicus with or without mudpress application (Plant cane).

 

The study was conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental in Guimbalaon sandy loam soil from November 2010 to November 2012. This was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times, (1) to evaluate the influence of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus strain 10069, 10071, 10078, and 10081 alone or in combination with mudpress on the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793 and (2) to identify the best strain(s) of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus that can improve the growth and yield of Phil 99-1793. 

Phil 99-1793 plant crop highest mean sugar yiled of 156.95 LKg/Ha was obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10069 (152.48 LKg/Ha), strain 10078 (149.34 LKg/Ha) and strain 10081 (147.29 LKg/Ha), but significantly higher than the control with 115.45 LKg/Ha. On the ratoon crop, although statistically comparable, mean sugar yield of acetobacter treated canes ranging from 110.15 to 119.36 LKg/Ha were likewise higher than the untreated (103.52 LKg/Ha). 

Plant cane sugar yield difference between mudpress treated and untreated was 8.16 LKg/Ha, while on the ratoon, 6.44 LKg/Ha.  Plant cane sugar yield difference between acetobacter applied and unapplied was 41.50 LKg/Ha (strain 10071), 37.03 LKg/Ha (strain10069), 33,89 LKg/Ha (strain 10078) and 31.84 LKg/Ha (strain 10081). On the ratoon, sugar yield difference was 7.62 LKg/Ha (strain 10069), 15.84 LKg/Ha (strain 10071, 7.97 LKg/Ha (strain 10078) and 6.63 LKg/Ha (strain 10081). 

Plant cane highest average mean tonnage of 74.05 TC/Ha was obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10078 (70.50 TC/Ha), strain 10069 (69.47) and strain 10081 (69.39 TC/Ha), but significantly higher than the control with 46.35 TC/Ha. 

Ratoon crop highest mean tonnage of 53. 17TC/Ha wa likewise obtained on strain 10071, statistically comparable with strain 10078 (49.55 TC/Ha, strain 1006 (49.79 TC/Ha) and strain 10081 (49.28 TC/Ha) and the control (56.04 TC/Ha). 

Mudpress in combination with the different strains gave significantly higher tonnage mean than without mudpress in plpant crop (70.64 TC/Ha against 65.14 TC/Ha) and ratoon crop (50.97 TC/Ha against 48.28 TC/Ha). 

With or without mudpress, strain 10071 consistently gave higher mean tonnage and sugar yield on plant crop and ratoon crop. 

Phil 99-1793 plant cane applied with different strains of acetobacter exhibited higher mean LKg/TC than the control, however in the ratoon no definite trend was observed. Mudpress treated canes gave lower LKg/TC (2.10) than the untreated canes (2.15) in the plant crop, however in the ratoon slightly higher LKg/TC was observed in the mudpress treated canes.

 

Highest average net benefit of Php 56,686.26 was obtained with acetobacter diazotrophicus (strain 10071) application. The net benefit difference over the control was Php 15,400.08.

 

·         Ratoon performance Phil 94-0913, Phil 97-0693, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-3933 and Phil 98-0255.

 

The study was conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from October 2007 to October 2011 to determine the ratooning capacity of Phil 94-0913,Phil 97-0693,Phil 97-2041 Phil 97-3501, Phil 97-3933 and Phil 98-0255. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design replicated four times using 6m x 9m experimental plots.

 

Cane tonnage, sugar yield and sugar rendement did not show significant differences among test varieties in the ratoon crops.

 

Phil 94-0913 obtained the highest four year average tonnage of 81.48 TC/Ha, LKg/TC of 2.11, and sugar yield of 174.30 LKg/Ha.

 

Tonnage yield mean of the six varieties were 112.90 TC/Ha for plant cane, 76.78 TC/Ha for the first ratoon and 66.03 and 51.32 TC/Ha respectively for second and third ratoon.

 

Mean average sugar yield of the six varieties were 246.16, 161.60, 137.14 and 93.38 LKg/ha in plant cane, first, second and third ratoon respectively.

 

The average reduction of tonnage ranged from 30.1%- 49%, while sugar yield reduction ranged from 29.66%-52.77%.

 

Phil 97-3933 was the best in performance among the test varieties in first and second ratoon due to lowest percentage reduction in cane and sugar yield and an increase in sugar rendement. 

Compared with the other test varieties, Phil 94-0913 obtained the highest total net benefit of Php 418,487.80 in four croppings. 

·         Ratoon performance of new sugarcane HYVs (Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0925, and Phil 2002-0359.

 

The experiments were conducted at Sugar Regulatory Administration-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from February 2011 to February 2014. The study aims to evaluate the ratoon performance of the new sugarcane HYV’s, Phil 99-1793, Phil 2000-0791, Phil 2000-2569, Phil 2001-0295and Phil 2002-0359. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design using 6m x 9m experimental plots, replicated 4 times.

 

Plant cane tonnage did not vary among test varieties but data showed that Phil 2000-2569 obtained the highest cane tonnage (109.61 TC/Ha) and the lowest cane tonnage was noted in Phil 2001-0259 (84.78 TC/Ha).

 

First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly obtained the highest cane tonnage (103.43) but result was comparable with Phil 2000-2569 (98.16 TC/Ha) and Phil 99-1793 (93.59 TC/Ha). Phil 2002-0359 had 83.49 TC/Ha, while Phil 2001- 0259 consistently gave the lowest cane tonnage (66.48 TC/Ha). It was noted that there was a reduction of 10.73% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was due to its longer stalks compared to the other test varieties.

 

Second ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 consistently got the highest cane tonnage (89.27 TC/Ha) but statistically comparable with Phil 99-1793 (77.63 TC/Ha), and significantly higher than Phil 2000-2569 (73.75 TC/Ha), Phil 2002-0359 (55.52 TC/Ha) and Phil 2001-0259 with the lowest cane tonnage of (31.82 TC/Ha). There was a great reduction of about 34.22% in the mean value of cane tonnage. High cane tonnage of Phil 2000-0791 was likewise attributed to longer stalk per plot and most number of millable stalks per plot. 

Sugar yield did not differ among varieties on the plant cane but differed in the first and second ratoon. Sugar yield had a mean value of 210.22 LKg/Ha in the plant crop while the first ratoon had a mean value of 197.51 thereby having a reduction of 6.05 percent. First ratoon crop showed that Phil 2000-0791 significantly produced the highest sugar yield of 231.73 LKg/Ha but statistically similar with Phil 2000-2569 (214.44), Phil 99-1793 (211.45) and Phil 2002-0359 (193.87). The lowest LKg/Ha was still noted on Phil 2001-0295 (136.04 LKg/Ha). 

Second ratoon crop likewise exhibited significant results in sugar yield among test varieties. Sugar yield had a mean value of 152.15 LKG/Ha and the reduction of 27.62% over the plant cane was obtained. Phil 2000-0791 consistently produced the highest sugar yield of 210.71 LKG/Ha, statistically similar with Phil 99-1793 with 181.10 LKG/Ha but significantly higher than the other test varieties. The lowest sugar yield was still observed in Phil 2001-0295 (67.55 LKG/Ha).

 

Sucrose content of the plant crop significantly differed among test varieties with Phil 99-1793 obtaining the highest LKg/TC (2.33), comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.20) and Phil 2002-0359 (2.17) and statistically higher than Phil 2001-0295 (2.04) and Phil 2000-2569 (1.91). Sucrose content of the plant crop had a mean value of 2.13 LKg/TC.

 

First ratoon crop LKg/TC ranged from 2.06 to 2.32 LKg/TC with a mean value of 2.21, higher than the plant cane by 3.62 percent. It was noted that Phil 2002-0359 obtained the highest LKG/TC on the first ratoon (2.32), however statistically comparable with Phil 2000-0791 (2.25 LKg/TC), Phil 99-1793 (2.26 LKg/TC) and Phil 2000-2569 (2.18 LKg/TC) but statistically higher than Phil 2001-0296 (2.06).

Second ratoon sucrose content ranged from 2.07 LKg/TC to 2.45 LKg/TC and had a mean value of 2.29 which was higher than the plant crop by 6.99 percent. Phil 2002-0359 gave the highest LKg/TC (2.45), comparable with Phil 99-1793 (2.33) and Phil 2000-0791 (2.37) and statistically higher than Phil 2000-2569 (2.24) and Phil 2001-0295 (2.07).

Phil 2000-0791 is considered a good ratooner, giving the highest cane and sugar yield and had a lesser percent yield reduction when compared to other test varieties in the first and second ratoon, however it is best recommended up to the second ratoon only.  

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2011)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2011)

Luzon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LAREC)

  • Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2006 Series. Macamos P., N. Guiyab, V. Serrano, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

Thirty test clones from Phil 2005-2006 Row Test series entered the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC. In terms of sugar yield and disease resistance, nine est clones were significantly higher or comparable to both or either check varieties Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 and resistant to downy mildew. Some selections will undergo re-screening to smut for verification.

Recommended to undergo ecological testing are clones from Phil 06-0647, Phil 05-0315, Phil 05-1681, Phil 05-1783, Phil 05-2057, Phil 05-2191, Phil 05-2335, Phil 05-2525 and Phil 05-2585.

  •  Screening of Phil 2005 series for Resistance to Smut. Casupanan, A., V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra

Thirty clones of the Phil 2005 series from LGAREC and two check varieties were planted, rationed and screened for reaction to sugarcane smut.

Results indicated that two (2) were very highly resistant (Phil 05-1379 and Phil 05-2151), seven (7) were highly resistant (Phil 05-55, Phil 05-175, Phil 05-483, Phil 05-645, Phil 05-715, Phil 05-1197, and Phil 05-3635), three (3) were resistant (Phil 05-309, Phil 05-329 and Phil 05-1383), six (6) were intermediate resistant (Phil 05-121, Phil 05-245, Phil 05-361, Phil 05-597, Phil 05-603 and Phil 05-1707) three (3) were intermediate average (Phil 05-87, Phil 05-111 and Phil 05-2167) and other nine were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

  •  Screening of Phil 2004 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew. Serrano, V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra

Ten test clones and ratoon canes from Phil 2004 series were screend and evaluated for resistance to downy mildew. Six (6) were very highly resistant (Phil 04-0691, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-1889, Phil 04-1981 and Phil 04-2249), three (3) were highly resistant (Phil 04-0881, Phil 04-1533 and Phil 04-2319) and one was resistant (Phil 04- 1719).

  • Effects of Calcitic Lime Application on Soil Properties and Sugar Yields. Burcer, A., M. Guevarra, B. Manlapaz, L. Yarte and A. Bacani.

The application of 2, 4, 6 tons/Ha., calcitic lime (CaCO3) was tested on Angeles fine sandy loam at LAREC to determine the effects on some soil properties and cane and sugar yields of Phil 87-27, Phil 90-1237 and Phil 93-1601.

Applying 2, 4, 6 tons/Ha. Of lime improved the soil pH, organic matter and Phosphorus, potassium and calcium content in the 5 cropping seasons.

Four and six tons/Ha. Calcitic lime significantly increased cane tonnage (TC/Ha.) and sugar yields (LKg/Ha) of the three test varieties.

Rates of four and six tons/Ha. Calcitic lime gave higher return on investment (ROI) than the other rates in the 5 cropping seasons.

La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC)

Research findings on Sugarcane Variety Improvement and Pest Management studies are:

  •  Phil 2004-1011 and Phil 2004-0827 are the two varieties recommended for commercial propagation and release. The two varieties passed the ecological test and are high in tonnage, medium to high in sucrose content and is very sparse in flowering, while resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot.
  •  In the preliminary yield test for Phil 2006 series ten top varieties were selected as entries to the Ecological test this season. These are: Phil 06-16-315, Phil 06-50-647, Phil 06-202-1681, Phil 274-2299, Phil 06-223-1899, Phil 06-241-2119, Phil 06-256-2191, Phil 06-274-2287, Phil 06-274-2289 and Phil 06-292-2525.
  •  The Phil 2010 Series Breeding Program produced 224 arrows from 203 bi-parental crosses using 52 female 46 male selected parents from Germplasm Collection.

Research finding on Production Technology and Crop Management studies are:

  •  The four-year data on the study of “Organic Fertilization in Sugarcane”, showed that highest tonnage of Phil94-0913 was consistently observed on the application of 50% NPK recommended rate compared to the unfertilized control. Phil 93-0913 applied with recommended rate (105-105-120) NPK/ha produced the highest sugar yield of 194.2LKg/Ha in the plant cane. The four year application of 50% RR-NPK + 10tons organic materials, like mudpress, gave the highest total benefit of Php 465,932.90. The highest benefit was consistently obtained on three ratoons.
  •  In the evaluation of the “Effect of In-Field Vermicomposting Using Various Organic Materials on the Yield of Plant and Ratoon Crop of Phil 94-0913”, results showed that application of ½ of the recommended rate of fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer materials like chicken dung or mudpress composted in the field and applied with African Night Crawler gave comparable yields with the recommended rate of fertilizer.
  •  In evaluating the “Efficacy of Different Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF) and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Plant and Ratoon”, it was observed that using 50% of the recommended rate of fertilizer + Acetobacter 1 produced the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield. LKg/TC did not differ in all other combinations in both plant and ratoon.
  • In a study of “Different Organic Substitutes Combined with Reduced Inorganic Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Phil 97-3933 Ratoons”, it was found out that among the organic fertilizers, BOKASHI 3 was the best, while among the BNFs combined with 1 ton/ha Mudpress, the mixture of the three BNFs was the best. Furthermore, very minimal improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil was observed after each cropping, therefore yearly application of any of the materials used is recommended in order to sustain the nutrient requirements of the succeeding crops.
  • Results of the study on the “Effect of Boron Application”, under a limited NPK application in Guimbalaon Soil improved yields of Phil 98-0255.  There was slight improvement in yields when NPK was sufficient.  Boron has a very narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, therefore it is recommended that boron fertilization will be tested in different soil types to determine the efficacy of this micronutrient and to determine the rate that will give maximum net benefit.
  • The application of “Nutrisphere-N (N enhancer) and Avail (P enhancer) of Phil 99-1793”, gave higher tonnage and sugar yield than farmer’s practice of using urea and 18-46-0. Furthermore, there were also high N and P concentrations on TVD leaves of Phil 99-1793 at sixth month of growth, but was not a guarantee of high yield at harvest. Highest net benefit of Php 162,894.59 was obtained on treatment where the source of N and P was urea and Avail. 
  • The application of Biological Nitrogen Fixer Isolates with and without nitrogen combination was also conducted using Phil 97-3933. Data showed the application of biological nitrogen fixers gave significant results on plant height, stalk length and diameter but not on yield of Phil 97-3933.

Abstract of Completed Researches (2010)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2010)

LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LGAREC) IN LA CARLOTA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

Research findings are:

Phil 03-1389 is recommended for commercial propagation and released.  It is a cross between Phil 89-36-0455 and Phil 88-620-1413. The variety passed the ecological test and was observed to perform best in Bais Mill district.  Phil 03-1389 is a high tonnage, medium to high sucrose in content and very sparse flowering variety.  It is resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot.

 

In the preliminary yield test for Phil 2005 series clones, top promising varities were selected as entries to the ecological test.  These are Phil 05-0055, Phil 05-0587, Phil 05-0645, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-2083, Phil 05-2151 and Phil 05-2311.

One hundred fifty (150) test clones from Phil 2006 series were found resistant to downy mildew.  Disease screening for other major disease had to be deferred for next year due to the effect of El Niño phenomenon.

In the row test for Phil 2007 series, 220 clones from 95 crosses were selected and 218 clones forwarded to the diseases screening for major diseases of sugarcane

In the single seedling plot test for Phil 2008 series, 1,229 clones from 212 biparental crosses were selected as entries to the row test this year.

The Phil 2009 series breeding program produced 314 clones from 253 biparental crosses using 76 female and 67 male selected parents.

In five croppings of Phil 93-2349 in Guimbalaon sandy loam soil fertilized with different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers, it was observed that application of rock phosphate (as source of P fertilizer) plus inorganic N and K, produced the highest tonnage ranging from 87.39– 93.95 TC/ha, highest Lkg/TC of 2.01–2.14 and highest Lkg/ha of 180.60– 200.21.  Five crop year data indicated that 25% to 50% reduction of the recommended NPK supplemented with organic materials, lime or rock phosphate have not lowered the yield of Phil 93-2349.

Four crop year data showed that vermicompost (2 tons/ha) in combination with the recommended rate (RR) of NPK gave the highest TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha both on plant and ratoon crop (first and 2nd croppings) while on the 3rd and 4th croppings highest yield were obtained with application of the RR plus 4 tons/ha vermicompost using the variety Phil 94-0913.  Soil organic matter improved every cropping with an average increase of 1.03% in four years.  Soil pH likewise improved, while availability of other nutrients decreased.

Vermicompost at the rate of 5,10 and 15 tons/ha replace the RR of fertilizer applied to Phil 94-0913 test variety, improvement in yield can already be attained with only 5 tons/ha application.  Increasing the amount to 10 or 15 tons/ha further improved the yield but the increase cannot compensate with the cost of vermicompost.  Since vermitea application did not influence plant and ratoon yields, its application maybe omitted to further minimize production cost.

Phil 97-3933 planted in wet season (June) and applied with different strains of Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF) in combination with full or ½ NPK fertilizer gave comparable tonnage and sugar yields with the RR fertilizers both on plant and ratoon canes.

Multiple chopping of stalks (whole, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cuts) at harvest and days delay in milling (0, 2, 5 and 8 days) of Phil 97-3933, Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 99-1793, Phil 98-0255, Phil 93-2349, and Phil 93-3849 showed that the 2 days delay in milling, exhibited an average loss of 5.63%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-1601 (9.19%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (1.75%).  At 5 days delay in milling the average loss was 12.82%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-3849 (23.88%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (6/13%).  At 8 days delay in milling Phil 93-3849 exhibited the highest loss (35.82%) and the lowest was in Phil 98-0255 (11.57%).  The average sugar loss after 8 days was 22.14%.

The average weight loss of canes when milling was delayed for 2 days was 5.31%, 7.39% at 5 days delay and 11.66% in 8 days delay.

LUZON AGRICULTURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CENTER (LAREC) IN FLORIDABLANCA, PAMPANGA

Results of completed projects are:

Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2005 Series. Casupanan A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  V. Serrano and M. Guevarra.

Thirty test clones from 2005 Row Test were entered in the Preliminary Yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties,  Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on sugar yield, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both check varieties and were resistant to diseases.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 05-645, Phil 05-3635, Phil 05-2151, Phil 05-87, Phil 05-309, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-483, Phil 05-1379, Phil 05-329,  and Phil 05-55.

Ecological Test  of Selected Phil Varieties .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test varieties from the Phil 1999 series, Phil 2000 series and Phil 2002  series   were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2007 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 are recommended for commercial release.

Ecological Test  of Phil 2003 Series .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan  and M. Guevarra.

Ten test varieties selected from the 2003 series Preliminary Yield test were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2008 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 03-0021 and Phil 03-1727 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew and are recommended for commercial release.

Screening of Selected  Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test clones of Phil 1999, Phil 2000 and Phil 2002 series  were screened and evaluated for their resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

Clones Phil 02-0255, 00-1015 and 00-2231 were rated very highly resistant while Phil 02-0151, 00-0791, 00-1125 and 00-2155 were rated highly resistant.  Clones Phil 00-0881, 00-2417 and 00-2061 were rated resistant while clones Phil 02-0219, 02-0241 and 99-2133 were rated intermediate resistant.

Screening of 2003  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab,  P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Ten test clones of Phil 2003  were screened and evaluated for  resistance to sugarcane downy mildew.

In the plant and ratoon canes, the following were rated very highly resistant: Phil 03-0021, Phil 03-0217, Phil 03-0617. Phil 03-1341, Phil 03-1727, Phil 03-2109 and Phil 03-2125. Phil 03-0077 were very highly resistant in the plant cane and highly resistant in the ratoon cane.  Phil 03-0933 was resistant in the plant and ratoon canes.

Screening of Phil 2004 series  for resistance to smut.  Casupanan, A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Thirty clones of the 2004 series  were planted, ratooned and screened for  reaction to sugarcane smut.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

Among the test clones, one was rated very highly resistant (Phil  04-1533) and  two were resistant (Phil  04-0827 and Phil 04-1605).  Five clones were intermediate resistant, namely,  Phil  04-1547, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1885, Phil  04-1889 and Phil  04-1899.  Ten were intermediate average  to include (Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil  04-0917, Phil 04-1195, Phil  04-1409,  Phil 04-1581, Phil 04- 1981, Phil 04-2249, Phil  04-2319 and Phil 04-3785).  The rest of the clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

Effects of the disc harrowing stubbles on the growth and yield of ratoon crop. Guevarra, M.,B. Manlapaz, A. Bacani and A.Burcer

The experiment was conducted in RCBD with six treatments, namely: T1-Furrows disc harrowed with tractor wheels on top of furrows; T2-Furrows disc harrowed  with tractor wheels in between furrows; T3- Stubbles mechanically shaved (mechanical stubble shaver); T4-Stubbles manually shaved (harvesting knives); T5- Stubbles manually shaved (native grub hoe)and T6-Control (No touch). cane than in the plant cane.

In the plant cane there was no significant difference on growth and yield parameters.  In the first and second ratoon crops mechanical stubble shaver and manually recutting  gave higher number of tillers and millable stalks. Higher mortality occurred on disc harrowing  with tractor wheels on top of furrow. The treatments were comparable   on LKg/TC in the  plant and ratoon canes. In the ratoon crops, both mechanical stubble shaver and manual recutting gave higher tonnage and LKg/Ha .

Abstract of Completed Researches (2009)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2009)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A. LUZON AGRICULTURAL & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1.    Preliminary Yield Test of 2004 SeriesCasupanan, A.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P.; Serrano, V. and Guevarra M.

 Thirty test clones from 2004 Row Test series were entered in the 2004 Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC.

 Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both or either check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544, and resistant to smut and downy mildew.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1533, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1889,  Phil 04-1981, Phil 04-2249 and Phil 04-2319.

2.    Yield Performance of Selected Phil and PSR Varieties (NCT3) –Serrano, M.V.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P; Santago L.; Caballero T.; Casupanan A. and Guevarra M.

 Fourteen test varieties selected by SRA and Philsurin were laid out in RCBD to determine their performance at LAREC.

Phil 97-2041 and Phil 97-3501 were found to be comparable in sugar yield to Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon canes.

Varieties significantly higher in sugar yield than Phil 80-13 in the ratoon cane and comparable to Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon cane are Phil 98-0255, PSR 00-34, PSR 00-71, PSR 00-343 and PSR 00-161.

None of the test entries gave significantly higher sugar yield than Phil 75-44 in either plant or ratoon cane.

3.    Screening of Phil 2003 Series for Resistance to SmutCasupanan, A; Guiyab, N; Serrano, M.V. and Guevarra, M.

 Forty clones of the 2004 series from LGAREC were planted and rationed and screened for their reaction to sugarcane smut.

Among the forty clones, ten clones were rated very highly resistant. These clones are 03-1989, 03-2109, 03-2305, 03-0371, 03-0613, 03-0627, 03-0645, 03-1389, 03-2125 and 03-2177. Six are highly resistant, 03-1925,03-1727, 03-0217, 03-2063, 03-0617 and 03-1471.Thirteen are resistant, 03-0919, 03-0905, 03-0021, 03-0669, 03-0939, 03-1565, 03-1577, 03-1599,03-1619 , 03-1689, 03-1755, 03-1503 and  03-2279. Six are  intermediate resistant, 03-0933, 03-2091, 03-0077, 03-0167, 03-1481 and 03-2229 and one intermediate average which is clone 03-1341. The remaining clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

 B.  LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

Variety Improvement and Pest Management (PTCM)

1.   Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2008 Series

During the 2008 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of long duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.

A total of 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated using 92 female and 68 male selected parents and from which 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1). The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2008 series crossing program is shown in Table 2.

The sowing of fuzz in 271 seedboxes resulted in the germination of seedlings in 268 bi-parental crosses consisting of 353 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 87 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 136 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 490 seedboxes (Table 3).

Seedlings in 736 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in the field.

2.   Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2007 Series

The Phil 2007 Series hybridization work which produced a total of 117,179 seedlings from 272 bi-parental crosses was transplanted from June 3 to July 3, 2008. From these seedlings, 82,109 survived in the field or a survival rate of 70.07 percent (Table 4).

