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LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LGAREC) IN LA CARLOTA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

Research findings are:

Phil 03-1389 is recommended for commercial propagation and released.  It is a cross between Phil 89-36-0455 and Phil 88-620-1413. The variety passed the ecological test and was observed to perform best in Bais Mill district.  Phil 03-1389 is a high tonnage, medium to high sucrose in content and very sparse flowering variety.  It is resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot.

 

In the preliminary yield test for Phil 2005 series clones, top promising varities were selected as entries to the ecological test.  These are Phil 05-0055, Phil 05-0587, Phil 05-0645, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-2083, Phil 05-2151 and Phil 05-2311.

One hundred fifty (150) test clones from Phil 2006 series were found resistant to downy mildew.  Disease screening for other major disease had to be deferred for next year due to the effect of El Niño phenomenon.

In the row test for Phil 2007 series, 220 clones from 95 crosses were selected and 218 clones forwarded to the diseases screening for major diseases of sugarcane

In the single seedling plot test for Phil 2008 series, 1,229 clones from 212 biparental crosses were selected as entries to the row test this year.

The Phil 2009 series breeding program produced 314 clones from 253 biparental crosses using 76 female and 67 male selected parents.

In five croppings of Phil 93-2349 in Guimbalaon sandy loam soil fertilized with different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers, it was observed that application of rock phosphate (as source of P fertilizer) plus inorganic N and K, produced the highest tonnage ranging from 87.39– 93.95 TC/ha, highest Lkg/TC of 2.01–2.14 and highest Lkg/ha of 180.60– 200.21.  Five crop year data indicated that 25% to 50% reduction of the recommended NPK supplemented with organic materials, lime or rock phosphate have not lowered the yield of Phil 93-2349.

Four crop year data showed that vermicompost (2 tons/ha) in combination with the recommended rate (RR) of NPK gave the highest TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha both on plant and ratoon crop (first and 2nd croppings) while on the 3rd and 4th croppings highest yield were obtained with application of the RR plus 4 tons/ha vermicompost using the variety Phil 94-0913.  Soil organic matter improved every cropping with an average increase of 1.03% in four years.  Soil pH likewise improved, while availability of other nutrients decreased.

Vermicompost at the rate of 5,10 and 15 tons/ha replace the RR of fertilizer applied to Phil 94-0913 test variety, improvement in yield can already be attained with only 5 tons/ha application.  Increasing the amount to 10 or 15 tons/ha further improved the yield but the increase cannot compensate with the cost of vermicompost.  Since vermitea application did not influence plant and ratoon yields, its application maybe omitted to further minimize production cost.

Phil 97-3933 planted in wet season (June) and applied with different strains of Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF) in combination with full or ½ NPK fertilizer gave comparable tonnage and sugar yields with the RR fertilizers both on plant and ratoon canes.

Multiple chopping of stalks (whole, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cuts) at harvest and days delay in milling (0, 2, 5 and 8 days) of Phil 97-3933, Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 99-1793, Phil 98-0255, Phil 93-2349, and Phil 93-3849 showed that the 2 days delay in milling, exhibited an average loss of 5.63%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-1601 (9.19%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (1.75%).  At 5 days delay in milling the average loss was 12.82%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-3849 (23.88%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (6/13%).  At 8 days delay in milling Phil 93-3849 exhibited the highest loss (35.82%) and the lowest was in Phil 98-0255 (11.57%).  The average sugar loss after 8 days was 22.14%.

The average weight loss of canes when milling was delayed for 2 days was 5.31%, 7.39% at 5 days delay and 11.66% in 8 days delay.

LUZON AGRICULTURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CENTER (LAREC) IN FLORIDABLANCA, PAMPANGA

Results of completed projects are:

Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2005 Series. Casupanan A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  V. Serrano and M. Guevarra.

Thirty test clones from 2005 Row Test were entered in the Preliminary Yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties,  Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on sugar yield, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both check varieties and were resistant to diseases.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 05-645, Phil 05-3635, Phil 05-2151, Phil 05-87, Phil 05-309, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-483, Phil 05-1379, Phil 05-329,  and Phil 05-55.

Ecological Test  of Selected Phil Varieties .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test varieties from the Phil 1999 series, Phil 2000 series and Phil 2002  series   were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2007 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 are recommended for commercial release.

Ecological Test  of Phil 2003 Series .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan  and M. Guevarra.

Ten test varieties selected from the 2003 series Preliminary Yield test were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2008 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 03-0021 and Phil 03-1727 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew and are recommended for commercial release.

Screening of Selected  Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test clones of Phil 1999, Phil 2000 and Phil 2002 series  were screened and evaluated for their resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

Clones Phil 02-0255, 00-1015 and 00-2231 were rated very highly resistant while Phil 02-0151, 00-0791, 00-1125 and 00-2155 were rated highly resistant.  Clones Phil 00-0881, 00-2417 and 00-2061 were rated resistant while clones Phil 02-0219, 02-0241 and 99-2133 were rated intermediate resistant.

Screening of 2003  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab,  P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Ten test clones of Phil 2003  were screened and evaluated for  resistance to sugarcane downy mildew.

In the plant and ratoon canes, the following were rated very highly resistant: Phil 03-0021, Phil 03-0217, Phil 03-0617. Phil 03-1341, Phil 03-1727, Phil 03-2109 and Phil 03-2125. Phil 03-0077 were very highly resistant in the plant cane and highly resistant in the ratoon cane.  Phil 03-0933 was resistant in the plant and ratoon canes.

Screening of Phil 2004 series  for resistance to smut.  Casupanan, A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Thirty clones of the 2004 series  were planted, ratooned and screened for  reaction to sugarcane smut.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

Among the test clones, one was rated very highly resistant (Phil  04-1533) and  two were resistant (Phil  04-0827 and Phil 04-1605).  Five clones were intermediate resistant, namely,  Phil  04-1547, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1885, Phil  04-1889 and Phil  04-1899.  Ten were intermediate average  to include (Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil  04-0917, Phil 04-1195, Phil  04-1409,  Phil 04-1581, Phil 04- 1981, Phil 04-2249, Phil  04-2319 and Phil 04-3785).  The rest of the clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

Effects of the disc harrowing stubbles on the growth and yield of ratoon crop. Guevarra, M.,B. Manlapaz, A. Bacani and A.Burcer

The experiment was conducted in RCBD with six treatments, namely: T1-Furrows disc harrowed with tractor wheels on top of furrows; T2-Furrows disc harrowed  with tractor wheels in between furrows; T3- Stubbles mechanically shaved (mechanical stubble shaver); T4-Stubbles manually shaved (harvesting knives); T5- Stubbles manually shaved (native grub hoe)and T6-Control (No touch). cane than in the plant cane.

In the plant cane there was no significant difference on growth and yield parameters.  In the first and second ratoon crops mechanical stubble shaver and manually recutting  gave higher number of tillers and millable stalks. Higher mortality occurred on disc harrowing  with tractor wheels on top of furrow. The treatments were comparable   on LKg/TC in the  plant and ratoon canes. In the ratoon crops, both mechanical stubble shaver and manual recutting gave higher tonnage and LKg/Ha .