I. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
A. LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER – (LAREC)
Breeding, Genetics and Varietal Improvement
1. Ecological Test of 2001 Series - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra
Fourteen (14) test varieties selected from the 2001 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from July 2006 to September 2008 to evaluate their adaptability in different agro-climatic conditions.
Three varieties were either comparable or significantly higher than either or both check varieties in terms of sugar yield. They also passed the criteria for disease resistance.
The three varieties that are recommended for further testing in the National Cooperative Test or for commercial release are Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833.
2. Preliminary Yield Test 2003 Series – Casupanan A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, V. Serrano and M. Guevarra
Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable with either or both check varieties. These clones which are recommended to undergo the ecological test are, Phil 03-0021, 03—627, 03-1503, 03-0933, 03-0617, 03-2109, 03-1727, 03-0077, 03-1341.
3. Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra
The reactions to downy mildew of the 13 test clones of Phil 2000 series are as follows: Phil 00-1893 and 00-2435 were very highly resistant, Phil 00-1901, 00-1323, 00-2415 and 00-2569 were highly resistant, Phil 00-1491, 00-1419, 00-1331, 00-1115 and 00-1937 were resistant and Phil 00-1537 was intermediate susceptible.
4. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, and M. Guevarra
The reactions to downy mildew of the twelve (12) test clones of Phil 2001 series in the plant and ratoon canes were as follows: Phil 01-0295 was rated highly resistant, Phil 01-103, 01-833 and 01-695 were resistant, Phil 01-441, 01-397,01-027 and 01-577 were intermediate resistant, Phil 01-529 and 01-561 were intermediate average, Phil 01-575 was susceptible and Phil 01-829 was very highly susceptible.
5. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Smut - Casupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra
The fourteen (14) test clones of the 2001 series had the following reaction to smut: Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833 were very highly resistant, Phil 2001-0397, Phil 2001-0529 and Phil 2001-0103 were highly resistant, Phil 2001-0295 and Phil 2001-0027 were resistant, Phil 2001-0441, Phil 2001-0561, Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0531, Phil 2001-0575, Phil 2001-0829 were intermediate resistant and Phil 2001-0167 was intermediate susceptible.
6. Screening of Phil 2002 Series for Resistance to Smut – Casupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra
Of the forty-six (46) clones of the 2002 Phil series, the following gave intermediate to very highly susceptible reactions to smut, Phil 02-0037,02-0175, 02-0183, 02-0241, 02-0465, 02-1015, 02-2053, 02-2061, 02-2139 and 02-2511 were very highly resistant, Phil 02-0329, 02-0027 and 02-2545 were highly resistant, Phil 02-0151 and 02-0295 were resistant, Phil 02-0095, 02-0139, 02-0219, 02-0721, 02-0791, 02-0827, 02-1125, 02-2071, 02-2155, 02-2417, 02-1601 and 02-2133 were intermediate resistant, Phil 02-0255, 02-0439, 02-0649, 02-0881, 02-1439 and 02-2231 were intermediate average.
7. Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Septage Sludge Fertilization - Magnaye, A., B. Manlapaz and E. Estanislao
Septage sludge fertilization gave uniform germination and plant height in all treatment combinations. Fertilization at 180 kg. N/Ha of septage gave significant mean average number of tillers and stalk length. The same treatments gave significantly higher tonnage and sugar yield in both the plant and ratoon crops.
B. LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)
Variety Improvement and Pest Management
1. Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2007 Series – R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio
During the 2007 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.
Pollination work which started October 18 and ended December 05, 2007 utilized 97 female and 82 male selected parents. A total of 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental crosses were harvested with no arrow from bi-parental crosses destroyed.
The sowing of fuzz in 272 seed boxes from November 27 to December 30, 2007 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 272 bi-parental crosses consisting of 352 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 92 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 146 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 519 seed boxes.
Seedlings in 779 seed boxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June 2008.
2. Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2006 Series – Armones, R.T., and I.S. Bombio
The 2006 hybridization work which produced a total of 133,827 seedlings from 327 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from May 25 to June 14, 2007. From these seedlings, 81,726 survived in the field or a survival rate of 61.07 percent.