Selection in April 2009 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,291 promising clones from 221 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.57 percent for seedlings and 81.25 percent for the crosses (Table 5).

3.   Row Test, Phil 2006 Series

One thousand three hundred sixty four promising clones from the Phil 2006 Series Single Seedling Plot Test were planted in the Row Test on April 4, 2008. From these, 328 promising clones from 142 crosses were selected and forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. The clone selections are listed in Table 7.

4.   Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2005 Series

One hundred six promising clones from 70 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 9 clones from 8 crosses of Phil 2004 Series which were re-entered in the Row Test were passed to the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. Multiplication I was conducted from December 21, 2007 to June 30, 2008 at the same time that disease screening for smut was done. Clones with ratings 1-4 for smut were passed to the next stage of multiplication.

Eighty three promising clones from 58 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 3 clones from 3 crosses of Phil 2004 Series were passed to Multiplication II Stage and at the same time screened for downy mildew. The disease resistance ratings of the clonal entries are shown in Table 8.  Thirty smut and downy mildew resistant clones were considered as entries to the next stage, the Preliminary Yield Test and at the same time tested further for disease resistance. Continuing propagation of the selected clones was done to ensure adequate planting materials for the Ecologic Test.

5.   Smut Resistance Test

  • Phil 2004 Series (PYT Stage, Plant Cane & Ratoon)

Thirty Phil 2004 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut.  In the plant cane, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 2 susceptible, and 1 highly susceptible. In the ratoon, 24 clones were rated very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 1 resistant and 1 intermediate average (Table 9).  Clones with ratings 1-4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.

  •  Phil 2006 Series at Row Test

Three hundred thirty five Phil 2006 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut.  Results showed that 236 clones were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 20 resistant, 32 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 10 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 10 very highly susceptible (Table 10). Clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.

6.   Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series and Phil 2004 Series (Plant & Ratoon)

Eighty three Phil 2005 Series and 3 Phil 2004 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane of Phil 2005 Series clones, 48 were rated very highly resistant, 18 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 42 clones were very highly resistant, 12 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible. With Phil 2004 Series plant cane, 1 clone was rated very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant and 1 resistant.  In the ratoon crop, 2 clones were highly resistant and 1 resistant to the disease (Table 11). Clones with ratings 1 to 4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.

7.   Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series

Thirty Phil 2004 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Two clones were highly resistant, 12 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average and 2 clones were intermediate susceptible (Table 12).  

8.   Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series

Thirty clones of the Phil 2004 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Seven were found highly resistant, 18 were resistant, 4 were intermediate resistant and 1 was intermediate average to the disease (Table 13).

9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2004 Series

The study was laid out in February 2008 to June 2009 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of Phil 2004 Series clones.  The 30 clonal entries were selections from Phil 2004 Series Multiplication II which were also simultaneously screened for reaction to the four major diseases and further propagated in preparation for the Ecologic Test. Tables 14 & 15 present the yield data, agronomic characteristics and disease reactions of the test clones.

Twenty eight clones gave comparable TC/Ha as the two control varieties; two clones were of lower tonnage. Tonnage yield ranged from 54.53 to 105.11 tons cane per hectare.

Twenty-five clones were comparable in LKg/TC while 11 clones were comparable in LKg/Ha to Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The rest have significantly lower LKg/TC and LKg/Ha than the two control varieties.

After considering agronomic characteristics and disease reactions, the top ten clones were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test.  These clones now referred to as varieties were:  Phil 04-0017, Phil 04-0703, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0845, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1011, Phil 04-1195, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1981 and Phil 04-2991.

10.  Performance of Selected Phil 2000- and Phil 2002 Series Sugarcane Varieties in Three Negros Mill Districts

The performance of four Phil 2000- and six Phil 2002 Series sugarcane varieties planted in three mill districts of Negros Island from December 2007 to January 2009 was evaluated.

Phil 00-0791 and Phil 02-0359 are recommended for commercial propagation and release. The two are high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering sugarcane varieties. Phil 00-0791 is resistant to smut, downy mildew, and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. Phil 02-0359 is similarly resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and leaf scorch.

The yield data gathered and Gain-Even-Loss Scores are presented in Tables 16-19.

11. Synchronized Disease Screening for Resistance to Downy mildew, Leaf Scorch, Smut and Yellow Spot, Phil 2004 Series

The response of Phil 2004 Series clones to downy mildew was similar in synchronized and separate screenings.  For smut and yellow spot, the response was similar in resistant and intermediate clones but not in susceptible clones. For leaf scorch, response of resistant clones was comparable in both synchronized and individual screenings but differed significantly in clones with intermediate reactions. The results were consistent in three consecutive years of testing. Tables 20-21 present the reaction frequency of the clones and Chi-Square Test results of the two disease screening methods.

12.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance

Table 1.  Germplasm inventory as of October 31, 2009

 

SPECIES/TYPE

2009

A.  Saccharum officinarum
1.  Original Nobles

6

2.  Noble Selections

4

B.  Saccharum spontaneum
1.  Foreign varieties

17

2.  Local varieties

12

3.  Hybrid and segregants

4

4.  IBPGR collections

218

C.  Saccharum senense

2

D.  Saccharum sp. (Historical and Commercial Hybrids)
1.  Foreign varieties

378

2.  Phil varieties

538

3.  Non-Phil varieties

96

TOTAL

1,275

                  Table 2.  New sugarcane varieties collected from November 2008 to October 2009

 

1

  PHIL 2006-41-0563

2

  PSR 99-85

3

PSR  99-105

4

PSR  2000-23

5

PSR  2000-34

6

PSR  2000-71

7

PSR  2000-161

8

PSR  2000-343

9

PSR   2001-46

10

PSR   2001-105

11

K 88-65

12

  K 88-87

13

  K 88-92

14

  PS 862

15

  PS 863

16

  PSGM 88-5052

Production Technology and Crop Management (PTCM)

1.    Effect of fresh start organic blend fertilizer on the growth and yield of sugarcane

The experiment was laid out at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City from January 2008 to January 2009, to determine the efficacy of Fresh Start Organic Blend fertilizer on growth and yield of sugarcane.

Stalk length of Phil 97-3501 improved (4.3 cm) with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer. Recommended rate (RR) + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer gave an improvement of 18.0 cm in stalk length.

When ½ RR + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer was applied, no improvement in stalk length was observed.

Diameter of Phil 97-3501 was not influenced by the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer.

Millable stalks increased with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer.  When combined with RR slight improvement was observed.  When combined with ½ RR, no improvement was observed.

Compared with the unfertilized control (T1), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer alone (T5), slightly improved the tonnage of Phil 97-3501. Compared to RR alone (T2), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + RR (T6) likewise improved the tonnage slightly.

Compared with ½ RR (T3), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + ½ RR (T4) decreased the tonnage of Phil 97-3501.

LKg/TC of Phil 97-3501 decreased when applied with 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer, (T4, T5 and T6).

II. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

     Development Projects

  •  Annual Compendium of Philippine Refineries, FY 2007 and 2008

 An annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements for refining year 2008.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2008)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2008)

I.      AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER – (LAREC)

Breeding, Genetics and Varietal Improvement

1. Ecological Test of 2001 Series - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

Fourteen (14) test varieties selected from the 2001 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from July 2006 to September 2008 to evaluate their adaptability in different agro-climatic conditions.

Three varieties were either comparable or significantly higher than either or both check varieties in terms of sugar yield. They also passed the criteria for disease resistance.

The three varieties that are recommended for further testing in the National Cooperative Test or for commercial release are Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833.

2. Preliminary Yield Test 2003 Series – Casupanan A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable with either or both check varieties. These clones which are recommended to undergo the ecological test are, Phil 03-0021, 03—627, 03-1503, 03-0933, 03-0617, 03-2109, 03-1727, 03-0077, 03-1341.

3. Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra

The reactions to downy mildew of the 13 test clones of Phil 2000 series are as follows: Phil 00-1893 and 00-2435 were very highly resistant, Phil 00-1901, 00-1323, 00-2415 and 00-2569 were highly resistant, Phil 00-1491, 00-1419, 00-1331, 00-1115 and 00-1937 were resistant and Phil 00-1537 was intermediate susceptible.

4. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, and M. Guevarra

The reactions to downy mildew of the twelve (12) test clones of Phil 2001 series in the plant and ratoon canes were as follows: Phil 01-0295 was rated highly resistant, Phil 01-103, 01-833 and 01-695 were resistant, Phil 01-441, 01-397,01-027 and 01-577 were intermediate resistant, Phil 01-529 and 01-561 were intermediate average, Phil 01-575 was susceptible and Phil 01-829 was very highly susceptible.

5. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Smut - Casupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

The fourteen (14) test clones of the 2001 series had the following reaction to smut: Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833 were very highly resistant, Phil 2001-0397, Phil 2001-0529 and Phil 2001-0103 were highly resistant, Phil 2001-0295 and Phil 2001-0027 were resistant, Phil 2001-0441, Phil 2001-0561, Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0531, Phil 2001-0575, Phil 2001-0829 were intermediate resistant and Phil 2001-0167 was intermediate susceptible.

6.    Screening of Phil 2002 Series for Resistance to SmutCasupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Of the forty-six (46) clones of the 2002 Phil series, the following gave intermediate to very highly susceptible reactions to smut, Phil 02-0037,02-0175, 02-0183, 02-0241, 02-0465, 02-1015, 02-2053, 02-2061, 02-2139 and 02-2511 were very highly resistant, Phil 02-0329, 02-0027 and 02-2545 were highly resistant, Phil 02-0151 and 02-0295 were resistant, Phil 02-0095, 02-0139, 02-0219, 02-0721, 02-0791, 02-0827, 02-1125, 02-2071, 02-2155, 02-2417, 02-1601 and 02-2133 were intermediate resistant, Phil 02-0255, 02-0439, 02-0649, 02-0881, 02-1439 and 02-2231 were intermediate average.

7.    Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Septage Sludge Fertilization - Magnaye, A., B. Manlapaz and E. Estanislao

Septage sludge fertilization gave uniform germination and plant height in all treatment combinations. Fertilization at 180 kg. N/Ha of septage gave significant mean average number of tillers and stalk length. The same treatments gave significantly higher tonnage and sugar yield in both the plant and ratoon crops.

 

 

B.  LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

Variety Improvement and Pest Management

1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2007 Series – R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

During the 2007 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.

Pollination work which started October 18 and ended December 05, 2007 utilized 97 female and 82 male selected parents. A total of 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental crosses were harvested with no arrow from bi-parental crosses destroyed.

The sowing of fuzz in 272 seed boxes from November 27 to December 30, 2007 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 272 bi-parental crosses consisting of 352 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 92 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded  seedlings in 146 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 519 seed boxes.

Seedlings in 779 seed boxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June 2008.

2.  Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2006 Series – Armones, R.T., and I.S. Bombio

The 2006 hybridization work which produced a total of 133,827 seedlings from 327 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from May 25 to June 14, 2007. From these seedlings, 81,726 survived in the field or a survival rate of 61.07 percent.

Selection in April 2007 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,365 promising clones from 327 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.67 percent for seedlings and 74.92 percent for the crosses.

All selected promising clones were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test.

3.  Row Test, Phil 2005 Series - Aloro, L.E. and J. Velasco

The planting of 2005 series Row Test was done on March 23, 2007. The entries were the 1,227 clones from 236 crosses selected from the 2005 series Single Seedling Plot Test and the 247 clones from 32 crosses of 2004 series which were re-entered due to poor germination during the 2004 series row Test. Selection was done on December 06-15, 2007. Result showed that out of 1,227 clones planted, 106 clones from 69 crosses for 2005 series and 9 clones from 8 crosses for 2004 series were selected and forwarded to the next stage, Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.

4.    Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2004 Series – L.E. Aloro & J.C. Velasco

One hundred ninety-nine promising clones from 95 crosses selected from Phil 2004 series Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously screened to smut disease from December 28, 2006 to June 30, 2007. After six months, 106 clones from 61 crosses representing 53.26 and 64.21 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected and forwarded to Multiplication II Stage. Because of bad weather, land preparation was delayed and Multiplication II was planted on August 15, 2007. In February 2008, 100 clones from 58 crosses representing 92.59 and 92.06 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected. Further evaluation of agronomic and morphological characteristics of the clones limited the final choice to 30 clones as entries to the Preliminary Yield Test and for simultaneous screening to yellow spot and leaf scorch and further multiplication.

5.    Smut Resistance Test

a.    Phil 2003 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) -  N.S. Meneses  & G.A. Gayoti

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were tested against smut of sugarcane. Result of the plant cane showed that 14 clones were very highly resistant, 9 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 7 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were very highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 4 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.

b.    Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses & G.A. Gayotin

One hundred fifteen (115) clones of the Phil 2004 and Phil 2005 series were rated for resistance to smut of sugarcane. Fifty (50) clones were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 12 resistant, 17 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.

6.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon) -  Entima, R.G., G.A. Gayotin

One hundred eight (108) clones of the Phil 2004 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 59 were very highly resistant, 24 highly resistant, 6 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible and 2 susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 10 clones were very highly resistant, 21 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 15 intermediate resistant,14 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.

7.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series -  Meneses, N.S. and G.A. Gayotin

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 were rated for resistance to yellow spot of sugarcane. One clone was intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 29 very highly susceptible to the disease.

8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series -  R.G. Entima & G.A. Gayotin

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. All clones tested were found highly resistant to the disease.

9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2003 Series -  Aloro, L.E., J.C. Velasco and I.S. Bombio

The study which was laid-out in February 2007 to June 2008 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of the Phil 2003 series sugarcane clones compared to the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The entries were the 40 clones selected from the Phil 2003 series Multiplication II. These clones were also simultaneously screened for reaction to four major sugarcane diseases.

Thirty (30) clones did not differ significantly in tonnage yield as the two control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. Eight clones were of lower yield. Two clones have lower tonnage than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Tonnage yield ranged from 44.64 TO 114.01 tons per hectare.

None of the test clones significantly surpassed the control varieties in sucrose content measured as Lkg/TC. Six clones were lower while twenty-five (25) were comparable. Nine clones have lower sucrose content than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Lkg/TC ranged from 1.82 to 2.29 Lkg/TC.

In Lkg/Ha, twenty-one (21) clones have comparable sugar yield as the two control varieties while eight clones were lower. Eleven clones were lower that VMC 86-550 but were comparable to Phil 8013. Sugar yield ranged from 98.28 Lkg/Ha to 227.13 Lkg/Ha.

Result of the study showed that all the 40 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar yield than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550.

Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten (10) promising clones which were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecological Test. These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2003-11-0167, Phil 2003-17-0217, Phil 2003-46-0617, Phil 2003-64-0699, Phil 2003-96-0933, Phil 2003-154-1389, Phil 2003-158-1503, Phil 2003-163-1577, Phil 2003-175-1727 and Phil 2003-208-2063.

10.  Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series – Velasco. J.C., L.E. Aloro and R.D. Pillado

Ten (10) Phil 2001 series varieties were tested in the Ecological Test experiment in five (5) locations of Negros and Iloilo from November 2006 until March 2008. One variety was selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT). Phil 2001-0295 is a high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering cane, resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and to leaf scorch.

11.  Synchronized Screening of Sugarcane Clones for Resistance to Downy Mildew, Smut, Yellow Spot & Leaf Scorch, Phil 2003 Series – N.S. Meneses & R.G. Entima

The Effectiveness of synchronized screening in determining resistance of clones to downy mildew, smut, leaf scorch and yellow spot is about the same with separate screening, the usual procedure used in screening for disease resistance. Synchronized screening however has the advantage of conducting the whole process in one set of trial in one year, unlike 3-4 years in separate screening. Either of the two methods can be used in screening clones for disease resistance.

12.  Performance of the Phil 98-, Phil 97-, PSR 2000- and PSR 99- Series Sugarcane Varieties – Bombio, I.S., R.G. Entima, N.S. Meneses and V.A. Serrano

This study evaluated the performance of one Phil 98-, five Phil 97-, five PSR 2000- and three PSR 99- series sugarcane varieties in selected mill districts of Negros and Pampanga from December 2006 to January 2008.

Test varieties differed significantly with the control in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield.

Four varieties were higher in tonnage while five were lower than Phil 8013; seven varieties have more while eight have lesser tonnage than Local Control.

PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean tonnage; Phil 97-1123 has the lowest. TC/ha was highest in La Carlota, followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos. Highest potential yield of the test varieties was attained by Phil 98-0255 in La Carlota.

Eight varieties were of lower sucrose content than Phil 8013; two were sweeter and seven were less sweet than Local Control.

Phil 97-1123 has the highest variety mean Lkg/TC; the lowest was Phil 98-0255. Cane stalks were sweetest in HPCo, followed by La Carlota, PASUMIL and San Carlos. Highest potential for sucrose content was obtained from Phil 97-1123 planted in HPCo.

One variety was higher in sugar yield while four were lower than Phil 8013; four varieties have more while six have lesser sugar yield that Local Control.

PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean sugar yield’ the lowest was Phil 97-1123. La Carlota followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos attained the highest LKG/Ha. Highest potential sugar yield was from Phil 98-0255 planted in La Carlota.

Phil 98-0255 has the tallest stalks, PSR 99-182 the biggest diameter, PSR 2000-343 the most number of millable stalks/sqm, and PSR 2000-34 the heaviest stalks. La Carlota cane stalks were the longest, biggest in diameter and heaviest but the most number of millable stalks were produced in PASUMIL. Flowering was more pronounced in PASUMIL than in Negros. Pests and disease incidences were considered to be too minimal to be able to inflict damage on crop yield.

The Gain-Even-Loss Tally showed that seven test varieties gained over control in tonnage yield. Two varieties gained over Local Control in LKg/TC, while four varieties gained over control in sugar yield. Three varieties stood out among the test varieties in outyielding the control in tonnage and sugar yields and thus can be considered for commercial planting. These are PSR 2000-34, PSR 2000-343 and PSR 2000-161.

13.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – Armones, R.T. and I.S. Bombio

A total of 1,259 sugarcane varieties were planted in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2007. Twelve (12) new accessions came from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program and new Crossing Blocks. Eight hundred twenty two (822) clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically. Stalk alignment, aerial roots, and trichomes were the data gathered on the year 2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials.

Production Technology and Crop Management

1.    Alternative Cropping Systems to Sustain Productivity in the Agrarian Reform Communities – Morales, C.L., D.A. de los Santos, M.L.C. Almodiente and J.C. Nierves

The experiment was laid out at the experimental fields of the sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research center in 2004 and terminated after 3 years. The original proposal was to conduct the study in five years in an ARB farm in Recreo, Pontevedra but due to budget constraints, it was shortened to three years and laid out instead at SRA compound for easier implementation of the treatments. This project was conceived to identify alternative production strategies that could improve and sustain  sugarcane yields and income of the agrarian reform beneficiaries and to monitor changes in soil properties.

Results of the study showed that alternative crop production strategies like application of mudpress, intercropping leguminous crops like mungo and Crotalaria juncea and trash mulching are feasible means to improve crop production and maintain sugarcane production. After three years of study, the return on investment was higher than the treatments without alternative schemes.

The changes in soil properties was not clearly manifested after three years of study. There should be a longer period of observation to validate results.

2.    Adaptation Trials on the Use of Distillery Effluents as Liquid Fertilizer or Irrigation water for Sugarcane* – Bombio, R.M., S.B.Tahum, G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay

The field experiment was laid out at DBI compound on January 2007 and harvested December 2007, while the pot experiment was set up at SRA, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center on January 2007 and harvested November 2007, to assess the efficacy of distillery effluent on growth and yield of sugarcane and to evaluate the effect of distillery effluent on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.

Field experiment results showed that Phil 94-0913 applied with inorganic fertilizer obtained the highest tonnage of 118.2 TC/Ha when combined with effluent applied after planting (T4), followed by plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) with 114.2 TC/Ha and the lowest was on plants without effluent (T2C2) with 105.3 TC/Ha.

In comparison with fertilizer treatment alone (T2C2), data revealed that application of effluent only at planting plus fertilizer (T4) gave an increase in tonnage of about 12.9 TC/Ha, while effluent applied at planting and three months after planting plus fertilizer (T6) gave an increase tonnage of 8.9 TC/Ha.

On the other hand, in comparison with the control without inorganic fertilizer (T1C1), sugar cane applied with effluent at planting minus fertilizer (T3) gave an increase in tonnage of 9.1 TC/Ha, while those applied with effluent at planting and 3 months after planting minus fertilizer (T5) gave an improvement of about 17.8 TC/Ha.

Highest sugar yield (266.9 LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 was obtained on plants applied with effluent after planting plus fertilizer (T4) but comparable with plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP plus fertilizer (T6 (263.4 LKg/Ha)); plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP minus fertilizer (T5 (225.2 LKg/Ha)) and plants without effluent plus fertilizer (T2C2 (230.4 LKg/Ha)). Lowest LKg/Ha was obtained on plants without effluent and without fertilizer (T2C2 (181.3 LKg/Ha)).

Compared to the control without effluent and fertilizer (T1C1), application of effluent after planting (T3) increased the LKg/Ha of Phil 94-0913 by 23.5, while effluent applied after planting and 3 months after planting gave an increase of 43.9 LKg/Ha.

On the other hand, compared to another control T2C2 (fertilizer only) Phil 94-0913 applied with effluent after planting and fertilizer (T4) gave an increase of 36.5 LKg/Ha while those applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) gave an increase of 33.0 LKg/Ha.

Soil analysis of the field experiment showed that application of about 55-110 cubic meters per hectare effluent did not leave high residual amount of nutrients in the soil and did not go beyond the root zone of the sugarcane plants.

__________________________________________

*/ Cooperative study between Distileria Bago, Inc. (DBI and Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension LGAREC), La Granja, La Carlota City

Analysis of the essential nutrient is low, therefore it is recommended that inorganic fertilizer may be added to supplement the total amount of nutrients needed for optimum growth and reproduction of sugarcane.

Results of both field and pot experiment it can be used as irrigation water because no detrimental effect on growth of sugarcane was observed when planted in the soil previously saturated with a maximum volume of 1080 cubic meter effluent.

3.    Effect of WOKOZIM (Bio-Organic Stimulant) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane.** Bombio, S.B.Tahum, R.M., G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay

The experiment was laid out at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2007 to November 2008, to determine the efficacy of using WOKOZIM granules on sugarcane crop by addition on top or replacement of farmers input and to compare the performance of WOKOZIM granules versus other organic fertilizers.

Highest tonnage of 129.66 TC/Ha was obtained on canes applied with the recommended rate (RR) of inorganic fertilizer + 1 ton organic fertilizer + 8 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T11). Tonnage of Phil 97-3933 tended to decrease to 127.93 TC/Ha when 16 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T12) was used in combination with RR + 1 ton organic fertilizer.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2007)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2007)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LAREC)

 

RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Muscovado Production from Different Sugarcane Varieties – Guevarra, M., B. Manlapaz

 

Sixteen (16) sugarcane varieties were grown in the experimental field at LAREC following the usual cultural practices. After 12 months, the stalks of the varieties harvested and crushed. The juices were boiled to produce powder muscovado using the conventional method of cooking, with lime for juice clarification.

 

The juice of test varieties had from 2.0 and higher brix, 19 and higher pol and 2.0 and higher LKG/TC. Powdered muscovado was produced in all test varieties with various analyses: 0.63—3.22% moisture, 92.31—95.44% pol, 1.06—1.60% ash, 95.13—97.91% brix, 92.96—95.53% sucrose, 1.39—3.5% reducing sugar and 26,216—74.56 I.U. color.

 

  1. 2.    Phil 2002 Series Preliminary Yield Test - Casupanan, A., R. Del Rosario, V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

 

Forty six (46) test clones from the Phil 2002 series in the Row test were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477.

 

The fifteen (15) clones were found to be significantly higher in sugar yield (LKg/Ha) than either or both check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477, and were moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew

 

These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 02-2155, Phil 02-1015, Phil 02-0881, Phil 02-0295, Phil 02-0151, Phil 02-0791, Phil 02-2061, Phil 02-2417, Phil 02-0219, Phil 02-1125, Phil 02-0241, Phil 02-2133, Phil 02-0037, Phil 02-2231, and Phil 02-0255.

 

  1. 3.    Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program: Ecological Testing of Phil 2000 series in Luzon – Casupanan, A., V. Serrano, R. del Rosario, L. Vidallion, N. Guiyab, L. Santiago, T. Caballero and P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

 

Twelve (12) test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 2000 Preliminary Yield Test and two control varieties were entered in the Ecological Test in the four ecological sites in Luzon from July 2005 to July 2007.

 

Six varieties, Phil 00-1893, Phil 00-1491, Phil 00-1419, Phil 00-1323, Phil 00-2435 and Phil 00-2569, passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease resistance.

 

The selected varieties are recommended for department release and for further testing in the National Cooperative Test.

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

      Production Technology and Crop Management

 

 

  1. 1.    Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid  fertilizer)  on the   Growth   and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M.Bombio, G.L.Talam, S.B.Tahum, N.D.Navarro

 

Humus and nitrofert application did not influence germination of Phil 94-0913.  Comparable germination percentages were obtained.  The result did not conform to the data obtained on Phil 93-3849 where germination improved.  This indicates that response to applied humus + nitrofert differed between varieties.

 

Tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 significantly improved when humus and nitrofert  was applied together with 50% RR or 100% RR.

 

When humus and nitrofert was combined with 50% RR, tonnage and sugar yield   significantly improved by about 17.06 TC/Ha and 37.15 LKg/Ha over 50% RR only.

 

On the other hand when humus and nitrofert was applied together with 100% RR, significant increase of 18.16 TC/Ha and 42.98 LKg/Ha over 100% RR was obtained.

 

Further more when humus + nitrofert was applied without inorganic fertilizer, improvement in tonnage and sugar yield of about 9.06 TC/Ha and 22.06 LKg/Ha over the unfertilized was attained but statistically,  the difference was not significant.

 

Highest added income due to humus and nitrofert was realized at 50% RR, but highest total yield of 368.58 LKg/Ha was observed at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert, while on 50% RR + humus and nitrofert the total yield was 342.86 LKg/Ha, therefore in terms of money value, highest net income will be at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert.

 

 

  1. 2.    Refinement of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations For Sugarcane – O.T.Quilloy, M.C.Gerardino, G.L.Talam

 

The growth and yield response of sugarcane as influenced by varying phosphorus and potassium rates were evaluated in selected farms in La Carlota and BISCOM mill districts.

 

Sugarcane soils from the experimental sites contain varying amounts of available P and exchangeable K.

 

Significant yield increments with P205 and K20 fertilization were observed in Guimbalaon soil at Hda. Jamandre (La Carlota Mill District) Negros Occidental. Potash fertilization likewise did not influence sugarcane yields despite low exchangeable soil K in Luisiana soil at Hda. Erlinda  (BISCOM Mill District).

Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilization in specific soil type is a better option in determining the P205 and K20 fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.

 

 

  1. 3.    The Effect of Cultivation and Planting Pattern on Yield of Phil 93-2349 – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales

 

The study was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of Phil 93-2349 with four (4) different cultivation practices and three (3) planting patterns.

 

Different cultivation practices and planting patterns did not significantly influence the growth and yield performance of Phil 93-2349.  The result on plant cane implies that yield of sugarcane at minimum tillage is still comparable with cane grown in maximum tillage regardless of planting pattern.

  1. 4.    Performance of 99 and 2000 Series Clones – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales, D. Delos Santos

The study evaluated 6 clones and one control variety as to their growth and yield performance. Clones tested were Phil 2000-240-1707, Phil 2000-322-2191, Phil 2000-139-1031, Phil 99-2641, Phil 99-1867 and Phil 99-1459. Control variety used was Phil 8013.

 

Two clones exhibited flowering capacity namely Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 99-1867. Minimal pests and diseases like borer, pokkahboeng and downy mildew were observed attacking the test clones. No clones out yielded Phil 8013, however only Phil 99-1459 gave comparable TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.

 

  1. 5.    Effect of Bio-Organic Fertilizer (Probiotics)  on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – C.L.Morales, J.C.Nierves

 

The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from October 2005 to December 2006 to evaluate the growth and yield performance of sugarcane to the application of Probiotics and the economics of using Probiotics as fertilizer for sugarcane.  The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 6m x 9m experimental plot.

 

The application of Probiotics alone at the rate of 50 bags per hectare did not outdo the yield performance of farmers practice by using inorganic fertilizers in their sugarcane farms.  It can be applied or used only as soil conditioner.

  1. 6.    Effect of Bacterial Enzyme as Soil Conditioner on the Nutrient Assimilation of Micropropagated Plantlets and Different Varieties – T.O.Macuro, G.A.Gayotin, C.L. Morales

 

Production of sugarcane is highly dependent on commercial fertilizers that are very costly. Sugarcane farming in this study is supplemented with enzyme-producing bacterial isolates. Sufficient population of bacteria was supplied to the field to produce a nitrogenase system and together with cofactors needed for potassium and phosphorus assimilation.

 

Enzyme-producing isolates were sprayed to the field for six months, once a month. Results showed significant effect on the morphological characteristics of sugarcane by increased millable stalks, high tonnage and brix at harvest.

 

The bacterial isolates increased the organic matter of the soil, enhance the water-holding of the plants and the early maturing of some sugarcane varieties by 15%. High yielding varieties used in this study (Phil 93-3155, Phil 8013, 93-3727 and Phil 94-0913) were responsive and adaptable to the bacterial isolates used while Phil 93-2349 was less responsive or less adaptive to the bacteria applied.

 

 

Variety Improvement and Pest Management

  1. 1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2006 Series - R.T. Harder R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

 

Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2006 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the fourth week of October to the first week of November, 2006.

 

A total of 481 arrows from 328 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 17 to November 7, 2006 using 97 selected female and 82 male parents.  From these, 478 arrows from 327 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1, Appendix B).

 

Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 21 to December 18, 2006 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 327 bi-parental crosses consisting of 478 arrows.  Medium to good germination was observed in 89 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 11 percent had poor germination.  Seedlings in the 169 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 537 seedboxes.

 

Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 838 seedboxes.  This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation. The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2006 series crossing program is shown in Table 2, Appendix B.

 

  1. 2.    Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2005 Series – R.T. Harder, R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

 

The 2005 hybridization work which produced a total of 101,156 seedlings from 329 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 14 to July 13, 2006.  From these seedlings, 70,325 survived in the field or a survival rate of 69.52 percent (Table 3, Appendix B).

 

Selection in March, 2007 using Phil 56226 as control variety gave 1,217 promising clones from 228 bi-parental crosses.  This result showed a selection percentage of 1.73 percent for seedlings and 69.30 for crosses (Table 4, Appendix B).

 

All selected promising clones per cross which were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test is shown in (Table 5, Appendix B).

 

  1. 3.    Row Test, Phil 2004 Series – L. E. Aloro , R.T. Harder & R.T. Armones

 

The planting of the Row Test, Phil 2004 Series was done on March 16, 2006. The entries were the 1,494 clones from 227 crosses selected from the Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2004 Series.  The clones were planted in plots measuring 3 x 3 meters with furrow distance of one meter. Phil 56226 the control variety was planted every 10 clones/plots for comparison during selection.

 

Selection on December, 2006 gave 199 promising clones from 95 crosses out of 1,494 clones from 227 crosses planted.  This result showed a selection percentage of 10.63 percent for clones and 41.85 percent for crosses. The selected clones as shown in Table 6, Appendix B were forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.

 

 

  1. 4.    Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2003 Series – L.E. Aloro ,  R.T. Harder  & R.T. Armones

 

Two hundred sixty four (264) promising clones from (142) different crosses of the 2003 series, Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously subjected to smut disease screening test from December, 2005 to July 2006.  Result of the study showed 179 were selected out of 264 clones planted on a selection percentage of 67.80%. These come from 113 out of 142 crosses on a selected percentage of 79.57%.

 

The 179 selected clones from 142 crosses were further multiplied and subjected to downy mildew disease screening test from July 2006 to February, 2007.

 

Result of the study showed 154 clones from 101 different crosses were selected or a selection percentage of 86.03 percent for clones and 89.38 percent for crosses (Table 7, Appendix B).  These clones were supposed to be tested in the Preliminary Yield Test.  However due to budgetary constraints, the entries were limited only to 40 clones.

 

The 40 smut and downy mildew resistant clones with their parentage and agronomic characters selected from the Phil 2003 Series Multiplication and Disease screening stage are presented in  (Table 8, Appendix B).

  1. 5.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2003 series (Plant cane & Ratoon) - R.G. Entima

 

One hundred seventy eight clones of the 2003 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane.  In the plant cane, 111 were very highly resistant, 30 highly resistant, 13 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 28 clones were very highly resistant, 14 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 15 susceptible, 11 highly susceptible and 65 very highly susceptible. (Table 9, Appendix B)

 

  1. 6.    Smut Resistance Test

 

  1. a.    Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series at PYT stage (Plant cane & Ratoon) -  N.S. Meneses

           

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series plant cane tested against smut, 1 was highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series plant cane, 8 were very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series plant cane, 7 were very highly resistant, 2 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 4 very highly susceptible. In the ratoon crop of 1999 series, 1 clone was intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series ratoon, 7 were very highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series ratoon, 5 were very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible (Table 10, Appendix B).

 

  1. b.    Smut Resistance Test Phil 2004 series at Row test - N.S. Meneses

 

One hundred ninety seven clones of the 2004 series were rated for resistance to smut. Sixty seven clones were very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 29 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 13 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 43 very highly susceptible to the disease (Table 11, Appendix B).

 

  1. 7.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – N.S. Meneses

 

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against yellow spot, 3 were intermediate and 3 susceptible. For 2000 series, 3 were resistant, 4 intermediate and 17 susceptible. For 2002 series, 3 were resistant, 3 intermediate and 10 susceptible (Table12, Appendix B).

 

  1. 8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – R.G. Entima

 

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against leaf scorch, 4 were resistant and 2 intermediate. For 2000 series, 16 were resistant and 8 intermediate while for 2002 series, 9 were resistant and 7 intermediate (Table 13, Appendix B).

 

  1. 9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2002 Series- R.T. Harder L.E. Aloro & R.T. Armones

The study which was laid-out in February, 2006 aimed to determine the agronomic, disease resistance, and yield performance of 16 Phil 2002 series, 24 Phil 2000 series and 6 Phil 1999 series clones against the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86550.

 

Result of the study showed that almost all of the 46 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar per hectare than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550 except for Phil 2002-33-0151 which gave significantly higher TC/Ha (127.09) than VMC 86-550 (105.63) as shown in  Table 14, Appendix B.

 

Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten promising clones.  These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2002-33-0151, Phil 2002-35A-0175, Phil 2002-41-0241, Phil 2002-45A-0295, Phil 2002-79-0359, Phil 2002-104-0465, Phil 2000-112-0791, Phil 2000-158-1175, Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 2000-354-2417.  Table 15, Appendix B showed the summary data of these ten selected varieties.

 

All selected varieties were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecologic Test.

 

  1. 10.  Ecologic Test, Phil 2000 Series -  R.D. Pillado, L.E. Aloro & R.T. Harder

 

Ten Phil 2000 series varieties were tested in the Ecologic Test experiment in 6 locations of Negros and Iloilo from November, 2006 until February, 2007.  Three varieties were selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT).  They are as follows:

 

Phil 2000-2569, a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and yellow spot but susceptible to leaf scorch.

 

Phil 2000-2435 a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and moderate to leaf scorch and yellow spot.

 

Phil 2000-1331, a high sucrose, high tonnage, moderately to profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. The summary of information of the 2000 series Ecologic Test is presented in Table  16, Appendix B.

 

  1. 11.   Support Projects
  1. 1.    High Yielding Varieties (HYV) Propagation – R.D. Pillado , J.C. Velasco & L.E. Aloro

 

·      Phil 2002 Series Project

 

Ten promising varieties of the 2002 series were propagated last August, 2007 for source of planting materials of the Ecological Test in five different locations of Negros and Panay this coming November, 2007 until February, 2008 lay-outs.

 

·      Phil 2001 Series Project

 

Ten promising test varieties of the 2001 series Ecological Test were propagated last March, 2007.  These served as source of planting materials for any variety that will be selected after the evaluation of the results of the Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series in March, 2008.

 

·         Phil 2000 Series Project

 

Ten varieties of the 2000 series were ratooned March, 2007.  Three varieties that were selected from this series were further multiplied in October, 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test in 2008.

 

·         Phil 1999 and 1998 Series Project

 

Four varieties selected in the 1999 series and another three from the 1997 series were planted in January 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test IV in Crop Year 2007-2008.  All canepoints were cutbacked Oct, 2007 and turned over to the NCT project, Research Division.  

 

·         Miscellaneous Varieties

 

Phil 8013, VMC 86-550 were ratooned February and March, 2006, to serve as control varieties in the Ecological Test, 2002 Series, Crop Year 2007-2008.

 

·         Canepoints Produced and Distributed

 

Excess canepoints of Phil 98, Phil 97, Phil 93 series were distributed to planters and OPSI participants.

 

2.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – R.T. Armones, R.T. Harder & L.E. Aloro

 

One thousand two hundred forty-seven sugarcane varieties/clones were ratooned/planted in the Germplasm Collection area for the year 2006 (Table 17, Appendix B).  From these, twenty new accessions from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program were collected and planted in the Germplasm plot (Table 18, Appendix B).  Eight hundred twenty two clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically (Table 19, Appendix B).   Characterization for bud groove, corky patch and corky cracks were the data gathered for the Crop Year 2006-2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for the selection of parent materials.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Establishment of Pollution Load Factors for the Sugar Industry – Agosto, R.

A project that aims to seek exemption from DENR to allow equitable and attainable effluent standards (air and water) for the sugar industry sector based on the pollution load factor in Philippine sugar processing.

 

With the passage of the RA 8749 or the Clean Air Act (CAA) or 1999 and RA 9275 or the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 2004, a more stringent water and air emission standards have become a major setback to the ailing sugar industry. Pursuant to Section 3.B. of DENR Administrative Order No. 2007-22, Series of 2007 (Guidelines on the Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring System, all air emission sources with potential to emit more than 100 but less than 750 tons/yr. of total suspended particulates (TSP) after the air pollution control devices (APCD) may utilize a Predictive or Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS), a system or device used by the Special Action Group for the Environment (SAGE). PEMS refers to a mathematical model that predicts the gas concentration in a stack based on a set of operating data such as but not limited to fuel flow rate, temperature, stack excess oxygen, pressure, heat input, fuel analysis and others without requiring the Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). CEMS refers to the equipment stipulated in the DAO 2000—81 (IRR or CAA) used to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by any means of readings recorded at least once very 15 minutes (using an automated data acquisition and handling system), a permanent record of relevant regulated pollutant emissions or stack gas volumetric flow rate.

 

Results obtained by the Special Action Group for the Environment’s (SAGE) quarterly environmental monitoring provided baseline data to establish pollution load factor needed by the sugar mills/refineries in order for them to know if their air pollution control facilities and wastewater treatment facilities are inefficient or not. These data are important to know if CEMS should not be installed anymore on their APCD. Sugar mills invest huge amount of money for their operations upgrading and likewise on their pollution control facilities. The CEMS alone costs around PhP95 M and around PhP10-30 M just for the upgrade of wastewater treatment plant (WTP).

 

This project enabled the sugar industry to gather and establish in-house data for pollution parameters and thus forewarn and enable the mills to retrofit their pollution control facilities accordingly and, moreso, avoid regulatory problems.

 

Data gathered by SAGE proved that sugar mill/refineries with efficient APCD can attain less than 750 tons/yr of total suspended particulates as stipulated under Section 3.B of DAO 2007-22, Series of 2007.

 

  1. 2.    Relevance of Quality Canes Towards Effective & Efficient Production Process - Pedalizo

 

This project evaluates data on quality cane vis-à-vis effective and efficient production process.

  1. 3.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries for 2004, 2005 & 2006 - Villamor, M.T., et. al. 

 

This annual publication contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements of refining year 2004 and 2005.

 

  1. 4.    Annual Synopsis of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Production and Performance Data for CY 2004-2005 and CY 2005-2006 - Sabordo, A., et. al.

 

An annual publication that embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.

 

  1. 5.    Capital Efficiency:  An Approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line - Banjao, L.

 

The project covers capital matters towards reducing cost of raw sugar production.  Through questionnaires and surveys among Philippine sugar mills, technical calculation and analyses can be established.

 

  1. 6.    Labor Productivity – An approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line – Tienda, D.

 

The project covers labor matters toward reducing cost of raw sugar production

Abstract of Completed Researches (2006)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2006)

  1. I.      AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH &DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   Luzon Agricultural Research Center (LAREC)

 

BREEDING & GENETICS

 

1.    Performance of Selected Phil and VMC Sugarcane Varieties in Luzon Mill Districts - Serrano, V., A. Casupanan, R. Del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra

 

Nine (9) test varieties selected by SRA and VMC were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design from November 2003 to May 2006 to determine their performance in the four mill districts of Luzon.

 

On LKg/Ha in the plant cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13  were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 90-1237 and VMC’s 97-45, 97-41, 96-120, 97-30, 97-169 and 97-134 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 93-1601. Phil 90-1237 and VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district.

 

On LKg/Ha in the ratoon cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13 were Phil 94-0913 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 90-1237, VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 94-0913 and Phil 90-1237, VMC 97-45& VMC97-41 at CARSUMCO mill district.

 

  1. 2.    Preliminary Yield Test 2001 Series - Serrano V.,  R. del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra

 

Forty-two (42) test clones from the 2001 Row Test series were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties under natural field conditions at LAREC.

 

Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten (10) clones were found to be significantly higher than the two check varieties Phil 8013 and Phil 75-44.

 

These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 2001-27, Phil 2001-167, Phil 2001-441, Phil 2001-529, Phil 2001-575, Phil 2001-577, Phil 2001-637, Phil 2001-695, Phil 2001-829 and Phil 2001-833

 

  1. 3.    Ecological Test 1997(B) Series - Casupanan A. and  M. Guevarra

 

Eight (8) test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1997(B) Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from January 2004 to June 2006.

 

Phil 97-3501 passed the selection criteria in yield performance at Balayan and Pensumil mill districts and Phil 97-2339 in Pensumil only. Phil 97-3501 and Phil         97-2339 were resistant to downy mildew. Phil 97-2339 was resistant to smut while Phil 97-3501was susceptible. Phil 97-2339 is recommended for planting at Pensumil mill district.

 

  1. 4.    Ecological Test 1998 Series - Casupanan A., and  M. Guevarra

 

Four (4) test varieties  from the LGAREC 1998 series and control varieties Phil 8013 (standard) and local check varieties, Phil 7544 in Pampanga and Balayan and Phil 6607 in Pensumil and Carsumco were entered in the ecological test in four mill districts from January 2004 to June 2006.

 

Among the test varieties, Phil 98-1963 and Phil 98-0255 significantly out-yielded in LKg/Ha the two (2) check varieties at Balayan mill district. Phil 98-0255 is resistant to smut and downy mildew while Phil 98-1963 is susceptible to smut and downy mildew. Phil 98-0255 is recommended for planting at Balayan Mill District.

 

5.    Ecological Test 1999 Series - Del Rosario, R., V. Serrano, A. Casupanan, L. Vidallon, A Vitug & M. Guevarra 

Twelve test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1999 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in three mill districts in Luzon from December 2004 to April 2006.

Phil 99-1549 and Phil 99-0925 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 99-1549 significantly outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and Phil 66-07 in Carsumco mill district while Phil 99-0925 outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga mill district.  Both varieties are intermediate resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 99-1549 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Carsumco and Phil 99-0925 in Pampanga.

None of the test varieties passed the criteria on yield performance for regional recommendation.

 

 

CROP PROTECTION

 

  1. 1.    Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane Smut caused by Ustilago scitaminea  - Vidallon, L. and M. Guevarra

 

The distribution of reactions to smut of the 52 test clones of 2000 series from LGAREC  were as follows: two, very highly resistant; one,  highly resistant; three,  resistant; nine,  intermediate resistant; six, intermediate average; four,  intermediate susceptible; nine, susceptible; four highly susceptible; and fourteen, very highly susceptible.

 

  1. 2.    Cultural Practices in the Management of Sugarcane Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis  - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

Different cultural practices in the management of sugarcane downy mildew were evaluated. The degree of infection was lower when utilizing these cultural methods rather than using seed pieces from downy mildew-infected stools.

 

In both plant and ratoon crops, percent infection was significantly higher in the non-selection of seedpieces (control) than the other treatments using resistant variety, using healthy susceptible variety + rouging and intensive weeding.

 

  1. 3.    Screening of Phil ’99 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Among the twelve (12) clones of Phil 99 series evaluated, nine were rated very highly resistant, one highly resistant, one intermediate resistant and one was highly susceptible to downy mildew.

 

The growth parameters on the various practices including the control were comparable in stalk height, diameter and weight but significantly differ in number of tillers. Seed pieces from disease-infected  stools  (control)  gave  the  least  number  of  tillers  and significantly lower TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha  than the other treatments.

 

  1. 4.    Screening of Phil ‘98 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Of the four (4) clones of Phil ’98 series tested for resistance to downy mildew, two clones were rated highly resistant (Phil 98-0255 and Phil 98-2139) one was highly susceptible, Phil 98-1863 and one was very highly susceptible, Phil 98-3403 to downy mildew.

 

5.    Screening of Phil 1997 (B) Series for Resistance to Downy mildew caused by                   P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Of the seven (7) clones screened for resistance to downy mildew, Phil 97-1297 was rated highly resistant; Phil 97- 3041 and Phil 97-2339 were resistant; Phil 97-4151, Phil 97-3941 and Phil 97-3933 were resistant and Phil 97-2509 was susceptible.

 

  1. 6.    Screening of Phil ‘99 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane smut caused by U. scitaminea  - Vidallon, L. and  M. Guevarra

 

The reactions of 2 test clones of ‘99 series from LGAREC to sugarcane smut were as follows:

 

Resistant                             —       3

intermediate resistant         —       6

intermediate average         —       1

intermediate susceptible      —       2

 

 

AGRONOMY

 

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Furrow Arrangements in Sugarcane Growing - Burcer, A., R. del Rosario and O. Quilloy

 

The eight (8) test furrow arrangements with Phil 90-1237 as test variety were: single row 1m, 1.25m and 1.5m  apart, 4 cpts/m; 1.5m apart, 8 cpts; double rows,0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1.0m apart, 1.5m distance, 4cpts; triple rows, 0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1m apart, 1.5m distance, 4 cpts.

 

Single row 1.0m and 1.25m apart and  triple  rows 0.5. apart, 1m distance  consistently produced more millable stalks, heavier stalk and higher TC/Ha, Lkg/Ha  and ROI compared to the other furrow arrangements.

 

  1. 2.    Evaluation of  Planting Patterns in Sugarcane Growing - Guevarra, M. and S. Villasanta 

             

The  seven (7) planting patterns tested for the plant crop and three ratoon crops were single row – 1m apart, 4 canepoints/m; 1.5m apart, 4cp; 1.5m apart, 6cp; 1.5m apart, 10 cpts; and double row, 0.5m apart, triple row, 0.5m apart and quadruple row, 0.5m apart with 1.5m distance each. Test variety was Phil 8943.

 

The planting patterns gave comparable % canepoint  germination, millable stalk counts and cane yields (TC/Ha) but significantly differ in tiller counts in the plant and ratoon canes. Sugar yields  in LKg/TC among treatments significantly differ in the second ratoon while LKg/Ha were comparable in the  plant and ratoon canes. 

 

  1. 3.    Ratoon Performance of New Sugarcane HYV’s - Manlapaz, B. and J. Recuenco 

 

Among the 17 sugarcane varieties tested, Phil 8943, Phil 90-1237 gave lower percentage reduction in TC/Ha and second ratoon crops.  In terms of Lkg/TC these four (4) sugarcane varieties were significantly comparable with those sugarcane varieties with high Lkg/TC.