Selection in April 2007 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,365 promising clones from 327 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.67 percent for seedlings and 74.92 percent for the crosses.
All selected promising clones were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test.
3. Row Test, Phil 2005 Series - Aloro, L.E. and J. Velasco
The planting of 2005 series Row Test was done on March 23, 2007. The entries were the 1,227 clones from 236 crosses selected from the 2005 series Single Seedling Plot Test and the 247 clones from 32 crosses of 2004 series which were re-entered due to poor germination during the 2004 series row Test. Selection was done on December 06-15, 2007. Result showed that out of 1,227 clones planted, 106 clones from 69 crosses for 2005 series and 9 clones from 8 crosses for 2004 series were selected and forwarded to the next stage, Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.
4. Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2004 Series – L.E. Aloro & J.C. Velasco
One hundred ninety-nine promising clones from 95 crosses selected from Phil 2004 series Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously screened to smut disease from December 28, 2006 to June 30, 2007. After six months, 106 clones from 61 crosses representing 53.26 and 64.21 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected and forwarded to Multiplication II Stage. Because of bad weather, land preparation was delayed and Multiplication II was planted on August 15, 2007. In February 2008, 100 clones from 58 crosses representing 92.59 and 92.06 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected. Further evaluation of agronomic and morphological characteristics of the clones limited the final choice to 30 clones as entries to the Preliminary Yield Test and for simultaneous screening to yellow spot and leaf scorch and further multiplication.
5. Smut Resistance Test
a. Phil 2003 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) - N.S. Meneses & G.A. Gayoti
Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were tested against smut of sugarcane. Result of the plant cane showed that 14 clones were very highly resistant, 9 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 7 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were very highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 4 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.
b. Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses & G.A. Gayotin
One hundred fifteen (115) clones of the Phil 2004 and Phil 2005 series were rated for resistance to smut of sugarcane. Fifty (50) clones were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 12 resistant, 17 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.
6. Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon) - Entima, R.G., G.A. Gayotin
One hundred eight (108) clones of the Phil 2004 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 59 were very highly resistant, 24 highly resistant, 6 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible and 2 susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 10 clones were very highly resistant, 21 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 15 intermediate resistant,14 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.
7. Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series - Meneses, N.S. and G.A. Gayotin
Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 were rated for resistance to yellow spot of sugarcane. One clone was intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 29 very highly susceptible to the disease.
8. Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series - R.G. Entima & G.A. Gayotin
Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. All clones tested were found highly resistant to the disease.
9. Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2003 Series - Aloro, L.E., J.C. Velasco and I.S. Bombio
The study which was laid-out in February 2007 to June 2008 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of the Phil 2003 series sugarcane clones compared to the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The entries were the 40 clones selected from the Phil 2003 series Multiplication II. These clones were also simultaneously screened for reaction to four major sugarcane diseases.
Thirty (30) clones did not differ significantly in tonnage yield as the two control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. Eight clones were of lower yield. Two clones have lower tonnage than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Tonnage yield ranged from 44.64 TO 114.01 tons per hectare.
None of the test clones significantly surpassed the control varieties in sucrose content measured as Lkg/TC. Six clones were lower while twenty-five (25) were comparable. Nine clones have lower sucrose content than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Lkg/TC ranged from 1.82 to 2.29 Lkg/TC.
In Lkg/Ha, twenty-one (21) clones have comparable sugar yield as the two control varieties while eight clones were lower. Eleven clones were lower that VMC 86-550 but were comparable to Phil 8013. Sugar yield ranged from 98.28 Lkg/Ha to 227.13 Lkg/Ha.
Result of the study showed that all the 40 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar yield than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550.
Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten (10) promising clones which were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecological Test. These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2003-11-0167, Phil 2003-17-0217, Phil 2003-46-0617, Phil 2003-64-0699, Phil 2003-96-0933, Phil 2003-154-1389, Phil 2003-158-1503, Phil 2003-163-1577, Phil 2003-175-1727 and Phil 2003-208-2063.
10. Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series – Velasco. J.C., L.E. Aloro and R.D. Pillado
Ten (10) Phil 2001 series varieties were tested in the Ecological Test experiment in five (5) locations of Negros and Iloilo from November 2006 until March 2008. One variety was selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT). Phil 2001-0295 is a high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering cane, resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and to leaf scorch.
11. Synchronized Screening of Sugarcane Clones for Resistance to Downy Mildew, Smut, Yellow Spot & Leaf Scorch, Phil 2003 Series – N.S. Meneses & R.G. Entima
The Effectiveness of synchronized screening in determining resistance of clones to downy mildew, smut, leaf scorch and yellow spot is about the same with separate screening, the usual procedure used in screening for disease resistance. Synchronized screening however has the advantage of conducting the whole process in one set of trial in one year, unlike 3-4 years in separate screening. Either of the two methods can be used in screening clones for disease resistance.
12. Performance of the Phil 98-, Phil 97-, PSR 2000- and PSR 99- Series Sugarcane Varieties – Bombio, I.S., R.G. Entima, N.S. Meneses and V.A. Serrano
This study evaluated the performance of one Phil 98-, five Phil 97-, five PSR 2000- and three PSR 99- series sugarcane varieties in selected mill districts of Negros and Pampanga from December 2006 to January 2008.
Test varieties differed significantly with the control in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield.
Four varieties were higher in tonnage while five were lower than Phil 8013; seven varieties have more while eight have lesser tonnage than Local Control.
PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean tonnage; Phil 97-1123 has the lowest. TC/ha was highest in La Carlota, followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos. Highest potential yield of the test varieties was attained by Phil 98-0255 in La Carlota.
Eight varieties were of lower sucrose content than Phil 8013; two were sweeter and seven were less sweet than Local Control.
Phil 97-1123 has the highest variety mean Lkg/TC; the lowest was Phil 98-0255. Cane stalks were sweetest in HPCo, followed by La Carlota, PASUMIL and San Carlos. Highest potential for sucrose content was obtained from Phil 97-1123 planted in HPCo.
One variety was higher in sugar yield while four were lower than Phil 8013; four varieties have more while six have lesser sugar yield that Local Control.
PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean sugar yield’ the lowest was Phil 97-1123. La Carlota followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos attained the highest LKG/Ha. Highest potential sugar yield was from Phil 98-0255 planted in La Carlota.
Phil 98-0255 has the tallest stalks, PSR 99-182 the biggest diameter, PSR 2000-343 the most number of millable stalks/sqm, and PSR 2000-34 the heaviest stalks. La Carlota cane stalks were the longest, biggest in diameter and heaviest but the most number of millable stalks were produced in PASUMIL. Flowering was more pronounced in PASUMIL than in Negros. Pests and disease incidences were considered to be too minimal to be able to inflict damage on crop yield.
The Gain-Even-Loss Tally showed that seven test varieties gained over control in tonnage yield. Two varieties gained over Local Control in LKg/TC, while four varieties gained over control in sugar yield. Three varieties stood out among the test varieties in outyielding the control in tonnage and sugar yields and thus can be considered for commercial planting. These are PSR 2000-34, PSR 2000-343 and PSR 2000-161.
13. Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – Armones, R.T. and I.S. Bombio
A total of 1,259 sugarcane varieties were planted in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2007. Twelve (12) new accessions came from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program and new Crossing Blocks. Eight hundred twenty two (822) clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically. Stalk alignment, aerial roots, and trichomes were the data gathered on the year 2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials.
Production Technology and Crop Management
1. Alternative Cropping Systems to Sustain Productivity in the Agrarian Reform Communities – Morales, C.L., D.A. de los Santos, M.L.C. Almodiente and J.C. Nierves
The experiment was laid out at the experimental fields of the sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research center in 2004 and terminated after 3 years. The original proposal was to conduct the study in five years in an ARB farm in Recreo, Pontevedra but due to budget constraints, it was shortened to three years and laid out instead at SRA compound for easier implementation of the treatments. This project was conceived to identify alternative production strategies that could improve and sustain sugarcane yields and income of the agrarian reform beneficiaries and to monitor changes in soil properties.