 

 

Soils & Plant Nutrition

 

  1. 1.    Efficacy of Fortified Digested Distillery Slops - Burcer, A. and M.  Guevarra 

 

The full dose RRFDDS was comparable with the full dose RRCF and other treatment combinations in enhancing the growth and cane yield of Phil 90-1237 in the plant and first ratoon canes. All treatment combination and control were comparable in Lkg/TC.  On sugar yield (Lkg/Ha) full dose RRFDDS was comparable with full dose RRCF, ½ dose RRCF + full dose RR  FDDS in both plant and ratoon canes.  ROI was highest at full dose RRFDDS in the plant cane and at ½ RRCF + full dose RRFDDS in the ratoon cane.

 

  1. 2.    Efficacy of Organic Fertilizer from Mill Wastes  and Distillery  Slops - Estanislao, E. and M. Guevarra

 

Organic fertilization at varying levels of N fertilization significantly affected the growth and tillering of plant cane. Organic fertilizer with 90 or 180 kg N/Ha produced the highest cane and sugar yields in the plant and ratoon canes. The treatments produced comparable sucrose content. Organic application and fertilization with  90 kg N/ha increased profitability of the plant and ratoon canes.

  1. 3.    Distillery Slops as Soaking Solution for Canepoints - Guevarra, M. and B. Manlapaz

 

Canepoints soaked in Raw DS – 3, 6,12, 24 hrs and Treated DS – 3, 6. 12, 24 and 48 hrs gave comparable percent germination with water and significantly higher than the untreated.  The treatments were comparable in stalk height and stalk diameter. Raw DS-12 hrs and Treated DS – 12 and 24 hrs -had significantly more millable stalks/plot than water and untreated.

 

Treated DS-6, 12 and 24 hours were significantly higher on TC/Ha than the control.     Treatments were comparable on Lkg/TC.  Only Treated DS – 12 hrs gave significantly     higher Lkg/Ha than water and the untreated.

 

  1. 4.    Nitrogen Fertilization of Sugarcane for Cutback Canepoint Production - Guevarra. M. and B. Manlapaz 

 

In the plant and first ratoon crops, application of 80 to 110 kg N/ha gave comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60 and 70 kg N/ha.  In the  second ratoon crop, 90 to 110 kg N/ha had comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60, 70 and 80 kg N/ha.

 

The 90 kg N/ha level gave the highest return on equity in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops.

 

  1. 5.    Refinement of P & K Fertilizer Recommendation - Quilloy, O. and  B. Manlapaz

 

Phosphorus and K uptake by the sugarcane plant were not always associated with P & K fertility of the soil.  Significant correlation of P uptake with rates of P2O5 fertilization was observed only at Bautista’s Farm and K uptake with K2O fertilization at LAREC and Coral’s Farm.  The experimental data showed inconsistent observations on soil test values, nutrient uptake and yield response of sugarcane to varying levels of P2O5 and K2O fertilization in the different test sites. Laboratory analysis of available P and exchangeable K in the soil and leaf uptake of P and K can not be relied in assessing the P and K needs of sugarcane.  Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilizer is a better option in determining the P2O5 and K2O fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.

 

  1. 6.    Productivity  Improvement  of  Sugarcane Using  Processed Septage and Biosolids - Quilloy, O.  and    B. Manlapaz  

                     

Sugarcane yields and profitability were increased with the application of processed septage and biosolids at varying rates of urea fertilization. Yields obtained from 170 kg/ha N fertilization were statistically comparable with the 100 m3/ha processed septage applied alone or supplemented with urea.  Improvement of sugarcane yields with biosolids fertilization was observed only when urea was supplemented to the organic waste applied at 5 tons/ha.

 

In the succeeding ratoon crop, sugarcane yields and farm incomes were higher when the plant cane was fertilized with 100 m3/ha processed septage and urea.  Higher production and profit were attained when biosolids were applied at 10 T/ha.  Residual effect on soil fertility with biosolids was more pronounced than processed septage application.

 

 

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

  

Agronomy Department

 

1.    Ratoon  Performance  of  New  Sugarcane  HYV’s  (Phil 92 and Phil 93 Series Varieties) - Jean C. Nierves and Cresenciana L. Morales

 

The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from December 2002 to December 2005 to determine the ratoon performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series.  The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 5m x 6m experimental plots.

Phil 92-0051 consistently obtained higher cane tonnage and sucrose content than the other varieties tested from 1st up to the 3rd ratoons and up to the 2nd ratoon in sugar yield.

 

Generally, ratooning decreased tonnage and sugar yields of the tested varieties after the third ratoon and LKg/TC increased only up to 2nd ratoon.

 

Based on the results, Phil 92-0051 is the only variety that consistently increased in TC/Ha and LKg/TC up to the 3rd ratoon and sugar yield up to the 2nd ratoon.

 

  1. 2.    Degree of Land Preparation and its Effects on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoon Crop - D. A. De Los Santos and M. L. C. Almodiente 

 

A study was conducted to find out the influence of the degree of land preparation and the frequency of cultivation on Phil 93-3727 ratoon cane. Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare interaction among treatments.

 

Results showed that degree of land preparation and frequency of cultivation did not significantly affect the tiller number, plant height, stalk length and stalk diameter of ratoon cane.  Other parameters such as number of millable stalks and weight per plot significantly differed with the degree of land preparation specifically treatment L4 using 2 tractor plowing, sub-soiling, and tow tractor harrowing. This treatment also produced higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha than the rest of the treatments.  Treatment L5 using two carabao plowing and two carabao harrowing gave the lowest cane and sugar yields.  LKG/TC was not affected by any degree of land preparations and frequency of cultivation.

 

Good ratoon stand is influence by the degree of land preparation specifically the use of two tractor plowing, subsoiling and two tractors harrowing while frequency of cultivation did not significantly influence ratoon cane and sugar yields.

 

  1. 3.    Evaluation of Micropropagated Plantlets at Different Cycles of Multiplication - T.D. Macuro and C. L. Morales 

 

This study employed 2-D electrophoresis technique in evaluating micropropagated plantlets at different cycles of multiplication to determine their homogeneity and variability. It utilizes protein separation procedures based on solubility differences as function of pH and ionic strength.

 

The isoelectric pH’s of extracted proteins for both Phil 8013 and Phil 92-0913 microplantlets produced in each cycle of multiplication were found to be comparable, hence regenerated plantlets produced in every cycle were considered to be homogenous.  Statistical data show that Phil 94-0913 microplantlets produced in cycles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 were statistically comparable with each other; hence uniformity and homogeneity among regenerated plantlets or cultivars are assured.  For Phil 8013, microplantlets produced in cycles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were found to be comparable; hence uniformity and homogeneity of cultivars are assured.

 

Protein extracted from different sugarcane varieties used in this study has IE values in the range of 6.45 – 7. 65.  The amino acids actively present in extracted proteins could be phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, threonine, cysteine, glycine or serine.  Molecular weight of extracted protein could also be determined based on IE values of extracted protein.

 

 

SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    The Effect of Humic Acid on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane - R. M. Bombio, G. L. Talam, S. B. Tahum, N .D. Navarro and R. E. Tapay 

 

The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to test the efficacy of granular humic acid on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913 sugarcane variety.

 

Application of 2 bags humic acid per hectare in addition to the recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis improved the yield of Phil 94-0913 by about 14.89 LKg/Ha with a corresponding net benefit of Php 8,354.24.

Application of 2 bags humic acid alone or in combination with 8 bags urea did not improve but otherwise decreased the yield.

 

It is therefore recommended that humic acid should not be applied alone, but should be combined with recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis, so that balance amount of nutrients will be provided to the sugarcane plants for a higher sugar yield.

 

Soil analysis of the experimental area after harvest showed that organic matter percentages of all fertilized plots were comparable, and significantly higher than the untreated plots.  Results indicated that applied fertilizer alone or in combination with humic acid produced a higher biomass that eventually decomposed to improve the organic matter of the soil or the applied humic acid left a residual amount for the succeeding sugarcane crop.

 

  1. 2.    The Effect of Duofos Phosphate on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, N.D. Navarro and R.E. Tapay 

 

The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to evaluate the effect of Duofos phosphate on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913.

Duofos phosphate as source of P fertilizer for Phil 94-0913 gave comparable results with the application of 18-46-0.  Both fertilizer sources were significantly higher than the unfertilized control.

In comparison with the recommended rate of 18-46-0, highest saving per hectare in the amount of Php 3,374.80 was obtained with the application of 3 bags Duofos phosphate.  This is equivalent to about 25.38% saving in terms of fertilizer input.

 

Available soil P analysis of the soil samples after harvest were comparable with the unfertilized plot, therefore it is recommended that Duofos phosphate will be applied every cropping, to provide the phosphorous requirement of the sugarcane plants.

 

  1. 3.    Indigenous Organic Materials for Fertility Improvement of Guimbalaon Soil  - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum

 

To survive in a sugarcane farming business nowadays, there is a need to reduce production cost but maintain the high productivity of your farm. Thus, many farmers are now utilizing indigenous soil amendments to supplement or substitute the high cost of inorganic fertilizer.  The Department of Soils & Plant Nutrition laid out a demo-project last July 2004 at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City, to showcase the effects of different indigenous fertilizer materials for sugarcane production. It is a long term demo-project that will eventually help determine the build-up of organic matter in the soil and the availability of other essential elements for sustainable sugarcane production.

 

Although yield results among various treatments were not significantly different, the highest LKg/TC was obtained by applying the recommended rate of lime plus the recommended rate of NPK.  The highest tonnage however, was obtained by applying the recommended rate of rock phosphate as source of P plus the recommended rate of N and K.  Stalk length and weight per stalk of plants treated with rock phosphate plus N and K were longer and heavier, the reasons why highest LKg/Ha of 201.93 was obtained from this treatment.  The average sugar yield of the various fertilization packages is 184 LKg/Ha.  Using rock phosphate as source of P fertilizer could give as much as Php 81,000 net benefit.

 

  1. 4.    Influence of Time of Fertilization and Age at Harvest on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro

 

To determine the proper age at harvest of Phil 94-0913 in relation to the time of 2nd dose N & K fertilization, two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja City from January 2004 to December 2005.

 

Insignificant results were noted in the growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter, weight/stalk, total millable stalks as well as in TC/Ha.  LKG/TC and LKG/Ha among the different period of 2nd dose N & K fertilization in relation to the age at harvest in both plant and ratoon crop.

 

However, regardless of fertilization timing, cane aged 11 months produced high sucrose content than canes harvested at aged 10 or 12 months.

 

A significant decline in tonnage per hectare of 8.7% & 15.9%, and 14.2% and 30.4% in LKg/Ha was noted at canes harvested earlier than 11 months or a month later, respectively.

 

In ratoon, although insignificant, cane fertilized with ½ N & K, 2 months after ratooning, seemed to produce more tonnage than at fertilization full dose or ½ N & K applied later than 3-5 months after stubble shaving.

 

Regardless, of fertilization timing, cane aged 12 months produced the highest tonnage/sugar yield (98.72 TC/Ha / 223.44 LKg/Ha) comparable with cane aged 11 months (95.88 TC/Ha / 219.29 LKg/Ha).  The lowest was at cane aged 10 months (91.17 TC/HA / 202.62 LKg/Ha).

 

Second dose fertilization at 2 months in both plant & ratoon crop, harvested at 11 months, consistently obtained the highest cane & sugar yield which was reflected in the net profit, giving the highest ROI of 254.3% in plant cane & 251.10% in ratoon crop.

 

Generally, cane aged 11 months, regardless of fertilization timing, obtained the highest average mean ROI of 242.34% in plant cane and 221.30% in ratoon crop.  Cane aged 12 months got the lowest ROI in plant crop (151.36%), while in ratoon crop the lowest was at cane aged 10 months (201.64%).

 

 

Breeding & Genetics Department

 

  1. 1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2005 Series - R.T. Harder, L.E. Aloro and R.T. Armones 

 

Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2005 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the third week of October to the first three days of November, 2005.

 

A total of 479 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 14 to November 25, 2005 using 97 selected female and 69 male parents.  From these, 475 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were harvested.

 

Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 18 to December 23, 2005 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 329 bi-parental crosses consisting of 472 arrows. Medium to good germination was observed in 90 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 10% had poor germination. Seedlings in the 172 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 588 seedboxes. Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 892 seedboxes. This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation.


 

  1. II.    INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

      Development Projects

 

  1. 1.    An update on Economic Hauling Distance

 

A technical survey which looked at the economic hauling distance based on the industry’s existing transport system, hauling costs, processing costs and price of sugar and molasses.

 

  1. 2.    Update on Energy Consumption

This study came-up with an updated Specific Energy Consumption of Philippine Sugar Mills.  The data would be of use to gauge the energy efficiency of mills and would also serve as inputs to further energy-related studies.

 

  1. 3.    Annual Compendium of Philippines Sugar Refineries 2003

 

This is an annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance of all operating sugar refineries in the Philippines.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2005)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2005)

I.              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

A.           LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Evaluation of  Different  Rates of  Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons -  A. Burcer, R.  del Rosario, M. Guevarra and O.  Quilloy 

 

Planting rate from 30,000 to 40,000 canepoints/ha of Phil 90-1237produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints/ha. The treatment using chipped-tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops. Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers produced the highest return on investment (ROI).

 

2.    Variety Performance at Different Seasons of Planting – B. Manlapaz and M. Guevarra

 

Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early, mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKg/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKg/TC significantly differ.  Season of planting means for TC/Ha of early planting was significantly higher than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKg/Ha means of seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant interaction between varieties and season of planting on LKg/Ha.

 

3.    Variety Performance at Different  Ages of Harvest – M. Guevarra and B.  Manlapaz

 

The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091,  Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil p3-1601,Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-0913,  VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/Ha when harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the  aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha at 12 and  14 MAP and significantly higher LKg/TC at 12 MAP.

 

4.    Evaluation of  Leguminous Cultivars as  Green Manures for Sugarcane  – E. Estanislao

 

Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and Colopogonium caerulum manuring with or without N  fertilization.  Green manuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

 

5.    Efficiency of  Fertilizer  Usage on Sugarcane – A.  Magnaye 

 

Fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose at early and late planting seasons  did not produce significant differences in growth and cane and sugar  yields.

 

6.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut Caused by  Ustilago scitaminea  Sydow  – L. Vidallon,   A.  Casupanan and M.  Guevarra

 

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments. Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging  gave higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha. In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha than strict selection + farmer’s cultural practices  and intensive weeding.  LKg/TC did not significantly differ among the treatments in both crops.

 

The LKg/Ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than strict selection of healthy seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmers cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKg/Ha.

 

7.    Cultural Practices for the Management of  Lesion  Nematodes  – J. Recuenco

 

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting. Pratylenchus populations of  plots treated with Furadan and applied with mudpress  were comparable and were significantly lower than  those where trashes were burned and those  treated  with Durabloom.

 

Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly at 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after ratooning.  Pratylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes with an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample. Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

8.    Phil 1996 Series Ecological Tests at SRA LAREC, Batangas, Pensumil-Camarines Sur and Carsumco-Cagayan – V. Serrano and  M. Guevarra

 

Thirteen test varieties selected  from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

 

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane. It significantly outyielded the local check variety Phil 66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. This variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

 

However, none passed the selection criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

9.    Phil 1997  Series  Ecological Test – Set A  – V. Serrano and M.  Guevarra

 

Fourteen test varieties selected from the 1997 Series  Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

 

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 97-1391 significantly outyielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2383 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

 

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded  either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

 

None passed the criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

10.  Preliminary  Yield  Test of Phil  2000 series  -  A. Casupanan  and   M. Guevarra 

 

Fifty-two test clones from the Phil 2000 series row test  with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid-out in RCBD at LAREC.  Agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at  LAREC

 

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha with the check varieties. Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

11.  Improvement of Phil 56226  through induced mutation -  V. Serrano,   M. Guevarra , A.  Burcer  and J.  Recuenco  

 

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kr to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

 

Selections from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years. After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control. No selections from Phil 85-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired. A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

 

 

12.  Screening of  Phil 1997-A Series Clones for  Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora  philippinensis A. Vitug  and  M.  Guevarrra 

 

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 25  were rated  very highly resistant (Phil 97-0707, 0673, 1125, 0891, 0821, 0729, 0671, 1643, 0609, 0665, 1019, 2259, 2339, 2141, 0239, 0029, 2039, 0051, 0407, 0099, 0207, 2059, 2041, 0527 and 1029), 12 were highly resistant (Phil 97-0117, 1215, 1523, 0693, 0793, 3315, 0021, 2015, 0411, 2383, 2709 and 0529), 6 were resistant        (Phil 97-0727, 0045, 0097, 1901, 1123 and 0202), 6 were intermediate resistant (Phil 97-0855, 2343, 0687, 1351, 1861 and 2135) and the rest had from  intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible reaction.

 

13.  Screening of  Phil 1997-B series  and Phil 1998  Series Clones  for Resistance to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitamineaL. Vidallon  and  M.  Guevarra  

 

Among the six clones of 1997 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the four clones of 1998 series tested for smut reaction, only Phil 98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.

 

In both tests, smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

 

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Ecological Test of 1996 SeriesV.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Thirteen test varieties were selected by LAREC and LGAREC from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill district in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane.  It significantly out yielded the local check variety Phil-66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. The variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

However, none passed the selection criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 2.    Ecological Test of Phil 1997 Series: Set A – V.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Fourteen test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 1997 Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating.  Phil 97-1391 significantly out yielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew.  Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2382 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

None passed the criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 3.    Preliminary Yield Test of 2000 Series – A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

Fifty two test clones from the 2000 row test series with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid out in RCBD at LAREC.  Actual agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at LAREC.

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and LKG/Ha with the check varieties, Phil 7544 and Phil 8013.  Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

  1. 4.    Improvement of Phil 56226 Through Induced Mutation – V.A. Serrano, M.M. Guevarra, A.M. Burcer and J.D. Recuenco

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kg to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

Selection from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years.  After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control.  No selection from Phil 53-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired.  A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

  1. 5.    Screening of 1997 – A Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew – A. Vitug and M.M. Guevarra

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 49 were rated from intermediate resistant to very highly resistant, 2 were highly susceptible, 1 was highly susceptible and 4 were intermediate susceptible.

  1. 6.    Screening of 1997 –B Series for Resistance to Smut – L.Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Among the six clones of ’97 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane then in plant cane.

  1. 7.    Screening of 1998 Series for Resistance to Smut – L.S. Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Of the four clones of 1998 series from LGAREC tested for smut reaction, only  98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

EFFICIENT FARMING SYSTEMS

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Rates of Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons - A.M. Burcer, R.A. del Rosario, M.M. Guevarra and O.T. Quilloy

Planting rate from 20,000-40,000 canepoints per hectare with Phil 90-1237 produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints.  The treatment using chipped tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops.  Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers also produced the highest return on investment (ROI) in ratooned canes.

  1. 2.    Variety Performance at different season of planting and age of harvesting – M.M. Guevarra and B.G. Manlapaz

Study 1.  The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091, Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 093-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-1913. VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha.  When harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha at 12 and 14 MAP and significantly higher LKG/TC at 12 MAP

Study 2.  Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKG/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKG/TC significantly differ than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKG means seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant between varieties and season of planting on LKG/Ha.

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Leguminous Cultivars as Green Manures for Sugarcane – E.B. Estanislao

Study 1.  Evaluation of Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum as Green Manure of Sugarcane.

Study 2.  Evaluation of Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium caeruleum as Green Manure Crop of Sugarcane.  Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium Caerulum with or without N fertilization.  In contrast, green mannuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

  1. 2.    Efficiency of Fertilizer Usage on Sugacane – A.A. Magnaye

Application of fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose with different methods did not produce significant differences in growth and yield data.  Although the results were comparable it showed that a combination of the methods of application whether applied during early and late planting seasons produced high tonnage and sugar yield.

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut, Ustilago scitaminea Sydow – L.S. Vidallon, A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments.  Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging gave the lowest TC/Ha and LKG/ha.  In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha that strict5 selection + farmer’s cultural practices and intensive weeding, LKG/TC did not significantly differ.  The LKG/ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than the strict selection seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKG/Ha.

  1. 2.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Lesion Nematodes – J.D. Recuenco.

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting.  Pratylenchus populations of plots treated with Furadan and applied with Furadan with mudpress were comparable and were significantly lower than those trashes were burned and those treated with Durabloom.

In the ratoon canes, Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after rationing.  Patylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes and had an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample.  Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patters on Plant Cane and Ratoons – D.A. delos Santos, T.B. Banas, M.L.C. Almodiente and M.T. D. Alejendrino

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns on three croppings of Phil. 8943.  There were eight (8) furrow spacing used.  Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare each treatment.  Result on plant cane showed highest number of tillers from the .75 m furrow spacing although comparable with other treatments.  Other parameters such as length and diameter at harvest were comparable.  Yield in LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha were also comparable.

On first ratoon crop, statistically highest tiller count was obtained from the .75 m spacing.  At harvest however, stalks lengths ,diameter and number of millable stalks gave comparable results.   The same was observed on LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha. Almost the same trend was observed on the second ratoon crop.

The highest returns of investment (ROI) in plant cane, first and second ratoon were obtained in 1.5 m (40,000 population density), 1.5 m (66,666) and 1 m (40,000), respectively.

Generally 1 m spacing proved to be economically advantageous, however, for purposes of trash mulching and intercropping other row schemes such as double triple and quadruple rows are recommended.

  1. 2.    Effect of De-trashing Standing Canes on Sugarcane Yield  – T.S. Jereza, D.A. delos Santos

To generate information on the effect of de-trashing standing canes on the growth and yield of sugarcane, the study was conducted at LGAREC in December 2003 to December 2004.

Results showed that the number of millable stalks of Phil 93-3727 increase when detrashed at 9 and 21 months after planting (MAP).  Significant difference was also observed on plant height when the canes were de-trashed at 9 and 12 MAP.

Sugar yield per hectare (LKG/ha) significantly increased when de-trashing was done at harvest and when canes were de-trashed monthly starting at 8 months until harvest.

Other growth and yield parameter such as stalk length and diameter, tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar per ton cane (LKG/TC) were either comparable and/or not significant among treatments.

Based on the findings of the study de-trashing of standing canes should be done at harvest for clean cane delivery to mills thus increasing sugar recovery.

  1. 3.    Monitoring of Released Micropropagated Plantlets to Different Planters/recipients M.T.D. Alejandrino, C.L. Morales, T.B. Banas and D.A. delos Santos

A total of 289,000 Phil 94-0913 micropropagated plantlets were released to twelve (12) planters/recipients from nine (9) different mill districts.

Of the seven recipients who have already cutbacked their microplantlets, an average of 79.30% survival rate was observed.  The highest survival rate of 98.0% was observed at DMC Farms (Kabankalan City) and Had. Bayabas (Cadiz City) and the lowest was at 30.0% at ELRO, Had. Valencia (Bais City).  ELRO got the lowest survival rate because the microplantlets were unloaded from the truck three (3) days after release which resulted to high mortality of plantlets.

There were not much of pests and diseases except for minimal occurrence of borers, downy mildew and rust which were controlled also by the planters/recipients.

An average of 21.13 lacsas were produced by the different planters/recipients.  ELRO, Had. Valencia of Bais City has the lowest production (7.0 lacsas) while Had Bayabas, Cadiz City had the highest production of 39 lacsas.

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3727 Plant Cane and Ratoon to Varying NPK Fertilization and Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 93-3155 & Phil 93-3727 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 93-3727 plant cane was laid-out on October 2002 and Phil 93-3155 was on November 2002.

Phil 93-3155.  Significant variations in tonnage and LKG/ha of Phil 93-3155 plant cane was due to the significant differences in stalk length and total millable stalks as influenced by nitrogen.  The longest canes and the highest total millable stalks were obtained from the 150N treatment resulting to a high TC/Ha of this N treatment.  The highest cane yield (109.06 TC/Ha) and sugar yield (245.62 LKG/ha) of newly planted Phil 93-3155 obtained at 150 kg N/Ha were comparable with 50 and 200 kg N/Ha but significantly higher than 100 kg N/Ha.  Application of 50, 100 and 200 kg N/Ha also gave comparable tonnage and LKG/Ha.  Cane and sugar yield of all nitrogen treated plots were significantly higher than the 0 N treatment. Nitrogen rates did not anymore influenced the cane and sugar yield of Phil 93-3155 during the ratoon crop.  Sugar rendement (LKG/TC) was not significantly affected by N fertilization in both plant and ratoon cropping.

Phosphorous and potassium did not influence the yield on Phil 93-3155 in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendement (LKG/TC) and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) among various P and K treatments did not differ significantly.

Phil 93-3727.  Except in weight per stalk, growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter and total number millable stalks were comparable among the different N rates in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Heaviest stalk was observed at 200 kg N/Ha, comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha, significantly heavier than 50 kg N/ha and without N.

Phil 93-3727 (PC) fertilized with 200 kg N/Ha obtained a significantly higher sugar yield ILKG/Ha) due to high tonnage per hectare produced.  This result however, was comparable with 100 and 150 kg/ha, significantly higher than fertilization of 0 and 50 kg/ha.  In ratoon crop, tonnage (TC/Ha –and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) regardless of rates did not suffer significantly, however significantly higher than without N.

Nitrogen fertilization did not influence the quality of juice (LKG/TC) extracted among the different treatments.

Varying levels of phosphorous and potassium, did not affect the yield of Phil-93-3727.  Differences in the cane yield (TC/Ha), LKG/TC and LKG/Ha were not significant among treatments.

The highest net benefit in the plant cane was obtained using 150 kg N/Ha giving an ROI of 62.20%.  In ratoon crop, N fertilization at 100 kg N/Ha gave the highest net benefit with an ROI of 73.64%.

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 94-0913 Plant Cane and Ratoon Crop to Varying NPK Fertilization on Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA –LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 94-0913 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 94-0913 plant cane was laid-out on November 2002 and harvested November 2003 while the ratoon crop was started November 2003 and harvested October 2004.

Phil 94-0913 plant cane gave the highest yield of 188.79 TC/Ha and 401.03 LKG/Ha at 150 kg N/Ha in combination with 150 kg/Ha P2O5 and 300 kg/Ha K2O.  These yield results were comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.  P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence the yield of Phil 94-0913 plant cane.

Highest TC/Ha of Phil 94-0913 ratoon was obtained at 150-150-300 kg/Ha NPK while the highest LKg/Ha was observed at 200 kg/Ha NPK.  Both yield data were comparable with 100 kg/Ha NPK.  P2O5 fertilization gave significant yield at 150 kg/Ha, compare with 200 kg/ha.  K2O had no significant influence on yield of Phil 94-0913 ratoon.

Sugar segment (LKG/TC) of both plant and ratoon crops of Phil 94-0913 were not influence by NPK fertilization.

Highest net benefit and return on investment (OI) derived from nitrogen fertilization of Phil 94-0913 plant cane was attained at 150 kg N/Ha at constant rate of P2O5 and K2O (150 and 300 kg/Ha, respectively).

Phil 94-0913 ratoon obtained the highest net benefit and OI at 200 kg/Ha N and 150 kg/Ha.  P2O5 at constant rate.

  1. 3.    Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid Fertilizers) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and S.B. Tahum

Early growth results showed that HUMUS + nitrofert alone or in combination with ½ of the recommended rate improved the germination percentage as well as tiller number of Phil 93-3849.

Yield results indicated that application of HUMUS + nitrofert alone improved the yield of sugarcane by about 10.92 LKG/Ha over the control.  When combined with ½ of the recommended rate of fertilization improvement was 15.06 LKG/Ha against the ½ RR alone.  In contrast, when HUMUS + nitrofert was applied together with the full recommended rate fertilizer, yields tended to decrease when compared to full R alone.

Based on the results, it is therefore recommended that HUMUS + nitrofert should be applied together with only ½ of the fertilization recommendation to be effective.  To minimize fertilizer cost combined application of HUMUS + Nitrofert and only ½ of the recommended rate of fertilizer is likewise recommended.

Futhermore, since no residual nutrients were detected on the soil analysis after the harvest of the plant crop, the same amount of HUMUS + Nitrofert will be applied together with ½ of the fertilizer recommendation, if ratoon crop will be continued.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2001 Series from Row Test (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 61 clones plant cane tested against downy mildew of sugarcane, 42 were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease.  In the ratoon crop, 25 clones were very highly resistant, 13 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 5 very highly susceptible.

  1. 2.    Smut Resistance Test Phil 1999 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 5 clones plant cane tested against smut of sugarcane, 1 was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 1 susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 1 clone was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 3.    Phil 2000 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 48 clones plant cane tested, 5 were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 4 clone were very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.

  1. 4.    Phil 1999 and 2002 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses

Two (2) clone of the 1999 series were rated highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible to the disease.  For 2002 series, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 25 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and resistant and 33 very highly susceptible to the disease.

  1. 5.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil-1997-1998 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against yellow spot or sugarcane, 1 was resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series plant cane, 1 was highly resistant, 1 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 4 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 2 clones were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 2 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series ratoon, 2 were intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.

  1. 6.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 40 clones plant cane tested, 1 was resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 3 clones were intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 18 very highly susceptible.

  1. 7.    Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.V. Estioko

The 1997 series clone was rated intermediate resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane.  Two (2) clones of the 1999 series were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  Of the 2000 series clone 1 was rated vey highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 7 resistant, 16 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1997-1998 Series PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against leaf scorch or sugarcane, 8 were highly resistant, 3 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series plant cane, 10 were highly resistant, 1 intermediate and 1 intermediate average.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 7 clones were highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series ratoon, 8 were highly resistant, 2 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate average.

  1. 9.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 40 clones plant cane tested, 13 were highly resistant, 19 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were highly resistant, 20 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible and 3 highly susceptible.

  1. 10.  Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.G. Entima

The 1997 series clone was related intermediate resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane.  Of the 4 clones of the 1999 series, 2 were highly resistant while the others were intermediate resistant.  Thirty seven clones of the 2000 series were highly resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane, 7 intermediate resistant and 3 intermediate average.

  1. II.        INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (IR&D)

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

  1. 1.    Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2004)

 

To apprise the sugar industry technocrat on the preceding milling season’s milling status, performance, recent development in processing, problems, constraints and breakthroughs.  The review’s findings will serve as important reference for the industrial and agricultural sectors in improving their productivity and efficiency levels.

2.   Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2005)

                  Same as above but contains data for the year 2005

  1. 3.     Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data CY 2003-2004

 

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers

Abstract of Completed Researches (2004)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2004)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Evaluation of Different Harvesting and Post-harvest Practices on Yield of Sugarcane – A.  Burcer,  R. del Rosario,  M. Guevarra and O. Quilloy.

                 

The study assessed losses in cane weight and sugar rendement (Lkg/TC) due to some harvesting and post harvest practices in  two sugarcane varieties, Phil 8715 and Phil 90-1237 and estimated losses in sugar yield per hectare (Lkg/Ha) based on data generated.

 

Canes cut at  6 inches above the base produced significant mean stalk weight loss compared to canes cut to the base.  Phil 8715 tend to produce higher stalk weight loss and lower Lkg/TC loss compared to Phil 90-1237.

 

Mean total trashes in a cane stalk was about 17.8%.  Trashy canes were significantly heavier than clean canes but Lkg/TC were lower.  Phil 8715 contained higher trashes and had higher losses in Lkg/TC.

 

The more cane tops removed the lower was the cane weight and the higher was the Lkg/TC.

 

Significant mean weight loss in green cane stalks topped and left standing in the field occurred after 15 days.  Apparent purity significantly decreased after 15 days on Phil 8715 and after 3 days on Phil 90-1237.  Significant losses in Lkg/TC occurred after 15 days and 6 days on Phil 8715 and Phil 90-1237, respectively.

 

Weight, apparent purity and Lkg/TC of green cane stalks cut and piled in the field and burned cane stalks cut and filed or left standing in the field of the two varieties decreased with prolonged number of days of delay in harvesting/milling.

 

Estimated loss in Lkg/Ha due to cutting 6 inches above the base of stalk was 11.86%  while  removal  of  2  and  3  top  points  had 7.22 and 26.22%, respectively.  Estimated  loss  in  Lkg/Ha  due  to trashes ranged from 3.09 to 8.70%.

Delay in milling of green cane stalks topped and left standing from 3 to 20 days gave Lkg/Ha losses from 4.01 to 35.22%.   Lkg/Ha losses with delay in milling from 3 to 15 days of green canes cut and piled in the field, burned canes cut and piled and burned canes left standing were 7.49% -50.69 %, 2.20 -100% and 0.20 – 98%, respectively.

 

2.    Use  of  Enerplant as Growth Hormone on Sugarcane -  B. Manlapaz  and  O. Quilloy    

 

The effects on growth and yield of sugarcane of Enerplant growth regulator in combination with varying levels of nitrogen was tested  in Angeles loamy sand.

 

Germination of canepoints among treatments which ranged from 86 to 90 percent was statistically comparable.  Tillering and plant height varied significantly among  enerplant growth regulator and nitrogen levels at 7 and 10  months after planting, respectively.

 

Significant means differences were observed on diameter of millable stalks at harvest, where the enerplant treated canes gave smaller stalk diameter.

 

Mean differences on number, weight and length of millable stalks at harvest among nitrogen levels and enerplant treatments were statistically insignificant.

 

Application of 5.2 and 7.8 ml/ha of enerplant growth regulator gave higher Lkg/TC at 135 kg N/ha level of fertilization.  Other rates of enerplant treatments with varying levels of nitrogen fertilization gave comparable  Lkg/TC means.

 

Higher cane and sugar yields were observed only among nitrogen levels. Enerplant growth regulator treatments had lower cane tonnage yield than the control. The rate of 7.8 ml/ha of enerplant growth regulator produced slightly higher sugar yield than the control.  However, the sugar yield differences among treatment means were not significant.

 

Foliar spray application of enerplant  on sugarcane during the early vegetative growth stages did not significantly improve sugar yield.

 

3.    Evaluation of Mercena pruriens as Green Manure for Sugarcane – E. Estanislao   and  O. Quilloy

 

Canepoint    germination,  plant  height and tillering were not significantly affected by green manuring with  M. pruriens.   Incorporation of M. pruriens into the soil before  planting  significantly  increased  millable stalk production with or without N fertilization.

 

M. pruriens  planted at 2m x 2m distance of seeding and fertilized with 90 kg/ha N significantly increased cane and sugar yields of the plant cane.

 

Significant differences in cane tonnage and sugar yields means were observed in the ratoon crop at different levels of nitrogen.

 

4.    Increasing Efficiency of Applied Fertilizer for Sugarcane.  Study 1.  Evaluation of different forms/ kinds of nitrogenous fertilizer – A. Magnaye and O. Quilloy

 

Fertilization  with  different forms/kinds of nitrogenous fertilizer in combination with different organic fertilizers in pellet forms were conducted in Angeles loamy sand from June 2002 to March, 2004.

 

Application of combined organic and inorganic fertilizer in pellet form did not  produce  significant growth and  cane and sugar yield.  Although results were comparable,  ammosul applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers produced higher cane  tonnage  and sugar yield  in both plant and ratoon canes.

 

5.    Ecological  Test of  Phil 94 series at LAREC, Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol – Serrano V. and M. Guevarra  

 

Test clones from the Phil 1994 series were entered in the ecological test in  LAREC-Pampanga, Batangas, Bicol and Cagayan during the CY 2001-2004 to determine their geographical adaptability.

 

Combined ANOVA based  on sugar yield and mean comparison showed Phil 94-3491 to be geographically adapted in Batangas, LAREC and Cagayan and  Phil 94-0913 to be  adapted in Bicol, LAREC and Cagayan.

 

These clones were also rated from  intermediate average to very highly  resistant to either smut or downy mildew. They are  recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

6.    Ecological  Test  of   Phil 95 series at LAREC,  Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol – R. Del Rosario,   A. Burcer and  M.  Guevarra    

 

Fourteen test clones from the Phil 1995 series were entered in the ecological test in  LAREC-Pampanga, Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol during the CY 2001-2003 to determine their geographical adaptability.

 

Combined ANOVA based on sugar yield and mean comparisons  showed Phil 95-1029, Phil 95-0887 and Phil 95-3877 to be geographically adapted in Pampanga, Cagayan and Batangas while Phil 95-1421 is adapted to Cagayan, Batangas and Bicol.

These  clones  were  rated  from intermediate average to very highly resistant to either smut or downy mildew.  These   clones are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

7.    Species  Identification  and  Damage  Assessment  of  Borer on Sugarcane – J. Recuenco 

 

Borer infested stalks sampled from 11 sugarcane farms in Pampanga, Balayan and Don Pedro mill districts and LAREC experiment station showed that the white top borer, Scirpophaga nivella (F.) was the predominant  species found infesting three-to-eight-month sugarcane of different Phil and VMC varieties. The stemborer, Chilotraea  infuscatella Sn., had  lower incidence.

 

In the field test, infestation by S. nivella  started three months after planting in all seven test sugarcane varieties at varying levels with highly significant differences.  Mean infestation started at 2.5% three MAP, was highest at  six months and declined at 2.3% on the eight month. Tillers per furrow increased on sugarcane varieties highly infested with top borers.  Varieties with high top borer infestation at three to six MAP had higher losses in cane and sugar yields at maturity than those infested at eight MAP.

 

Among the test varieties, Phil 93-2349 had the lowest top borer infestation,  highest % germination, more tillers, longest stalk with small diameter and produced the highest  cane and sugar yields with highest ROI of 1.68.

 

Linear correlations of growth and yield parameters with % top borer infestation indicated that the higher the % infestation, the lower the  cane and sugar yields while varieties with bigger stalk diameter had higher % infestation with reduced stalk length.

 

It is recommended that top borer infestation on three-to-six-month sugarcane should be monitored to detect borer damage trends for timely application of control strategies particularly  on early maturing varieties.

 

8.    Screening   of Phil  97 Series Clones to  Sugarcane  Smut caused by  Ustilago    scitaminea  Syd. – A. Casupanan  and  M.  Guevarra   

 

Fifty-five  clones of the 1997 series were screened and tested for  reaction to sugarcane smut in both plants and ratoon canes. Ratings were as follows: two each were   very highly resistant (97-0407 and 97-1411), and   highly resistant (97-0929 and 97-2059), 1 was  resistant (97-0891), 3  were intermediate resistant (97-1165, 97-275 and 97-2135), 6 were  intermediate average, 2 were intermediate susceptible, 3 were susceptible, 2 were  highly susceptible and 34 were  very highly susceptible.

 

9.    Screening  of   Phil  96   Series  Clones  for  Resistance to Downy Mildew  – A. Vitug  and  M.  Guevarra    

 

Downy  mildew  ratings of test 50 clones of 96  series were as follows:  very highly resistant, 13;   highly resistant, 6;  resistant, 8;  intermediate resistant, 9;  intermediate  average, 3; intermediate  susceptible, 1; susceptible, 3;  highly  susceptible, 3; and very highly susceptible, 4.


 

B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

1.    Ecological testing of Phil 97-selections in Ma-ao/La Carlota, SONEDCO, BISCOM, and Passi mill districts – R.D. Pillado, R.G. Entima, N.S. Meneses and R.T. Harder

 

Phil 97-0693, Phil 97-1123 and Phil 97-2041 performed at least comparable or better than Phil 8013 and Phil 8477 in the five test sites in Negros and Panay in terms of cane tonnage, TC/Ha and sucrose content, LKg/TC. The three Phil 97-selections are resistant to smut and downy mildew and will be further evaluated in the National Cooperative Test (NCT) along with ther VMC-bred selections.

2.    Hot water treatment of canepoints in relation to disease recurrence in plant and ratoon crops - N.S. Menses and M.C. Alba

 

Canepoints of smut-susceptible Phil 56226 were soaked in 500C hot water for 2 hours and planted in the field nursery. Smut and downy mildew infections are not manifested on the plants until cutback at 6 months. However smut infection recur when cutback canepoints are planted in the field. Smut infection in the untreated canepoints was higher and yields were lower than canepoints taken from the nursery using hot water treated planting materials. Hot water treatment was found effective in controlling plant diseases only in the nursery.

 

3.    Tolerance of micropropagated plantlets of sugarcane to herbicides – L.C. Almodiente, T.D. Alejandrino and D.A. Delos Santos

 

Micropropagated plantlets sprayed with Authority 480SA showed bleaching and burning of leaf tips after 2 days but the injury caused by the chemical disappeared within 15 days. Command 3ME+ 2, 4-D and Sencor + 2, 4-D manifested crop injury that caused 11 to 14 percent mortality of plantlets which is still within the acceptable range of survival rate. More canepoints with bigger stalks are produced when weeds on micropropagated plantlets are controlled by herbicides.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

1.    Pollution Management  Appraisal of Selected Sugar Mills

 

This project attempts to address environmental concerns of the mills vis-à-vis their modern technology acquisitions.  Four (4) sugar mills have been audited for Pollution Management.

 

2.    Liquid Sweeteners from Molasses

 

Liquid sweeteners are liquid saccharides derived from corn, wheat, cassava, etc which are very rich in glucose and fructose and produced by acid hydrolysis or fermentation of sucrose-based material.

 

This study produced liquid sweetener form molasses.  The process involved fermentation of molasses in a period of 3 months to produce alcohol and liquid sweetener.  The liquid syrup obtained has a bitter taste due to high concentration of glucose; further isomerization by the action of enzymes for 3 days allowed conversion of glucose into fructose, which reduced the bitter taste.

 

Liquid sweetener obtained from fermented molasses was stable up to a 2-year period. However, after enzymatic isomerization, 250 Brix syrup deteriorated after 2 weeks while 350 Brix, after a month of storage.

The relative sweetness of liquid syrup may be comparable to sucrose and other liquid sweetener but the preserving characteristics and high antioxidant contents could be suitable for some commercial products as additives or supplements.  I was palatable and consumable in small dosage (1-2 tablespoons).

The significance of this study on liquid sweeteners is its relevance in the present demand for alcohol production for fuel.  The process of liquid sweetener production is the conventional method of alcohol production by continuous process.  The alcohol and liquid sweetener are co-products in the process.  The waste product, stillage, in the continuous process is only 7 liters per liter ethanol, compared to 13 liters/L ethanol in the batch method.  The disposal of the stillage is a major environmental problem of distilleries.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

1.    Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2003)

 

To apprise the sugar industry technocrat on the preceding milling season’s operations status, performance, recent development in processing, problems, constraint and breakthroughs.  The review’s findings will serve as important reference for the industrial and agricultural sectors in improving their productivity and efficiency levels.

2.    Equipment  Sizing

 

This study is a joint project of FOD and PHILSUTECH, Fabrication Division. FOD personnel was tasked to survey, compile results and compute for different equipment capacities of all operating sugar mills.  These capacities are to be used in determining the capacity standards under Philippine condition.  A sort of a guide was published.

 

3.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries, Year 2001

 

This publication contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating sugar refineries in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and refineries and sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

4.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries, Year 2002

 

Same as above but contains data for the refining year 2002.

 

5.    Capacity and Performance Audit Manual

 

This project produced a standard operating manual of procedures and methods to be used in conducting a Capacity and Performance Audit in the sugar mills and refineries.

 

6.    Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data CY 2002-2003

 

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

7.    Standardization of Reports/MI Instruments Data Log for the Raw Sugar Factories (Phase II)

 

To be able to come up with a standard production and performance statement/report format for the industry’s raw sugar factories based on internationally adapted standard in line with bigger undertaking of standardizing mill operations.

8.    Energy Efficiency: An Approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line

 

The project covers energy matters towards reducing cost of raw sugar production.  Through questionnaires and surveys among Philippine sugar mills, technical calculations and analyses may be established.

 

9.    Refinery Equipment Audit

 

This publication contains listing of all major equipment in sugar refineries in the Philippines.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2003)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2003)

I.    AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1)    Composting Bagasse and Mudpress with Sewage Sludge

 

Sewage sludge was found an effective ingredient in the composting of sugar  mill wastes such as bagasse and mudpress.  When used in watering the compost pile, it supplies the moisture and nutrient requirements of microorganisms that hastens organic matter decomposition. The recommended fertilization level was 4 Tons/ha of compost with supplemental  dose of 90 kg/ha N by Urea (46-0-0).

 

2)    Utilization of distillery slops on sugarcane production

 

The test distillery slops which includes raw, evaporated and digested distillery slops were better applied in full dose that split dose. Based on the results, recommended application levels of distillery slops and nitrogen fertilizer that improved growth and yield of sugarcane were as follows: raw and digested distillery slops, 50-100 m3/ha with 120 kg/ha N fertilizer in both plant and ratoon crops; and evaporated distillery slops, 25-50 m3/ha with 180 kg/ha N in the plant crop and 25 to 50 m3/ha with 60 to 120 kg/ha N in the first ratoon crop.

 

Phytotoxic symptoms or adverse effect were not observed on plots applied with the test distillery slops from 25 to 100 m3/ha in combination with nitrogen fertilization in the plant and ratoon crops.

 

Raw distillery slops applied in full dose or split dose from 50 to 200m m3/ha effectively reduced the population of plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane in the plant and first ratoon crops.

 

The results of the studies showed that distillery slops can be utilized in sugarcane production as supplemental fertilizer and as control for the plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane.

3)    Smut  Infection in Relation to Irrigation – A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

 

The incidence of smut (Ustilago scitaminea) is usually high during the dry season. Irrigating the sugarcane field significantly reduced the degree of smut infection.  Sugarcane plants irrigated at 10 days interval are less infected with smut and grew vigorously.

 

B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

1.    Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements of Phil 96 series in Micro propagation Culture mediumM.T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to determine the Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements in the culture medium for micropropagation of 1996 series sugarcane varieties; namely Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3239, Phil 96-3263 and Phil-4135.

 

The test varieties varied in the requirements for BAP to the culture medium  Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3263 and Phil 96-4135 required 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the initial shoot tip explants for micro propagation while Phil 96-3239 needed 0.3ppm.

Based on the above observations, generally, most of varieties tested respond positively to 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the culture medium.

2.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patterns on Plant Cane and Ratoons D.A. de los Santos; Ma. L. Almodiente and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different planting schemes using 8 row distances on the growth and yield of Phil 8943. The experiment was laid out in November 2001 and harvested in November 2002. The row distances as treatments were set in 6m x 10m plots arranged in Randomized Complete Block design with 4 replications. The row distances used were: 1) 1m between rows, 4 cp/m;  2) 1.5 between rows, 6 cp/m;  3) 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m; 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m;  4) 1.5m between rows, 4 cp/m;  5) double row (1.5 x .05m), 4 cp/m;  6) Triple rows, 1.5 x 0.5m, 4 cp/m;  7) Quadruple rows, 1.5 x 0.5,  4 cp/m and  8) 0.75 between rows, 4 cp/m.

Preliminary plant cane results, showed that tonnage yields of Phil 8943 did not differ among treatments.  At the early stage of growth the number of tillers were higher for treatments with higher planting densities, and the lowest in the least dense treatment.  However, at harvest, millable stalks were comparable in all treatments. Stalks length, diameter, LKg/TC and also LKg/Ha were also comparable.  The results of the plant cane that low population density planting Phil 8943 gave comparable yields with higher densities given the adequate conditions for growth and development.

3.    Evaluation of Methods of Planting During Wet SeasonP.F. Gipanago, D.A. de los Santos and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

An experiment to evaluate the effect of different methods of planting cane points during wet periods was laid out in July 2001 at the La Granja Agricultural Research & Extension Center.  The five treatments consisted of planting single and double cane points flat and angled at 45o in furrows and double cane points planted along the ridges. Plot sizes were 5m x 5m, and treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.

Plant height and number of tillers per plot 3 and 5 months after planting were not significantly different among treatments.  Likewise, the number of millable stalks and stalk length were also not significant.  With the insignificance of the growth and yield components, TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha also followed the same trend.

Even without significance, the results clearly show the advantage of planting single cane points in the furrow, whether planted flat or angled at 45o.  It is economical and yields equivalent to the doubled population rate.  However, the results are not conclusive because of the high % of cv in both growth and yield parameters. Planting in July especially in water logged areas also delay harvesting as vegetative state is also prolonged.

4.    Evaluation of Different Integrated Weed Management Pratices in Sugarcane Ratoon During Wet and Dry Seasons of PlantingJ.C. Nierves, D.A. de los Santos, PH.D. and C.L. Morales

 

The experiments were conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design at La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center from November 1999 to May 2001 and ratooned after harvesting to evaluate the different integrated weed management practices in sugarcane ratoon and identify the most effective weed management practice during wet and dry seasons of planting.