Results of the study showed that alternative crop production strategies like application of mudpress, intercropping leguminous crops like mungo and Crotalaria juncea and trash mulching are feasible means to improve crop production and maintain sugarcane production. After three years of study, the return on investment was higher than the treatments without alternative schemes.
The changes in soil properties was not clearly manifested after three years of study. There should be a longer period of observation to validate results.
2. Adaptation Trials on the Use of Distillery Effluents as Liquid Fertilizer or Irrigation water for Sugarcane* – Bombio, R.M., S.B.Tahum, G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay
The field experiment was laid out at DBI compound on January 2007 and harvested December 2007, while the pot experiment was set up at SRA, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center on January 2007 and harvested November 2007, to assess the efficacy of distillery effluent on growth and yield of sugarcane and to evaluate the effect of distillery effluent on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.
Field experiment results showed that Phil 94-0913 applied with inorganic fertilizer obtained the highest tonnage of 118.2 TC/Ha when combined with effluent applied after planting (T4), followed by plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) with 114.2 TC/Ha and the lowest was on plants without effluent (T2C2) with 105.3 TC/Ha.
In comparison with fertilizer treatment alone (T2C2), data revealed that application of effluent only at planting plus fertilizer (T4) gave an increase in tonnage of about 12.9 TC/Ha, while effluent applied at planting and three months after planting plus fertilizer (T6) gave an increase tonnage of 8.9 TC/Ha.
On the other hand, in comparison with the control without inorganic fertilizer (T1C1), sugar cane applied with effluent at planting minus fertilizer (T3) gave an increase in tonnage of 9.1 TC/Ha, while those applied with effluent at planting and 3 months after planting minus fertilizer (T5) gave an improvement of about 17.8 TC/Ha.
Highest sugar yield (266.9 LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 was obtained on plants applied with effluent after planting plus fertilizer (T4) but comparable with plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP plus fertilizer (T6 (263.4 LKg/Ha)); plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP minus fertilizer (T5 (225.2 LKg/Ha)) and plants without effluent plus fertilizer (T2C2 (230.4 LKg/Ha)). Lowest LKg/Ha was obtained on plants without effluent and without fertilizer (T2C2 (181.3 LKg/Ha)).
Compared to the control without effluent and fertilizer (T1C1), application of effluent after planting (T3) increased the LKg/Ha of Phil 94-0913 by 23.5, while effluent applied after planting and 3 months after planting gave an increase of 43.9 LKg/Ha.
On the other hand, compared to another control T2C2 (fertilizer only) Phil 94-0913 applied with effluent after planting and fertilizer (T4) gave an increase of 36.5 LKg/Ha while those applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) gave an increase of 33.0 LKg/Ha.
Soil analysis of the field experiment showed that application of about 55-110 cubic meters per hectare effluent did not leave high residual amount of nutrients in the soil and did not go beyond the root zone of the sugarcane plants.
*/ Cooperative study between Distileria Bago, Inc. (DBI and Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension LGAREC), La Granja, La Carlota City
Analysis of the essential nutrient is low, therefore it is recommended that inorganic fertilizer may be added to supplement the total amount of nutrients needed for optimum growth and reproduction of sugarcane.
Results of both field and pot experiment it can be used as irrigation water because no detrimental effect on growth of sugarcane was observed when planted in the soil previously saturated with a maximum volume of 1080 cubic meter effluent.
3. Effect of WOKOZIM (Bio-Organic Stimulant) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane.** Bombio, S.B.Tahum, R.M., G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay
The experiment was laid out at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2007 to November 2008, to determine the efficacy of using WOKOZIM granules on sugarcane crop by addition on top or replacement of farmers input and to compare the performance of WOKOZIM granules versus other organic fertilizers.
Highest tonnage of 129.66 TC/Ha was obtained on canes applied with the recommended rate (RR) of inorganic fertilizer + 1 ton organic fertilizer + 8 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T11). Tonnage of Phil 97-3933 tended to decrease to 127.93 TC/Ha when 16 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T12) was used in combination with RR + 1 ton organic fertilizer.