In the wet season planting, the use of late post-emergence spray (26 days after stubble shaving) in combination with manual weeding (2x) and plow cultivation (2x) gave comparable cane tonnage and sugar yield with treatments applied with blanket weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) pre-emergence spray (2 days after stubble having) + manual weeding (3x) plow cultivation (3x) and row weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) but contributed the highest net income of P 54,537.32 in the ratoon crop.

In the dry season planting, the treatment applied with early post-emergence spray (12 days after stubble shaving) + manual  weeding (2X) + plow cultivation (2x) had similar TC/Ha and LKg/Ha with the rests of the weed management practices but obtained the net income of P 51,723.00.

The cost of weeding operations in the wet season planting was higher than the dry season in the ratoon crop. This was attributed by more rainfall that hastened the rapid growth of weeds.

Based on direct agricultural cost, the use of late and early port-emergence spray in combination with manual weeding and plow cultivation obtained the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield in the wet and dry seasons, respectively and found effective among the treatments used in the ratoon crop.  Hence, an efficient weed management practice involves not only a single but also a combination of the manual, mechanical and chemical application.

5.    Variety X Season of Planting Study: (Phil; 92, Phil 93 series) A. Early Season Planting – I.S. Bombio

 

A field study arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times was conducted at the SRA LGAREC Station from September 2001 to September 2002.  The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series sugarcane varieties when planted in the early milling season at the La Carlota mill district. Phil 8013 was included as control variety.

Land preparation consisted of two plowing and two harrowing by tractor with furrows set at 1m apart. The canepoints were planted double rows in the furrows and later thinned to 40,000 points per ha.  Fertilizers were applied in split doses – the 1st dose at planting; the 2nd dose two months after.  Weeds were controlled by chemical, manual and mechanical means.  Harvesting was done 12 months after planting. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the results.

At 3 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0751 was considerably taller, Phil 92-0577 and 93-2349 were as tall as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155 were consistently shorter.

All the test varieties produced fewer tillers/sqm except for Phil 93-2349 which have as much numbers as Phil 8013. At 6 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more tillers/sqm; Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as many as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 produced fewer tillers.

Tonnage yield was comparable to Phil 8013 except for Phil 93-3155 which was lower. Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as sweet as Phil 8013. Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3727 were of lower sucrose contents.  Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-2349 compared in sugar yield with Phil 8013 but Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3155 have lower yields.

Stalk length of Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-2349 were comparable to Phil 8013 but shorter in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155. Stalk diameter was bigger in Phil 92-0577 Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727, comparable to Phil 8013 in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 but smaller in Phil 92-0751.

Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more stalks/sqm, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 have fewer while Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as much number of millable stalks/sqm Phil 8013. Phil 92-0057 have heavier stalks, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3849 have lighter stalks while those of Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as heavy as Phil 8013 stalks.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

1.    DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Plant cane)R.G. Entima

 

Of the 90 clones tested, 88 were rated resistant and moderate to the disease.

b.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Ratoon)R.G. Entima

 

Out of 90 clones of the 1999 series Ratoon tested, 28 were very highly resistant, 15 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to downy mildew.

2.    SMUT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999-200 series (Row Test) – T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 157 clones tested, 39 were rated very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 28 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 9 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 45 very highly susceptible.

b.    Phil 1997-1998 series (PYT-Ratoon)T.B. Bañas

 

Among the 13 clones of the 1997-1998 series PYT ratoon tested, 2 were rated highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 2 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to smut.

3.    YELLOW SPOT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)N.S. Meneses

 

Four clones of the 1997 series ratoon were rated resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane, 23 intermediate resistant, 20 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 11 susceptible and 1 clone very highly susceptible.

4.    LEAF SCORCH RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1996 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 7 were resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 susceptibel and 35 highly susceptible to the disease.

 

b.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of the 68 clones tested, 3 were rated resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 2 susceptible while 44 were found highly susceptible to leaf scorch disease.

 

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

1.    INSECT PESTS

 

a.    Bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grubs in sugarcane – T.B. Bañas & R.V. Estioko

 

Efficacy of bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grub of sugarcane was evaluated under laboratory condition. White grubs were dosed with different concentrations of nematode alone and nematode + bacteria.

Mortality of grubs was observed in all treatments at three, six and twelve days exposure. The dosage of 5,000 nematodes + bacteria gave the highest percentage of mortality 32.81% at three days, 71.86% at six days and 100% in 12 days. All treatments except the control are statistically comparable. However the mortality with 5,000 nematodes + bacteria was comparable with 10,000 nematode + bacteria after 12 days.

The rate of 5,000 nematode + bacteria has the highest nematode recovery three days after inoculation and decreased almost consistently at 50% after six to twelve days.  In other treatment nematode recovery has oscillating increase and decrease after three to twelve days’ exposure.

b.    Further evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of white grubs – R.V. Estioko & T.B. Bañas

 

Heterorhabditis did not significantly infect the natural population of white grubs (Lepidiota sp.) in sandy soil. Although there was less population at 3 months after inoculation, such reduction was attributed to emergence of beetles and not to mortality of larvae caused by nematode infection. Due to relatively the same population of white grubs at 1 individual/stool, yields in all treatments were not significant.

c.    Effectiveness of emulsified concentrate insecticides for white grub control in sugarcane – R.G. Entima & M.C. Alba

 

With the use of emulsified concentrate insecticides, Confidor SL 100 obtained the highest percent grub mortality of 71.25%. Basudin 400 EC obtained mortality of 69.17%; Predator Plus, 64.17%; Lorsbasn 40 EC, 63.75% and Hopcin, 62.92%.

2.    DISEASES

 

a.    Integrated management of smut in sugarcane ratoon – T.B. Bañas & M.C. Alba

 

In effect and economics of integrated management technologies against smut disease of Phil 56226 ratoon were evaluated in this study. Treatments used  in addition to farmer’s practice were Vitigran Blue, Benlate, Sanitation, Roguing, Sanitation + Roguing, Roguing + Vitigran Blue, Roguing + Benlate and farmer’s practice alone.

Among the technologies, farmer’s practice with Vitigran Blue gave the lowest stool infection of 8.31% comparable with Benlate, Roguing + Vitigran Blue and Roguing + Benlate but significantly different from farmer’s practice alone having stool infection of 30.62%.

On yield, the highest TC/Ha of 95.33 and LKg/Ha of 215.20 were obtained from treatment with Vitigran Blue followed by rouging + Vitigran Blue with 91.00 TC/Ha and 210.03 LKg/Ha significantly higher compared to farmer’s practice alone.

The highest return of investment of 233.89 % was obtained with Vitigran Blue, followed by Benlate with 191.96% and rouging + Vitigran Blue with 161.20%.

b.    Effectiveness of hotwater treatment in relation to disease recurrence in plant and ratoon crops (Comparative performance of hotwater treated plants established in the nursery with and without precautionary measures) 1st year (Plant cane) – N.S. Meneses

 

Result of the 1st year study on comparative hotwater treatment showed no significant differences between treated and untreated Phil 56226 on growth parameters except for the number of tillers.

Likewise, yield parameters such as LKg/TC, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha showed comparable results. Percent nodal discoloration and bacterial counts were also comparable.

A 1.54% smut infection was observed in the field on the treated plot while 1.43% was observed on the untreated. In the nursery, yellow spot infection was below 5%.

The experiment is now on the 2nd year to further evaluate recurrence of diseases after hotwater treatment both in the nursery and field conditions.

 

SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

1.    Response of Phil 8839 5th Ratoon to Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization in Guimbala-on clay loam – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 5th ratoon to various NPK levels in Guimbalaon Clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that significant differences were observed in stalk length and stalk weight at harvest. On the other hand, stalk diameter were comparable among treatments while the total number of millable stalks differed significantly. A very slight reduction in the total number of millable stalks was obtained in the fifth ratoon compared with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all treatments were comparable. Tonnage (TC/Ha) significantly differed but were lower than the plant cane by 39.7%. Sugar yield (LK/ha) also differed significantly. The highest sugar yield was obtained at 200-150-200 NPK treatment. This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment. LKg/ha of the fifth ratoon was lower than the plant cane by 40.9%.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crop brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 fifth ratoon.

The highest net benefit of Php 63,310.32 was obtained at 200-0-0 rate with an MRR of 216.45 over the 140-35-0 NPK.

2.    Response of Phil 91-1091 secod ratoon to verying levels of NPK Fartilization – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This experiment was conducted in Guimbalaon soil at SRA-LGAREC from April 2002 to November 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon to various levels of NPK fertilization.

The highest tonnage (TC/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha and significantly higher than the O N fertilization. Similarly, the highest LKg/Ha was also obtained at 200 kg N/ha and likewise comparable with all other N treatments. The O N treatment gave the lowest sugar yield (LKg/Ha).

Stalk length, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were significantly influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Significant differences among treatment means on plant height and tiller number were obtained both at 3 and 6 MAR except the tiller number three months after rationing (3 MAR).

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC), cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was not statistically improved by phosphorus fertilization.

Stalk length, stalk diameter, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were not influenced by phosphorus fertilization, just like the plant height and tiller number both at 3 and 6 MAR.

LKg/TC was significantly influenced by potassium fertilization. Cane yield and sugar yield of Phil 91-1091 R2 did not significantly differ. The highest LKg/TC obtained at 450 kg K2O/Ha was comparable with 150 kg K2O/Ha and significantly higher than 300, 600 and O K fertilization.

Potassium, in like manner with phosphorus, did not influence stalk diameter, stalk length, weight per stalk, total millable stalks, plant height and tiller number of Phil 91-1091 R2.

Highest marginal rate of return of 4427.26 was obtained when nitrogen was applied at the rate of 50 kg N/Ha with a net profit of Php 41,237.51. AT higher N rates of 100 and 200.

3.    Influence of lime and acidic soils grown to sugarcane (ratoon)- R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted to verify further the validity of the SRA’s optimum lime requirement of acidic soils, grown to sugarcane and to determine the influence of residual lime on the growth and yield of Phil 91-1091 ratoon.

 

Arranged in a randomized block design (RCBD) with five (5) treatments replicated four (4) times, this study was conducted on a Guimbalaon soils with a pH of 4.9 at Hacienda Kanlaon II, La Castellana, Negros Occ. from December 2001 to December 2002. Calcitic lime rates at 0, 2, 4, 6 tons/ha and 4 tons/ha dolomite were used only during the plant crop.

Growth parameters such as plant height and number of tillers were not affected by lime application at different rates in both 3 and 6 MAR.

Although not significant, an increase of 7.29 T/Ha and 7.5 T/Ha at 4 and 6T/Ha calcitic lime respectively were obtained. Factors such as heavier stalks and more number of millable per plot contributed to the increase in tonnage.

Application of lime at different rates did not give significant influence on the rendement (LKg/TC), TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.  However, insignificant, application of 6 tons/ha lime gave the highest tonnage (88.57 TC/Ha) as compared to the cane applied with lime at 2 & 4 tons/has well as in 4 tons/ha dolomite that only gave 85.18, 88.36 & 83.61 TC/Ha respectively. The lowest cane tonnage (81.08 TC/Ha) was obtained in the un-limed.

A considerable increase in soil pH and exchangeable Ca++ was noted as the rate of lime increases with 6 tons/ha lime application as the highest.

Total soil N, available P and exchangeable K were not significantly different among rates of lime application.

The exchangeable Mg++ in the soil after harvest increased as the rate of lime increases with application of 4 tons/ha dolomite as the highest. The reduction of exchangeable A in the soil solution was due to the increased pH.

4.    Influence of time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and yield of                  Phil 92-0577 – R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro

 

5.    Response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization – Rosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam and Solena B. Tahum

 

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2001 to December 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 93-2349 highest yield of 152.76 TC/Ha and 339.45 LKg/Ha was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha. Both data were significantly higher than 150, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha.

P2O5 and K2O fertilization of the above variety gave the highest yield at 150 and 300 Kg/Ha respectively. Both treatments were significantly higher in their respective series of fertilization.

Phil 93-3849 highest yield of 121.19 TC/Ha and 265.43 LKg/Ha was obtained at 150 kg N/Ha. These yield data were comparable with 200, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha fertilization P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence TC/Ha and LKg/Ha and LKg/Ha of Phil 93-3849.

LKg/TC of both Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 were not influenced by NPK fertilization.

Phil 93-2349 gave the highest net profit of Php 113,866 at 200 kg N/Ha with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 1,356.45. P2O5 and K2O fertilization of Phil 93-2349 gave the highest MRR at 150 and 300 kg/Ha respectively. Phil; 93-3849 gave the highest net benefit of  Php 77,976 at 150 kg N/Ha with an MRR of 363.75 over the 100 kg N/Ha fertilization.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

RESEARCH PROJECTS

1.    Production of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks

Product development on sugarcane juice as a beverage led to the development of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks.  Cane stalks from SRA varieties – Phil 8839, Phil 092-751, Phil 7779 and Phil 8013 – were cut into cubes one inch size and treated aseptically prior to canning.  The cut canestalks were immersed in sugarcane juice and honey mixture (9:1) in the sterilized can, and sealed aseptically.

Parameters for shelf life such as pH and titrable acidity of the canned product were determined periodically for 7 weeks, of each variety tested.  All canned products were observed to maintain stable pH values of low acid range, 5.0-6.5. The titrable acidity values were observed to be within the values set for good quality shelf life of food products, which is not more than 2.5 ml titrable acidity. Sensory evaluation tests on texture of the product were also conducted on each variety of canned canestalk.  Canned canestalks from Phil 092-751 were observed to be very chewable, sweet and soft.  Each canned product contained 110 ml juice: honey mixture, and 3-5 pieceas cut canestalks weighing approximately 80-105.  Shelf-life of the canned products was stable up to 7 weeks.

2.    Handmade paper from sugarcane leaves and abaca

Two (2) sets of six runs each were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of sugarcane leaves and abaca pulp.  100-50% sugarcane leaves pulp were mixed with 0-50% abaca pulp.  The raw materials were pulped using the electric blender in the first set and the traditional mortar and pestle was used in the second set. Additives of 4% alum, 10% starch, 3% talc and 2% rosin were added to each run to enhance the quality of the paper produced.  The number of sheets formed was maintained at 15 sheets per run.  The same treatments and conditions were used for each set.

Tensile of handmade paper for each set were analyzed.  The papers produced have a tensile strength range of 213-320m.  Handmade papers from one hundred percent (100%) sugarcane leaves pulp had the lowest tensile strength.  As the proportion of the abaca mixed with sugarcane leaves increased, the tensile strength of the product also increased.

3.    Collaborative study with PNRI; processing of sugarcane wastes into high value products (mushroom)

The study was conducted to test the effect of different concentrations of molasses on the growth of submerged culture of Collybia reinekeana.

Results showed that as the concentration of molasses increases, there was also an increase in the weight of the mycelial growth.  At 1.5% molasses concentration, the yield in grams of the culture registered at 37.15; at 2% molasses, 79.37 and 2.5% molasses, 83.87.  Further increasing the concentration of molasses from 3% to 4% showed a decrease in mycelia weight.


 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

1.    The Philippine sugar industry through Philsutech’s half century

This project was conducted upon the request of PHILSUTECH as a special feature in its 50th Anniversary (50th National Convention). This is a documentary presentation of milestones and breakthroughs in the sugar industry, e.g., technology, events, institutions, legislation’s, people, production, performance, prices, varieties, transport, weather pattern, and other major events, and innovations that occurred, with PHILSUTECH in existence for the past fifty years. The presentation was conducted by Mr. F.H. Corpuz at the Plenary Session during the first day of the convention.

 

2.    Mill capacity & performance audit, PENSUMIL

The request for technical assessment of the Peñafrancia Sugar Mill (Pensumil) facilities located at Bo. Hima-ao, Pili, Camarines Sur, was coursed through Administrator James C. Ledesma by the Bicolandia’s sugar stakeholders in February 2003.  The administrator acceded to their request as an initial step towards the full development thrust of the sugar industry in Bicol.  This report contains recommendations in every aspect of the operation gleaned from observations and test results, meant to improve operations from the present levels.

 

3.    Annual synopsis of production and performance data CY 2001-2002

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

4.    An update of Philippine raw sugar milling hardware (2002)

This project is classified under technical publication.  As the title connotes, it is an update of the 1993 equipment audit.  Modifications and improvements in the mill’s equipment set-up undertaken within the last four years are noted and compiled in this edition – reporting the specifications of installed equipment added and rehabilitated from 1993 to focal year 1997.  Its tangible output is a publication entitled, “An Update of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Milling Hardware”.  The objective of this project is to generate a databank and a publication of the updated listing of the milling hardware of the Philippine Raw Sugar Factories.

 

5.    Evaluation of SRA’s clean and quality cane campaign

The study sought to bring the awareness of the trash problem to a higher level and to consolidate and reinforce the various activities currently undertaken

Abstract of Completed Researches (2002)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2002)

I.    AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1)    Free-Proline Accumulation for Drought Tolerance of Sugarcane Varieties

 

The drought tolerance of the sugarcane high yielding varieties (HYVs) were evaluated based on free-proline accumulation. Low soil moisture condition increased free-proline accumulation in sugarcane plants. The 30-day moisture stress duration when the sugarcane plants were 5 months old, was the critical sampling period for free-proline analysis. Phil 8013, Phil 90-1237, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 91-1091 accumulated significantly higher free proline than the other test varieties. Varieties with high free-proline accumulation produced high cane tonnage and sugar yields.

 

2)    Varietal Response of Sugarcane to Distillery Effluent

 

Ten commercial varieties were tested for growth and yield response to raw distillery effluent. In general, the ten varieties gave comparable response in terms of growth and yield in both the 100 tons effluent/ha and N fertilizer treatments in both the plant and ratoon canes. None of the varieties exhibited phytotoxic effects to effluent application.

 

3)    Influence of Season of Planting on Incidence of Sugarcane Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) C. G. Shaw

 

The study  determined the incidence of  downy mildew infection when planted in October (Early season planting), December (Mid-season planting) and February (Late season planting).  Percent downy mildew infection was highest in October planting, followed by February planting and  December planting with the lowest infection. While the  differences  in  percent infection was  insignificant,   percent infection significantly influenced the number of tillers, stalks height and  cane  and sugar yields.

 

4)    Occurrence and Control of Parasitic Nematodes Attacking Sugarcane

 

Eight nematode genera were identified in the soil samples collected from four mill districts: Balayan (Batangas), Don Pedro (Nasugbu), Pampanga, Tarlac (San Miguel) and LAREC (Floridablanca, Pampanga). The most predominant genera observed were Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhychus, Helitocylenchus, Croconemella and Rotylenchus. The other nematodes found but fewer in number and lesser in distribution were Hemicycliophora, Hoplolaimus and Xiphenema. Sugarcane plants inoculated with more Pratylenchus population multiplied and increased as the sugarcane plants developed more roots. The uninoculated sugarcane plants had better green leaf weight, stalk length and weight and basal diameter than those infected with nematodes. Plants inoculated with few Pratylenchus populations had heavier green leaves and longer and bigger stalks than those with more nematode populations. Starguard D100, Cadusafos and Carbofuran significantly controlled the nematode populations. One to 5 months after treatment, Starguard D100 effectively reduced the nematode populations better than Cadusafos and Carbofuran. The effectiveness  of the test nematicides declined with growth of sugarcane but their nematodes populations remained lower than those of the of the untreated plots. The results indicate the pathogenic effects of parasitic nematodes to sugarcane  as shown in the reduction of stalk length and weight, basal diameter, number of tillers and cane and sugar yield. Sugarcane treatment with nematicides had better cane and sugar yield than those without treatment.

 

5)    Productivity Improvement of Soil Planted to Sugarcane with Liquid Sewage Sludge

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2001)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2001)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Sewage Sludge Fertilization

 

Liquid sewage sludge applied after planting had no effect on canepoints germination. However, it enhance early growth and improved significantly plant height at 80 and 90 kg/ha N fertilizer treatments. Tillering was also improved significantly by increased rates of N and sewage sludge. More millable stalks were produced when the required 180 kg/ha N was supplied with 90 kg/ha N from urea and 80 T/ha sludge. Millable stalks were longer at 120 T/ha sludge at varying rates of N fertilization. Cane tonnage and sugar yields were significantly improved by sewage sludge application at varying rate of N fertilization particularly with the 90 kg/ha N + 80 tons sludge/ha combination.  Significant reduction in fertilization cost can be realized when half of the required N is supplied by urea and the other half with the sludge.

 

2.    Evaluation of New Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner for Sugarcane

 

Application of zeolite and bentonite in combination with nitrogenous fertilizer, increased the number of tillers and height of sugarcane plants, number of millable stalks and TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha. Although application of zeolite and bentonite did not cause statistically significant affects, the yields were higher than the urea fertilization or in combination with mudpress.

 

3.    Lime Requirement of Acidic Soils Grown to Sugarcane

 

The study determined the effects of different rates of lime applied in Angeles sandyloam (2,4,6,8, and 10 tons/ha) and Guadalupe clayloam (2,4 and 6 tons/ha) on the growth and yield of sugarcane.

 

Six tons/ha of lime incorporated in acidic Guadalupe clayloam improved the growth of Phil 8715 and increased the cane and sugar yields. Soil pH slightly increased with application of 4-6 tons/ha lime. Residual effect of 4 tons/ha of lime gave higher cane tonnage in the ratoon crop.

 

Application rates of 2-6 tons/ha did not increase the sucrose content and sugarcane yield of Phil 7544 in the ratoon crop.

 

Sugar yield of Phil 7544 in acidic Angeles sandy soil applied with 6 tons/ha of lime significantly increased.

 

4.    Evaluation of Different Harvesting and Post Harvest Practices

 

Increase in height of uncut stubble decreased tonnage but had no effect on sugar rendement (LKg/TC). Increase in number of top points cut from the stalk decreased tonnage and increased sugar rendement. Sugar rendement of milled trashy cane was lower than clean cane. Milled trashy stalk without top has lower sugar rendement than clean stalk without top. Milled trashy stalk without top has higher sugar rendement that milled trashy whole stalk and clean stalk with top. Topped green and burnt cane and left standing had higher sugar rendement and lower percentage loss than cut green and burnt cane left piled in the field.

 

5.    First Ratoon Performance of Phil 92 series at Pura, Tarlac

 

Ten  clones from the 1992 La Granja selection in the ecological test were ratooned and maintained to determine their ratoon performance. Low sugar yield per hectare was obtained inspite of high purity. Cane yield (TC/Ha) in the ratoon was low due to less number of millable stalks and decrease in length and weight of canes. Only Phil 92-0435 gave an increase in LKG/TC with 32.54% over the control. The other entries yielded lower than the 16% allowable yield reduction limit from plant canes to ratoon canes.  The ratoon yield decrease ranged from 5.42% to 14.24%, as compared to plant cane. Further testing of five clones were recommended.

 

6.    Recommended Soil Fertility Management Practices

 

Sugarcane fields at LAREC Floridablanca, Pampanga limed and fertilized with the required urea applied in split doses produced high sucrose canes and higher sugar yield which were comparable with 170-170-170 kg/ha fertilization with Triple 14.

 

Organic fertilizer like bagasse compost should be mixed with half of the required N and applied in full dose immediately after stubble shaving.  Maintenance dosage of P2O5 and K2O along with the required N tend to improve the nutrition of the cane plant as well as cane and sugar yields.

 

X-Rice fertilization as silicon supplement is not necessary on highly amorphous volcanic sandy soils of LAREC. Further studies should be undertaken to verify the observed influence of this growth hormone from New Zealand.

 

7.    Alternate and Blanket Mulching of Ratoon Canes

 

Alternate and blanket mulching of trashes in the first, second and third ratoon of Phil 8013 were compared with the control practice at LAREC. Both test mulching of trashes in rows of ratoon canes were beneficial in preventing rapid loss of soil moisture on ratoon crop. Yield of the three ratoon crops of Phil 8013 were improved by either mulching practices.

 

8.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones  of  Phil 91 and 93  Series to Sugarcane Downy Mildew (Ratoon) Caused Perosclerospora philippinensis

 

Twenty sugarcane clones of 91 series and fifty seven 93 series  were ratooned and tested for their  reaction to sugarcane downy mildew.

 

For 91 series, 11 were very highly resistant, two were resistant, one each was intermediate resistant and intermediate average and five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the 59 clones in  the 93 series, 44  were rated very highly resistant, three each were highly resistant, resistant  and  susceptible and four were  very highly susceptible.

 

 

9.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones of Phil 94 and Phil 95 Series  to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitaminea Sydow (Plant cane)

 

Sixty eight  clones of the 1994 series and 35 clones of the 1995 series were screened for resistance to sugarcane smut.

 

Reactions of  the 68  clones of 94 series were: very highly resistant, 12;   highly resistant, 2; intermediate resistant, 9; 5 intermediate average, 5;  intermediate susceptible,2; susceptible, 7; highly susceptible, 4; and very highly susceptible, 22.

 

On 95 series, of the 35 clones tested, 8 were very highly resistant, 3 were highly resistant, 3 were resistant, 7 were intermediate resistant, 2 each were intermediate average, intermediate susceptible and  susceptible and 8 were very highly susceptible.

 

 

10.  Survey, Distribution and Yield Loss Assessment of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Attacking Sugarcane

 

Soil samples collected from four mill districts, Don Pedro, Balayan, Pampanga and Tarlac, showed that Don Pedro and Balayan Mill District had the highest nematode populations which ranged from 300 to 1000 nematodes per 200 grams of soil. The predominant species  were Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Tylenchorynchus.

 

Sugarcane plants inoculated with more Pratylenchus had higher population 30, 60 and 120 days after inoculation. The Pratylenchus population multiplied and increased as the sugarcane plants developed more roots.   The nematode population ranged from 281.75 to 610.75, which were higher than the critical level, 120 days after inoculation.

 

The uninoculated sugarcane plants had better weight of green leaves, length and weight of stalk and diameter of base that those infected with nematodes. The plants with less Pratylenchus inoculated had heavier green leaves and longer and bigger stalks than those with higher nematode inoculated.

 

Starguard, Cadusophos and Carbofuran effectively controlled the nematode populations. One to 4 months after treatment, however, Starguard controlled nematode populations better than Cadusophos and Carbufuran. Five months after treatment the nematode populations increased and continued until sugarcane maturity.

 

The cane and sugar yields of  the treated soils were higher than those in the untreated plots. The differences, however, were not significant.

 

11.  1993 Series Ecological Test (LGAREC Selection)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LGAREC, Phil 90-1237 and one check variety Phil 75-44 were entered in the ecological test at LAREC and Pura, Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the test clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 90-1237 were geographically adapted in both LAREC and Pura, Tarlac as showed by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-4159 were also found to be adapted in LAREC while Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3583 were adapted in Pura, Tarlac.

 

These clones are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

12.  1993 Series Ecological Test (Selections  from PYT at LAREC)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LAREC, and one check variety Phil 7544, were entered in the ecological test at LAREC, Pampanga and Pura Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that all the test clones except Phil 93-655 were geographically adapted to LAREC and Pura Tarlac as shown by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-2413, Phil 93-287, Phil 93-1975, Phil 93-4703, Phil 93-2361, Phil 93-3277, Phil 93-083 and Phil 93-3663 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

13.  1992 Series Ecological Test (Selections from PYT at LAREC)

 

Eleven test clones selected by LAREC from the 1992 PYT at LGAREC and two check varieties Phil 7544 and CADP SCI were entered in the ecological test using RCBD at LAREC to determine the yield performance.

Results showed that test clones Phil 92-0721 consistently outyielded the two check varieties in terms of tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendiment (Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (Lkg/Ha). Two other test clones that gave statically comparable yield performance with the check varieties are Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137. These three test clones, Phil 92-0721, Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

 

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

 

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Ratoon performance of sugarcane HYVs - Ismael S. Bombio, Jean C. Nieves and Purita F. Gipanago

 

A Randomized Complete Block Design experiment replicated four times was laid out to determine the ratoon performance of six high yielding varieties of sugarcane. A newly harvested plant cane field used in the Variety X Season Study was cleared and stubble shaved.  The crop was fertilized in split doses and allowed to grow up to the 2nd ratoon. Weeds were controlled manually and cultivation was by use of carabao plow.  Harvesting was done 11 months after stubble shaving.  The   F-Test was conducted to test for significance. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used for mean comparison.

 

Phil 6607, Phil 8013 and Phil 8835 gave higher tonnage and sugar yields than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.  Phil 8839, Phil 8835, Phil 8727 and Phil 8013 have higher sucrose contents than Phil 8943 and Phil 6607.  Phil 8013 has the longest stalks among the test varieties.  On the other hand, Phil 8835 produced the shortest stalks that were smallest in diameter, lowest in weight but the most in number per sqm.

 

Sucrose content was improved but generally yield and growth components were reduced after rationing.  The results showed that Phil 8835, Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 gave the least reduction in yield indicating they are more stable varieties for rationing than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.

 

  1. 2.    1Influence of season of harvesting, variety and time of stubble shaving on the performance of ratoon canes - Ma. Lourdes C. Almodiente, Rodrigo E. Tapay, Ph.D. and Edmundo P. Gotera

 

A ratoon experiment was conducted at the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center, La Granja, La Carlota City to find out the performance of the two varieties in the ratoon and how they are affected by timing of stubble shaving and seasons of harvesting.

 

Increase in LKg/TC in ratoon canes was manifested in the middle milling season (January) and the late milling season (March) harvest compared to the early milling (October) season harvest.  The two tested varieties showed no significant difference in LKg/TC when rationed.  Time of stubble shaving did not affect canes LKg/TC.  Tonnage of two tested varieties increased in the first and fourth ratoon in the early milling season harvest.  Phil 8013 showed beter advantage over Phil 8353 in tonnage in the second ratoon but of no significant difference in the first, third and fourth ratoon.  A higher LKg/Ha was produced by Phil 8013 in the second ratoon but of no significant in the first, third and fourth rations.  Season of harvest of the first ratoon were all comparable but in the second ratoon the middle milling season gave more LKg/Ha than the early milling season harvest.  The early milling season harvest of the fourth ratoon gave the highest LKg/Ha than the middle and late season of harvest.  As a whole, delay in stubble shaving of more than 7 days decreased ratoon yield but did not affect LKg/TC.

 

  1. 3.    Response of Phil 90-0345 to droughtPurita F. Gipanago

 

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to four regimes of water stress.

 

The variety was planted in half drums and subjected to 12, 24 and 36 days of water stress at 1, 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP).  Regular watering served as control.  After water stress, cane plants were watered regularly up to six weeks before harvest.

 

No significant differences in leaf length, leaf width and number of tillers were noted when the variety was subjected to the four regimes of water stress at each month after planting.

 

The number of leaves were significantly reduced at 1, 5 and 7 MAP.  Leaf area exhibited a similar trend at 5 and & MAP.  The number of dry leaves significantly increased at 5 and 7 MAP at the later stress periods.

 

At harvest, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and biomass were significantly affected by the water stress regimes.

 

Highly significant differences in soil moisture were present at the four water stress regimes 3, 5 and 7 MAP.

 

At harvest, the unfavorable effect of the different water stress regimes on the number of leaves and leaf area seemed to disappear.  However, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and biomass were significantly affected.  The result shows that Phil 90-0345 lacks the characteristics of a drought tolerant variety.

 

  1. 4.    Response of Phil 8839 and 90-0345 to waterlogged conditionPurita F. Gipanago

 

Three HYV’s Phil 90-0345, Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 (control variety) were grown in normal and waterlogged conditions. Waterlogging was started at three months after planting up to one month before harvest.

 

At 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP), waterlogged condition significantly favored the plant height of the three HYV’s.  Among varieties, Phil 90-0345 was the tallest with widest leaves, followed by Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 up to 12 MAP.

 

At 3 MAP, more leaves were produced and were wider under waterlogged condition.  Likewise, at 5 MAP, more leaves were produced under the same condition.

 

On the contrary, at 7 and 12 MAP, leaf lengths was significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Among varieties, Phil 8839 had the longest leaves followed by Phil 7083 and Phil 90-0345.

 

At 12 MAP, the number of leaves and stalk weight were significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Stalk length, leaf width, stalk diameter, number of stalks/stool and number of millable stalks were comparable under normal and waterlogged conditions.

 

The yield parameters of the three HYV’s were comparable under both soil conditions in terms of TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/ha.

 

Phil 90-0345 and Phil 8839 could be planted in waterlogged areas considering that their yield compared with that of Phil 7083, a standard waterlogged-tolerant variety.

 

  1. 5.    Growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets as influenced by hardening period and time of transplantingM.L.C. Almodiente, C.L. Morales  and I.S. Bombio

 

A study was conducted to find out the influence of hardening period and time of transplanting on the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

Plantlets survival, number of tillers, plant height, diameter, weight of 100 cane points and cutback yield of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets were not affected by different hardening period of 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks.  An early hardened plantlets of 4 weeks and a longer hardened plantlets of 10 weeks did not differ significantly from 6 and 8 weeks period of hardening.

 

The time of transplanting whether early morning or late afternoon did not affect the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

The implication of the study is that nursery managers can dispose plantlets much earlier as 4 weeks thus saving time and resources.  On the other hand, as plantlets can be hardened until 10 weeks with out affecting plant vigor, planters can also delay transplanting operations depending on availability of resources and favorable conditions.

 

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. Incidence of sugarcane diseases, insect pests and rodents on Phil varieties & clones in different test locations in relation to environmental factors (1994 series)Rodolfo V. Estioko

 

Eight entries of Phil bred varieties of 1994 series in the ecological test for      CY 1999-2000 including the check varieties; Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 were evaluated for disease incidence, infestation of insect pests and rat damage in different locations in Negros and Panay.

 

Incidence of diseases was estimated based on the extent of infection and lesions on foliage while stem borer infestation and rat damage were counts of tillers and stalks affected.

 

 

  1. 2.    Smut resistance trial 1997 series (PYT-Plant cane) – Nora S. Meneses

 

A total of 68 clones of the 1997 series PYT (Plant cane) were rated for resistance to smut.  Result showed that 52 clones were resistant, 9 moderate and 7 susceptible (Table 1)

 

    Table 1.  Reaction of 1997 series clones (PYT –Plant cane) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction             Clone        Reaction

97-37-0207

74-0411

24-0117

240-1301

252-1391

368-2715

340-2015

4-0043

4-0021

320-1829

232-1215

54-0329

220-1165

387-2279

149-0727

321-1861

280-1529

405-2383

43-0265

43-0239

119-0651

387-2281

164-0855

161-0821

386-2275

346-2059

126-0671

299-1643

125-0665

74-0407

163-0793

4-0029

328-1939

137-0707

422-2709

 

 

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(4)5

(1)2                 (1)2                    (9)8                    (1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(7)8

(2)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(8)8

(1)2

(4)5

(9)8

(1)2

(1)2

(5)5                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (1)2                    (4)5                    (1)2                    (3)2                    (4)5

97-353-2135

78-0423

213-1123

550-3363

326-1901

62-0383

342-2039

Phil 6607

97-402-2343

278-1523

353-2141

193-1019

213-1125

116-0609

240-1297

150-0729

402-2339

37-0215

7-0097

137-0687

37-0693

411-2417

7-0099

378-2259

242-2041

363-2161

97-0203

105-0527

126-0673

722-4351

280-1527

784-4597

168-0891

405-2375

Phil 56226

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(3)2

(2)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(1)2

(4)5

(8)8

(1)2

(2)2

(1)2

(7)8

(9)8

(4)5

(1)2

(9)8

Legend:       2 – Resistant       5 – Moderate           8 – Susceptible

                   * Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

 

 

  1. 3.    Smut resistance trial 1998 series clones (row test)  – Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 135 clones tested, 29 clones were very highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 14 susceptible, 8 highly susceptible and 54 clones were very highly susceptible       (Table 2)

 

 

Table 2.            Reaction of 1998 series clones (Row test) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction         Clone               Reaction
 

98-144-1735

149-1831

102-1093

136-1613

149-1863

251-3375

212-3049

77-0625

134-1527

84-0733

157-2139

131-1375

24-0139

198-2895

90-0795

131-1363

251-3347

156-2119

157-2137

78-0641

97-0255

136-1603

102-0927

124-1259

1

2

1

6

1

9

9

7

9

1

7

1

9

9

1

9

8

8

2

9

5

9

9

4

 

98-49-0417

112-1077

107-1035

260-3433

177-2411

90-0789

81-0669

200-2939

157-2143

48-0407

37-0239

261-3445

47-0381

153-2025

138-1635

240-3271

85-0765

132-1511

144-1733

251-3353

258-3407

52-0445

192-2759

131-1387

9

9

3

3

7

5

9

9

9

1

9

9

7

1

1

9

1

7

9

1

9

1

9

1

               212-3061

47-0373

177-2415

14-0099

90-0791

264-3479

166-2277

112-1079

142-1693

240-3273

197-2877

166-2281

240-3265

96-0869

223-3131

112-1083

251-3337

96-0873

75-0851

251-3371

153-2033

136-1593

96-0871

132-1505

153-2059

209-3023

50-0429

155-2107

102-0941

90-0797

234-3199

1-0005

212-3043

NCO-310

CP-29-116

98-264-3515

184-2513

251-3349

206-3011

 

1

1

8

5

1

9

1

9

1

4

1

9

9

7

4

9

9

6

8

9

8

9

4

9

8

4

1

9

9

3

9

1

5

1

7

9

9

9

5

                 84-0743

272-3611

50-0431

75-0583

138-1661

48-0393

127-1339

272-3613

133-2039

143-1715

138-1659

240-3263

183-0965

149-1853

96-0863

240-3269

209-3033

Phil 56226

98-259-3431

264-3465

H44-3098

98-85-0761

1-0007

193-2785

135-1537

15-0105

258-3403

259-3425

264-3493

115-1105

SAIPAN RED

98-264-3503

259-3423

90-0799

83-0721

155-2109

247-3303

102-0945

136-1563

 

1

9

7

1

1

7

6

9

9

9

6

3

9

9

1

2

9

9

9

9

1

2

1

9

9

5

1

9

9

2

8

9

4

3

1

9

8

4

9

 

 

            Clone          Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

104-0983

266-3559

33-0175

219-3107

136-1555

138-1665

46-0335

7

9

9

2

4

7

6

149-1839

144-1739

251-3381

150-1915

166-2253

153-1995

125-1267

1

7

7

9

1

7

7

Legend: 1 – Very Highly Resistant     2 – Highly Resistant                3 – Resistant       4 – Intermediate Resistant

                         5 – Intermediate Average     6 – Intermediate Susceptible   7 – Susceptible   8 – Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 4.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 216 clones tested, 167 were rated resistant, 41 moderate and 8 susceptible to the disease (Table 3).

 

       Table 3.            Rating of 1997 series of clone (Plant cane) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

78-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

368-2215

363-2161

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

 

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

97-405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2
(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

387-2281

353-2141

(0)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

            652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

            (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

             328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

481-2909

24-0117

Thailand

                (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(5)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

             763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

            (0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

              Australia

Saipan Yellow

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

 

                (0)2

(0)2

9

0

 

                Note: Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

                Legend:       2 – Resistant                    5 – Moderate              8 – Susceptible

 

  1. 5.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 series (Ratoon)Nora Meneses

 

One hundred forty two clones, 3 foreign varieties and 2 standard varieities were rated for resistance to the disease.  Out of 142 entries, 49 clones were very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 21 resistant, 25 intermediate resistant, 5 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 12 susceptible, 5 highly susceptible and 14 very highly susceptible.  Thailand variety was intermediate resistant to the disease, Australia intermediate susceptible, and Saipan Yellow was rated susceptible       (Table 4).

 

      Table 4.          Reaction of 1997 series clones (Ratoon) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

4

1

9

368-2215

363-2161

405-2383

1

8

3

              149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

28-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

326-1901

213-1123

612-3601

617-3661

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

                  1

1

4

3

1

1

4

4

3

1

9

1

4

9

4

6

4

5

4

7

1

3

1

4

1

9

4

7

7

2

7

9

1

7

1

6

4

   6

   1

  7

  1

  1

  4

  3

             191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

7

3

1

4

1

3

4

1

4

4

1

4

7

3

6

3

1

4

1

1

4

2

3

1

5

6

3

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

1

3

7

9

1

5

7

1

 

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

1-2909

481-2909 Thailand

Australia

Saipan

 

1

3

8

1

4

1

3

3

1

1

1

1

3

8

8

4

9

4

9

6

1

8

3

7

4

6

7

387-2281

            353-2141

328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

24-0117

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

9

1

9

3

4

3

6

3

6

1

3

9

1

1

5

7

1

9

9

4

6

9

1

7

9

1

                 Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                    2 – Highly Resistant                    3 – Resistant

                            4 – Intermediate Resistant                  5 – Intermediate Average            6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                            7 – Susceptible                                   8 – Highly Susceptible                 9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 6.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon)Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 64 clones evaluated, 2 were rated resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 19 susceptible, 7 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible to yellow spot (Table 5)

 

     Table 5.  Reaction of 1995 series clones (Ratoon) to yellow spot.

 

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction
 

94-403-2697

94-628-4001

94-608-3919

95-286-1483

8

4

7

4

 

95-248-1045

95-248-1021

95-469-3027

95-311-1833

9

5

9

8

            95-280-1431

94-272-1619

94-290-1815

95-288-1529

95-286-1485

94-608-3931

95-39-0045

94-136-0801

94-500-3509

94-136-0813

94-434-3045

     94-148-0889

            94-192-1103

94-562-3797

94-739-4203

   94-32-0135

 

 

7

9

7

3

5

4

9

9

6

5

5

5

7

4

6

8

          95-286-1513

95-125-0183

95-249-1051

95-207-0591

95-279-1421

95-220-0705

95-131-0741

95-357-2143

95-469-3025

95-24-1029

95-250-1135

95-272-1363

95-222-0743

95-249-1045

95-439-2859

 95-250-1145

 

9

9

6

8

7

8

7

7

6

7

7

7

7

6

7

9

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction

94-390-2549

94-494-3453

95-279-1413

95-336-2021

94-137-0819

95-241-0887

94-88-0435

95-474-3105

95-365-2195

95-469-3065

95-223-0769

95-136-0309

 

9

7

3

4

8

6

7

5

5

4

7

6

 

95-279-1403

95-149-0501

95-127-0203

95-585-3877

95-274-0941

95-725-4627

95-502-3165

95-39-0045

95-302-1687

95-279-1405

95-291-1819

Phil 7464

7

7

8

7

9

5

7

6

6

6

5

9

Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                     2 – Highly Resistant                 3 – Resistant

                           4 – Intermediate Resistant                    5 – Intermediate Average        6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                           7 – Susceptible                                     8 – Highly Susceptible             9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 7.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1996 series (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Among the 66 clones tested, 19 were found moderate and 47 susceptible to the disease (Table 6).

 

Table 6. Reaction of 1996 series clones (Plant cane) to yellow spot.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone             Reaction

96-0509

96-3239

96-0953

96-1491

(7)8

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

96-0099

96-4077

96-4053

96-0123

(6)5

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

           96-3087

96-1781

96-1789

96-3275

96-1183

96-0961

96-2805

96-2697

96-2717

96-2983

96-2441

96-2583

96-2711

96-2255

96-0097

96-3957

96-4057

96-0507

96-2691

96-0015

96-0503

96-0477

96-0423

96-3421

96-3267

96-3363

96-3717

96-3297

96-0475

 

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(7)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

(8)8

(6)5

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(7)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

            96-4135

96-3361

96-4109

96-4111

96-4273

96-4409

96-4455

96-4233

96-4503

96-4595

96-4483

96-3283

96-4495

96-1253

96-3289

96-3007

96-3263

96-3079

96-1531

96-1497

96-3161

96-3197

96-0799

96-3341

96-1487

96-0579

96-3219

96-3165

96-0637

Phil 7464

(6)5

(4)5

(7)8

(8)8

(6)5

(6)5

(8)8

(4)5

(6)5

(5)5

(8)5

(4)8

(6)5

(7)5

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(5)5

(7)8

(6)5

(5)5

(7)8

(5)5

(9)8

Legend:         2 -  Resistant                       5 – Moderate                  8 – Susceptible

                            Note: Number in parenthesis is the actual rating of the clone

 

 

 

 

  1. 8.    Leaf scorch resistance trial 1994 series (Ratoon)Grignion L. Rosales

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 63 were found highly resistant to the disease while 5 were rated intermediate average (Table 7).

 

      Table 7.  Reaction of the 1994 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

   

94-18-0025

94-20-0029

94-21-0043

94-23-0057

94-24-0069

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

94-25-0075

94-34-0159

94-38-0177

94-44-0221

94-51-0243

94-63-0279

94-69-0327

94-71-0395

94-90-0441

94-103-0655

94-134-0759

94-134-0769

94-135-0791

94-146-0865

94-154-0961

94-171-1005

94-181-1087

94-224-1341

94-224-1345

94-243-1435

94-245-1443

94-248-1473

94-258-1499

94-259-1505

94-278-1361

94-289-1803

94-308-1917

94-320-2033

94-355-2391

94-365-2339

94-384-2445

94-397-2629

94-418-2765

94-420-2779

94-426-2823

94-426-2841

94-428-2917

94-455-3199

94-460-3237

94-461-3261

94-462-2683

94-473-3365

94-498-3491

94-504-3531

94-534-3629

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

 

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

94-539-3641

94-558-3747

94-561-3781

94-562-3797

94-563-3807

94-600-1863

94-622-3971

94-702-4149

94-744-4235

94-791-4341

94-600-265

94-149-0913

94-75-0395

94-282-1745

94-300-1873

94-400-2649

8583-1

Phil 6111

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

 

 

  1. 9.     Leaf scorch resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon) Grignion L. Rosales

 

Twenty eight clones of the 1995 series were rated highly resistant, 8 intermediate average and 12 highly susceptible to leaf scorch (Table 8).

 

Table 8.  Reaction of the 1995 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-32-0135

94-136-0813

94-494-3453

94-500-3509

94-608-3919

94-628-4001

94-125-0183

95-223-0769

95-474-3105

94-136-0801

94-290-1815

94-291-1819

94-608-3931

95-132-0203

95-247-0941

95-249-1045

95-250-1133

95-250-1145

95-272-1383

95-279-1413

95-279-1421

95-280-1431

95-286-1485

95-469-3025

95-469-3027

95-469-3065

95-502-3165

95-585-3877

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-88-0435

94-139-4203

94-434-3045

95-131-0741

95-136-0309

95-248-1025

95-365-2195

95-725-4627

95-39-0045

94-137-0819

94-148-0889

94-192-1103

94-390-2549

95-248-1021

95-248-1029

95-357-2143

95-439-2859

94-3929

94-403-2697

94-562-3797

Phil 6111

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 10.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on the yield of sugarcane in  ratoon  cropNora S. Meneses & Melanie C. Alba

 

The experiment was carried to 1st ratoon to further evaluate the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on yield of Phil 7464, a very highly susceptible variety to downy mildew.

 

Results of the experiment showed a considerable percent infection of downy mildew disease in all treatments employed.  Although insignificant results were obtained among treatments, the highest infection was observed in the control with 32.94% while chemical control + seed selection + sanitation + rouging and hotwater  treatment + seed selection + sanitation + rouging obtained infection of 24.63% and 27.44%, respectively.  This simply shows that integrating control measures with chemical and hotwater cannot guarantee control of downy mildew up to the fist ratoon crop.

 

The integration of hotwater + seed selection + sanitation + rouging resulted on an increase in yield of 14.47 TC/Ha and 30.85 LKg/Ha over the control.  The treatment integrating chemical control with seed selection, sanitation & rouging likewise yielded better than the control.

 

  1. 11.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of white grubs (Plant cane)Rosenie G. Entima & Melanie C. Alba

 

Results of the evaluation showed no significant differences on percent grub mortality and yield of Phil 8583 in all treatments.  However, the results revealed that using control measures against white grub mortality infestation increased sugar yield than no control.

 

Among the control strategies employed, chemical control using Diagan 5G obtained the highest mean grub mortality of 96.30% followed by Metarrihizium anisopliae + liming + cultivation (88.83%), M. anisopliae (84.06%), liming (78.64%), entomopathogenic nematodes (78.45%), chemical control + liming  (74.58%), entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anisopliae (74.58%), cultivation (69.33%), liming + cultivation (69.00%), chemical control + cultivation (68.80%), and entomopathogenic  nematodes + liming + cultivation  (65.73%).  The mortality rates among treatments did not reveal significant differences but higher than the control of 61.34%.

 

The treatment that gave the highest yield was with the integration of M. anisopliae + liming + cultivation with the yield difference of 35.34 TC/ha and 90.12 LKg/ha followed by entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anesopliae with 31.70 TC/ha and 79.00 LKg/ha; entomopathogenic  nematodes, 29.70 TC/ha and 73.24 LKg/ha; liming, 26.33 TC/ha  and 73.51 Lkg/ha; entomopathogenic  + liming + cultivation, 25.90 TC/ha and 61.51 LKg/ha; cultivation, 24.67 TC/ha and 65.99 LKg/ha; chemical + liming 24.70 TC/ha and 61.48 LKg/ha; M. anisopliae, 21.47 TC/ha and 56.64 LKg/ha; liming + cultivation , 20.03 TC/ha and 52.74 LKg/ha;  chemical control , 19.43 TC/ha and 55.93 LKg/ha; and chemical control + cultivation, 8.03 TC/ha and 18.18 LKg/ha.

 

  1. 12.  Effect of Canegard against pineapple disease of sugarcane (Plant cane)Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The effect of different rates of Canegard on germination and yield of sugarcane was tested as preventive and curative control measures against pineapple disease Ceratocystis paradoxa Moreau.

 

The curative measure of treatments with fungicides as highly significant difference over control (no chemical) but no significant differences as preventive measure 1-1/2 months after planting (MAP).  Germination increased 2 MAP but the curative measure has not maintained its significant differences.  It was the preventive measure that has significant differences over the control.  Treatments with fungicides were comparable with Benlate on percent germination and sugar yield of both measures.

 

The economic analysis reveals that Canegard as curative measure at 1,500 ml/200 liters water is more profitable than the preventive measure against pineapple disease.

 

  1. 13.  Screening of fungicides against pineapple diseaseMelanie  C. Alba, Rodolfo V. Estioko & Nora S. Meneses

 

The efficacy of Bumper 25EC (Propiconazole), Canegard, Antracol 75% WP, Bayleton 25% WP and Benlate 50% WP were evaluated in the laboratory and field trials.

 

Each bioassayed chemical was evaluated at four varying concentrations for the control of pineapple disease on the growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa on PDA at 5 and 12 days.  The most effective was Bumper at 300 ppm followed by 300 ppm Bayleton.  Also significantly inhibiting effectively the growth of the fungus but at lesser extent were 1% Canegard and 200  ppm Benlate (Table 9).

 

In the field at different concentrations of the fungicides (Table 10), the germination of Phil; 8943 two months after planting ranged from 81.2% – 97.9% (Table 11).  Percent germination was sustained until 2 ½ months after planting but was observed to have decreased at 3 months after planting.

 

More tillers were counted from treatments with high percentage of surviving stools after 3 1/2 months particularly with 9.6 g Benlate, 160 ml Canegard, 6.64 g Bayleton and 6.64 g Bumper (Table 12).

 

Table 9.  Growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa and percent germination in different          

                fungicides concentrations including control under laboratory conditions. c/

 

Fungicides

Concentration

(ppm; %)

Fungus Growth

(cm)

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

 

 

 

50

100

150

250

Control

5.72b

 4.07ab

2.95a

  3.30ab

 4.30ab

 

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

Control

1.72b

 1.62bc

1.12b

 0.55a

4.30d

 

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

Control

3.20a

2.70a

3.17a

2.95a

4.30b

 

 

Bumper

100

200

250

300

Control

1.15b

0.80b

0.57ab

0.12a

4.30c

 

 

Canegard

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Control

3.12a

3.42a

3.57ab

3.50a

4.30b

           c/ Fungus growth measured after 5 days on Antracol, Bayleton, Benlate and Canegard and 12 days

               on Bumper germination count after 30 days; analysis was done separately for each fungicides.

 

 

Table 10.   Concentrations/dosages of fungicides used in the laboratory and field trial for the control of pineapple disease.

 

 

Laboratory Test (ppm)

Field Trialb/  (gm (ml/16 li water)

Fungicides      a       b       c       d      a       b       c       d
 

Antracol 25% WP

50

100

150

250

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

 

Bumper 25% EC

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Canegard (%)

0.5

100

1

2

80

160

240

320

    b/ Concentrations (ppm) are equivalent dosages (gm (ml/16 li water) in Field Trial; Canegard     

       prepared based  on 1% solution (10 ml/1000 ml water).

 


 

Table 11. Germination (5) of Phil 8943 treated with different fungicides at

               1, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2 and 3 months after planting under field conditions.

 

 

Fungicides

Dosage

(gm;ml/16 li H2O

Germination (%) months after planting

1

1-1/2

2

2-1/2

3

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.70

86.4

81.2

85.4

86.4

91.6

87.5

88.5

90.6

92.7d

87.5c

91.6c

93.7e

93.7b

89.3c

92.7b

93.7b

91.6

86.6

91.6

87.5

 

Bayleton 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

85.4

72.9

77.0

86.4

89.5

78.1

88.5

90.6c

91.6c

81.2a

87.5c

93.7b

89.5c

82.2e

87.5c

89.5

90.8

81.2

86.6

 

Benlate 50%  WP

3.20

6.64

8.00

9.60

81.2

76.0

84.3

90.6

88.5

80.2

88.5

95.8

91.6c

82.2b

89.8c

97.9f

92.7b

82.2e

90.6c

96.8a

87.5

82.5

89.5

95.8

 

Bumper 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

86.4

84.3

88.5

88.5

89.5

91.6

88.5

90.6c

94.7e

93.7e

89.5c

91.6c

95.0a

91.6c

93.7b

89.5

90.8

90.8

88.7

 

Canegard

  80

160

240

320

80.2

81.2

75.0

77.0

87.5

91.6

82.2

88.5

90.6c

96.8f

84.3b

87.5c

89.5c

97.9a

87.5c

89.5c

87.5

92.9

82.5

86.6

   Control

-

72.6

82.0

84.5b

84.8d

83.3

      F-value

ns

ns

1.82*

1.77*

ns

      C.V. (%)

10.9

7.8

7.3

6.9

7.4

 

Table 12.  Number of tillers in different treatments.

 

Fungicides

 

 

Dosage (gm;ml/16 li H2O

 

Tiller Count

 

Antracol 75% WP

                   1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

                151b

145d

145d

147d

 

Bayleton 25% WP

                     3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                137e

152b

122g

132f

 

Benlate 50% WP

                     3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

                124h

118f

135f

162a

 

Bumper 25% EC

                      3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                140e

148c

138e

139e

 

Canegard

                       80

160

240

320

                139e

151b

131f

135f

   Control                   124h
      F-value                   2.42**
      C.V. (%)                   10.4

                      d/ Rating of pineapple disease infection on canepoints: 1. Slightly infected or rotting at both ends,

                   2. Less severely infected  or rotting advancing towards nodes, and 3. Severely infected or

                   rotting includes nodes.

 

  1. 14.    Yield reduction in plant and ratoon crops in sugarcane due to locust infestation: A  

        simulation model – Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The study was conducted using simulation model of locust infestation at different growth stages and degree of damage on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

Simulation of locust damage was done at three growth stages of sugarcane as follows: 3, 5 and 7 months after planting.  The different leaf damages were 0%, 5-10%, 20-30%, 40-50%, 60-70%, 80-80% and 100%.  Figure 5 at the last page.

 

Results of the experiment showed that simulation of 100% locust damage had no significant reduction in yield at 7 months after planting (MAP) both in plant and ratoon crops.  However, significant reduction was observed when plants had 100% defoliation at 3 and 5 MAP.  At 3 MAP, yield reduction in the plant cane was 17.07% TC/ha and 17.60% LKg/ha while in the ratoon crop, 30.57% TC/ha and 30.85% LKg/ha.  With 5 MAP, reduction was 17.15% TC/ha and 20.82% LKg/ha in plant cane and 1.7% TC/ha and 4.32 LKg/ha in ratoon (Table 13)

 

It was further observed that ratoon crop suffered greater yield reduction when defoliated 100% at 3 MAP compared to plant cane.  However, at 5 MAP reduction was lesser in ratoon compared to plant cane.

 

 

Table 13.   Percent and actual yield reduction with 100% defoliation due to locust

                       infestation based on simulation model during 3 and 5 MAP of plant

                       growth on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

 

Cropping

Yield Reduction

3 MAP

5 MAP

Tonnage

LKg/ha

Tonnage

LKg/ha

 

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

Plant

17.07

17.96

17.60

40.09

17.15

20.90

20.82

56.12

Ratoon

30.57

36.16

30.85

78.91

  1.71

  1.69

  4.32

  9.41

Diff.

13.50

18.20

13.25

38.82

15.44

19.21

16.50

46.71

 

 

15. Smut resistance trial 1996 series (PYT-Ratoon) Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 68 clones evaluated, 57 were found very highly resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 3 susceptible to smut (Table 14).

 

Table 14.  Rating of 1996 series clones (PYT-Ratoon) to smut.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone             Rating

96-3239

0503

3165

2717

0477

1253

3267

3717

3161

Thailand

3297

2691

2255

4047

3341

0423

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

96-3275

4409

2697

3079

3289

1531

4495

1497

0953

3197

2583

0099

3007

0799

1781

2441

1

1

4

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3361

5957

4053

4595

4273

4223

4483

0123

4135

3421

0097

0579

4109

4455

0319

4529

4111

0509

3263

Australia

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

1

1

1

3087

1789

0961

3283

4503

0637

3219

2983

2711

0475

4057

0507

0015

1491

3363

1183

2805

1487

Saipan

Phil 56226

1

1

1

7

1

1

6

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

7

4

1

1

8

6

Legend:  1 – Very Highly Resistant    2 – Highly Resistant    3- Resistant    4- Intermediate Resistant

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 90-0345 To Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

The experiment was conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from November 1999 to November 2000 to evaluate the response of Phil 90-0345 to NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 90-0345 gave the highest yield of 134.49 TC/Ha LKg and 298.64 LKg/Ha at 200 kg N/Ha fertilization, however these parameters were comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.

 

High TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were due to longer, heavier and number of millable stalk at 200 kg N/ha.

 

LKg/TC was not significantly affected by N fertilization with 2.33 as the highest value obtained.

 

There was a positive linear relationship and close association on both TC/Ha and LKg/Ha against N rates with a significant r-value of 0.99 and 0.98 respectively.

 

TC/Ha, LKg/ha and LKg/TC were not significantly affected by P and K fertilization.

 

Stalk diameter, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk did not differ with both P and K fertilization.  On the other hand K affected stalk length but not by P fertilization.

 

Application of increasing levels of N resulted to increasing percentage of N in the TVD leaf blade at 6th month of growth.  Highest concentration was obtained at 200 kg N/ha where the highest cane and sugar yield were likewise obtained.  This N concentration was likewise comparable with the value obtained at 100 and 150 kg N/ha fertilization.

 

In P and K series treatment despite the constant N fertilization, percentage concentration of N in TVD leaf blade differed.  Highest concentration of N in TVD leaf blade was observed both at zero P and K, but this value was not reflected on tonnage unlike the N series.

 

Percentage concentration of P in TVD leaf blade was comparable among the different rates of N, P and K fertilization.  These results were also reflected on the non-significant differences on tonnage and sugar yield.

 

In like manner, percentage concentration of K in TVD leaf blade was likewise comparable on the three series of fertilization.

 

Highest net profit of Php 92,446.92 was attained at 200 kg N/ha with an ROI of 143.8%.

 

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 8839 ratoons to varying levels of NPK fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam R. M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Ganja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 ratoons to various NPK levels in Guimbalon clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that stalk length and stalk weight did not differ among the various levels of NPK during plant cane, fist ratoon and third ratoon while at second ratoon significant differences were observed in these two parameters.  It was also observed that withholding K fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam soil significantly decreased the stalk weight of Phil 8839 second ratoon.

 

Stalk diameter on the other hand were comparable in all four croppings, however the number of millable stalks differed on plant cane, first ratoon and third ratoon while comparable results were obtained on the second ratoon.  There was a reduction of 4.1% in the mean millable stalks of the first ratoon, but an increase of 9.70% was obtained in the second ratoon while in the third ratoon similar number was obtained with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all croppings were comparable except for the first ratoon.  Results seemed to indicate that limiting amount of N and K at 200 N level resulted to a significantly lower LKg/TC of Phil 8839 first ratoon.

 

Tonnage (TC/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings, however in the third ratoon, cane yield of all nitrogen treated plants irrespective of rate were comparable but were significantly higher than O N.  Tonnage yield of three rations were lower than the plant cane.  The percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 32.9%, 26.8% and 34.9% respectively.

 

Sugar yield (LKg/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings.  The highest sugar yield in all croppings was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK level.  This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment.  LKg/ha of the ratoons were lower than the plant cane.  The average percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 39.1%, 21.6% and 33.6% respectively.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield in all croppings was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crops brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks of the ratoons even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 ratoons.

 

The highest total net benefit and ROI was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK treatment and the lowest net benefit and ROI was obtained at 0-150-200 treatment.

 

  1. 3.    Influence of varying levels of nitrogen, time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and Yield of Phil 8839 ratoon Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and Nimfa D. Navarro

 

Two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from Sept. 1999 to Nov. 2000, to determine the proper age of harvest of sugarcane ratoon in relation to the levels of N and time of fertilizer application.

Highest tonnage (TC/ha) and sugar obtained when canes were harvested at 12 months after rationing (MAR) in all levels of N fertilization.

 

Although not significantly different tonnage mean average of 114.6 at 12 MAR harvest was higher than 9, 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 22.03, 12.71 and 3.92 TC/Ha respectively.

 

On the other hand, mean average sugar yield of 255.19 at 12 MAR harvest was significantly higher than 9 MAR but comparable with 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 56.65, 36.42 and 11.71 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of ratoon canes harvested at different age and carrying levels of N showed comparable results.

 

Highest mean average in TC/ha and  LKg/ha were obtained when ratoon canes were fertilized immediately after stubble shaving and harvested at 12 MAR.

 

Canes fertilized after stubble shaving gave the highest mean average of 128.69 TC/Ha and 291.14 LKg/ha while ratoon fertilized at 2, 3, 4 and 5 MAR gave 120.40, 123.41, 121.58 and 107.79 TC/Ha respectively.

 

Cane harvested at 12 MRA gave the highest mean average of 152.45 TC/ha and comparable with 11 MAR harvested with 125.09 TC/ha but significantly higher than the 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 119.00 and 97.23 TC/ha respectively.

 

Sugar yield mean average of canes harvested at 12 MAR was 318.94 LKg/Ha that was significantly higher than 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 275.00, 261.41 and 214.44 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of canes fertilized at 5 MAR was significantly lower than canes fertilized after stubble shaving.

 

Although not significant canes harvested are 12 MAR have higher LKg/TC than the 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest.

 

Highest net income and ROI was attained at 100 kg N/ha fertilization and harvested 12 MAR.  On the other hand sugarcane harvested at 12 MAR gave the highest average net income and ROI irregardless of the time of fertilization and the lowest was obtained at 9 MAR.

 

  1. 4.    Magnesium fertilization of sugarcaneMila C. Gerardino, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

Response of Phil 8477 to application of magnesium was evaluated in Guimbalaon soil in La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center in La Carlota City and Hda. Louisiana in Bgy. Maao, Bago City.  The soils contain 74 and 32 ppm Mg. respectively.  The experiments were conducted from October 1998 to July 2001.  Four (4) levels of Mg were applied: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg Mg/Ha.  These treatments including a 0 Mg 0 NPK plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four (4) times.

 

Application of the different levels of Mg had no significant influence on cane yield, sugar yield and juice quality of Phil 8477 although the Mg content of both soils were considered below the critical level of Mg for sugarcane.  Generally, there was an observed increase in yield in both plant and ratoon cane with the application of 50 kg Mg/ha but not above this level.

 

There was also an observed increase in soil Mg even in Mg-untreated plots.

 

  1. 5.    Response of sugarcane to application of potassium phosphateRosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam, Dr. Rodrigo E. Tapay

 

Although not significant the results of the experiment showed that application of potassium phosphate improved the stalk length, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk of Phil 8943.

 

Improvement in these parameters was due to increased availability of the OM, P, K, Ca and Mg in the soil.  pH of the soil likewise improved while aluminum decreased.

 

Based on the results it is recommended that further study will be conducted up to harvest since the improvement of weight per stalk and number of millable stalk at 1 liter per hectare potassium phosphate although projected to give the highest tonnage at harvest yet this projection may not be conclusive because the experiment was harvested at sixth month.

 

 

  II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 2001

 

      RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Lactic Acid from Molasses

 

A total of fifteen (15) runs were conducted using Lactobacillus delbreukii in aqueous molasses and molasses/coco water solutions containing 9,9,10,11 and 12% sugar as invert. The additives used were 2% nitrogen, 1% phosphate and 8.3% invertase per 35 g molasses.  The incubation temperature was 45oC. Best yields were obtained at 10% sugar level for all substrates.  Coconut water was found to support lactic acid production. Substrates – Molasses in Coco water gave higher yields for all sugar levels.  Supplementing the molasses/coco water solution with invertase further increased the yield but only up to 10% sugar level. The presence of higher glucose/fructose levels seemed to inhibit lactic acid production.  All substrates gave decreasing yields at 11 and 12% sugar.

 

  1. 2.    Organimat and Horticulture Blocks (HB) from Bagasse

 

The project involves the development of Horticulture Blocks (HB) and organimat from bagasse. In making horticulture blocks, whole bagasse was ground, mixed with water, molded and air dried for one (1) week.  A total of 35 application runs were conducted using vegetable seeds and plantlets of ornamental plants for the initial application tests. Regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to a ratio of 1:2 and 1:5 by weight HB to BOF. Mixtures were distributed into plastic seedling bags. Using soil as the control, results showed that plants grown in the HB-BOF mixtures were healthier and taller than those grown in soil.

 

For the  succeeding application tests, regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to the ratio of 1:1 up to 1:5 parts HB to BOF.  Twenty (20) tomato seeds were planted per bag and the number of germinated seedlings were noted after one (1) week.  Growth in height (cm) was monitored for four weeks.  Results showed that 1:5 HB-BOF proportion gave the highest number of seedlings and highest seedlings growth.

 

For the organimat, bagasse was washed thoroughly with water, air dried, cut into 12 inches long strips and secured by wire to fit hanging baskets.  For the application tests, baskets were filled with soil as planting material and planted with ornamental plants. It was observed that bagasse organimat can hold and blends well with soil.

 

  1. 3.    Handmade Paper from Bagasse and Waste Papers

 

A process for the production of handmade paper from bagasse and waste paper (old magazine and office wastes) was developed. Bagasse pulp was mixed with waste paper pulp in several proportions. The sheets were analyzed for tensile strength and for number of sheets formed per run.

 

Eight (8) test runs were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of bagasse and pulp from old magazine.  Additives were added to four (4) trial runs.  Results showed that the 40:60 ratio of bagasse to magazine pulp with and without additives gave the highest tensile strength, however, the paper made without additives appear to be more stronger than the ones made with additives.

 

  1. 4.    Efficacy Trial of Bio-organic Fertilizer on Sugarcane Plant. 

 

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Central Azucarera de La Carlota Bio-organic Fertilizer (SRA Technology) on sugarcane. Nine (9) treatments were laid out on a Guimbalaon clay soil at Bgy. Najalin, La Carlota City in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times (3x) from March 2000 to February 2001.  Bio-organic fertilizer application increased the organic matter content of the soil.  This considerable increase is an indication that BOF application may be able to restore the ecological balance of the soil ravaged by excessive cultivation and chemical fertilization.

 

  1. 5.    Recovery of Anti-oxidants from Molasses. 

 

The project involves the recovery of phenolic compounds through fermentation of molasses. Phenolic compounds are one of the phytonutrients responsible for giving sugarcane its odor, flavor and color. These phytonutrients contribute to the plant’s natural defense system and could also prevent certain diseases in humans including cancer and heart disease.

 

  1. 6.    Improving Centrifugal Operations Through Innovative Fugalling Technique

 

Purging Efficiency (P.E.) is a significant control figure in the efficient operation of centrifugal operation.  It is a measure of the level of impurity removal that has been achieved during the centrifuging process.  P.E. for the three (3) runs obtained similar trends, as the washing time increases, P.E. also increases. Based on the data and results presented, water washing is better than syrup washing. The only chance of syrup as an alternative medium is in terms of steam savings specially if the factory is practicing longer washing time.

 

  1. 7.    An Inquiry into the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Installing Cane Cleaning Stations for the Local Sugar Industry. 

 

From the comparisons and discussions presented between wet and dry cleaning, a conclusion was reached – that technically, dry cleaning is the most effective technique suitable for the local condition.  The second potion of the study, i.e. the economic feasibility cannot be established clearly due to unavailability of data on costing.

 

  1. 8.    Performance Rating of Mills’ Clarification Technology Non-Pol Ratio as Index of Clarification Efficiency

 

An evaluation or assessment of the mills clarification performance on the basis of non-pol and non-sugar ratios, and other clarification data that affect BHR and / or other recovery efficiency figures.  In this study, five (5) cooperator sugar mills were considered namely, Capiz, URSUMCO, CAT, Fist Farmers and Caneland.

 

  1. 9.    The Rate of Dextran Formation in Various Stages of Sugar Processing 

 

The study deals with the identification, quantification and monitoring of dextran levels in various stages of raw sugar manufacture to be able to control or minimize its infestation.

 

  1. 10.  Collaborative Study with MWCI & Basecom – Composting Sludge in Combination with Sugar Milling B-products

 

An experiment was conducted to utilize sludge in combination with bagasse and mudpress in the production of bio-organic fertilizer.  All the treatments were composed 4 to 8 weeks after incubation except for the control which extended beyond 8 weeks of incubation period.  The shortest composting period was registered at 4 weeks when sludge application was doubled.  All the rest were composted at 5 weeks and 8 weeks time.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.  Annual Compendium of Performance – Philippine Sugar Refineries Year 1999

 

An annual publication that embodies data and information on operating sugar refineries either culled or computed from refinery statement.  Copies are distributed to the contributing refineries and various SRA units. This publication is made available to various sugar industry constituent seeking access to data and information of this kind.

 

  1. 2.  Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data for Philippines Raw Sugar Factories CY 1999-2000

 

A technical publication on production and performance statistics of operating sugar mills excerpted or computed from their respective final weekly factory repots for the season being reviewed.  Data and information therein are made available to various industry clientele for whatever downstream activities these data may be of use thereof.

 

  1. 3.  Standardization of Report/MI Instruments and Data Logs for the Raw sugar Factories. 

 

A revised factory statement and worksheet to standardized production and performance format was formulated for implementation at the local sugar industry.

 

  1. 4.  Rationalization of Cane Handling with Milling Practice.

 

The study has achieved the objective of identifying the cane handling system best suited for the local sugar industry and the importance of a handling program for an efficient milling operation.  Several recommendations were listed down in the report to establish and attain such objective.

 

  1. 5.  Cost of Efficiency Improvement of Raw Sugar Factories

 

A cost benefit analysis to provide mill management with an insight on the potential gains from such investment opportunity was undertaken.  The study dealt with the efficiency improvement in four (4) modules throughout the sugar factory areas of  operations.  

 

6.    Standardization of Refinery Reports/Statement

 

Refineries having different technologies employed in clarification and decolorization process have different material nomenclature and efficiency formula.  Hence, a standardization of Refinery Reports/Statements was conducted in coordination with PASRI headed by Mr. Apolinario Blanco and all Refinery Superintendents. The agreed standardized refinery report/statements is due for implementation. One refinery had already used the standardized form for refining year 2000.

 

  1. 7.    Capacity Utilization Gauged from the Weather Window

 

A new formula for capacity utilization of milling plants is proposed based on the allowable milling days due favorable delivery conditions as low moisture level.  The proposed formula in effect accounts for the stoppage and delays due to weather.

 

  1. 8.    Monitoring of Processes and Systems Audit of Sugar Mills 

 

The activities deal with identifying the mills and/or refineries and their facilities capable of producing Direct Consumption Sugar (DCS), intermediate to raw and refined sugars with the end view of strengthening the quedan system.  The comprehensive information is needed for a clear cut policy on DCS sugar in relation to its compliance with SRA regulatory policy and in setting up quality standard to DCS.