I. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- A. LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LAREC)
- 1. Muscovado Production from Different Sugarcane Varieties – Guevarra, M., B. Manlapaz
Sixteen (16) sugarcane varieties were grown in the experimental field at LAREC following the usual cultural practices. After 12 months, the stalks of the varieties harvested and crushed. The juices were boiled to produce powder muscovado using the conventional method of cooking, with lime for juice clarification.
The juice of test varieties had from 2.0 and higher brix, 19 and higher pol and 2.0 and higher LKG/TC. Powdered muscovado was produced in all test varieties with various analyses: 0.63—3.22% moisture, 92.31—95.44% pol, 1.06—1.60% ash, 95.13—97.91% brix, 92.96—95.53% sucrose, 1.39—3.5% reducing sugar and 26,216—74.56 I.U. color.
- 2. Phil 2002 Series Preliminary Yield Test - Casupanan, A., R. Del Rosario, V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.
Forty six (46) test clones from the Phil 2002 series in the Row test were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477.
The fifteen (15) clones were found to be significantly higher in sugar yield (LKg/Ha) than either or both check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477, and were moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew
These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 02-2155, Phil 02-1015, Phil 02-0881, Phil 02-0295, Phil 02-0151, Phil 02-0791, Phil 02-2061, Phil 02-2417, Phil 02-0219, Phil 02-1125, Phil 02-0241, Phil 02-2133, Phil 02-0037, Phil 02-2231, and Phil 02-0255.
- 3. Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program: Ecological Testing of Phil 2000 series in Luzon – Casupanan, A., V. Serrano, R. del Rosario, L. Vidallion, N. Guiyab, L. Santiago, T. Caballero and P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.
Twelve (12) test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 2000 Preliminary Yield Test and two control varieties were entered in the Ecological Test in the four ecological sites in Luzon from July 2005 to July 2007.
Six varieties, Phil 00-1893, Phil 00-1491, Phil 00-1419, Phil 00-1323, Phil 00-2435 and Phil 00-2569, passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease resistance.
The selected varieties are recommended for department release and for further testing in the National Cooperative Test.
- B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)
Production Technology and Crop Management
- 1. Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid fertilizer) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M.Bombio, G.L.Talam, S.B.Tahum, N.D.Navarro
Humus and nitrofert application did not influence germination of Phil 94-0913. Comparable germination percentages were obtained. The result did not conform to the data obtained on Phil 93-3849 where germination improved. This indicates that response to applied humus + nitrofert differed between varieties.
Tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 significantly improved when humus and nitrofert was applied together with 50% RR or 100% RR.
When humus and nitrofert was combined with 50% RR, tonnage and sugar yield significantly improved by about 17.06 TC/Ha and 37.15 LKg/Ha over 50% RR only.
On the other hand when humus and nitrofert was applied together with 100% RR, significant increase of 18.16 TC/Ha and 42.98 LKg/Ha over 100% RR was obtained.
Further more when humus + nitrofert was applied without inorganic fertilizer, improvement in tonnage and sugar yield of about 9.06 TC/Ha and 22.06 LKg/Ha over the unfertilized was attained but statistically, the difference was not significant.
Highest added income due to humus and nitrofert was realized at 50% RR, but highest total yield of 368.58 LKg/Ha was observed at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert, while on 50% RR + humus and nitrofert the total yield was 342.86 LKg/Ha, therefore in terms of money value, highest net income will be at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert.
- 2. Refinement of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations For Sugarcane – O.T.Quilloy, M.C.Gerardino, G.L.Talam
The growth and yield response of sugarcane as influenced by varying phosphorus and potassium rates were evaluated in selected farms in La Carlota and BISCOM mill districts.
Sugarcane soils from the experimental sites contain varying amounts of available P and exchangeable K.
Significant yield increments with P205 and K20 fertilization were observed in Guimbalaon soil at Hda. Jamandre (La Carlota Mill District) Negros Occidental. Potash fertilization likewise did not influence sugarcane yields despite low exchangeable soil K in Luisiana soil at Hda. Erlinda (BISCOM Mill District).
Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilization in specific soil type is a better option in determining the P205 and K20 fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.
- 3. The Effect of Cultivation and Planting Pattern on Yield of Phil 93-2349 – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales
The study was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of Phil 93-2349 with four (4) different cultivation practices and three (3) planting patterns.
Different cultivation practices and planting patterns did not significantly influence the growth and yield performance of Phil 93-2349. The result on plant cane implies that yield of sugarcane at minimum tillage is still comparable with cane grown in maximum tillage regardless of planting pattern.
- 4. Performance of 99 and 2000 Series Clones – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales, D. Delos Santos
The study evaluated 6 clones and one control variety as to their growth and yield performance. Clones tested were Phil 2000-240-1707, Phil 2000-322-2191, Phil 2000-139-1031, Phil 99-2641, Phil 99-1867 and Phil 99-1459. Control variety used was Phil 8013.
Two clones exhibited flowering capacity namely Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 99-1867. Minimal pests and diseases like borer, pokkahboeng and downy mildew were observed attacking the test clones. No clones out yielded Phil 8013, however only Phil 99-1459 gave comparable TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.
- 5. Effect of Bio-Organic Fertilizer (Probiotics) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – C.L.Morales, J.C.Nierves
The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from October 2005 to December 2006 to evaluate the growth and yield performance of sugarcane to the application of Probiotics and the economics of using Probiotics as fertilizer for sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 6m x 9m experimental plot.
The application of Probiotics alone at the rate of 50 bags per hectare did not outdo the yield performance of farmers practice by using inorganic fertilizers in their sugarcane farms. It can be applied or used only as soil conditioner.
- 6. Effect of Bacterial Enzyme as Soil Conditioner on the Nutrient Assimilation of Micropropagated Plantlets and Different Varieties – T.O.Macuro, G.A.Gayotin, C.L. Morales
Production of sugarcane is highly dependent on commercial fertilizers that are very costly. Sugarcane farming in this study is supplemented with enzyme-producing bacterial isolates. Sufficient population of bacteria was supplied to the field to produce a nitrogenase system and together with cofactors needed for potassium and phosphorus assimilation.
Enzyme-producing isolates were sprayed to the field for six months, once a month. Results showed significant effect on the morphological characteristics of sugarcane by increased millable stalks, high tonnage and brix at harvest.
The bacterial isolates increased the organic matter of the soil, enhance the water-holding of the plants and the early maturing of some sugarcane varieties by 15%. High yielding varieties used in this study (Phil 93-3155, Phil 8013, 93-3727 and Phil 94-0913) were responsive and adaptable to the bacterial isolates used while Phil 93-2349 was less responsive or less adaptive to the bacteria applied.
Variety Improvement and Pest Management
- 1. Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2006 Series - R.T. Harder R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio
Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2006 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the fourth week of October to the first week of November, 2006.
A total of 481 arrows from 328 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 17 to November 7, 2006 using 97 selected female and 82 male parents. From these, 478 arrows from 327 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1, Appendix B).
Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 21 to December 18, 2006 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 327 bi-parental crosses consisting of 478 arrows. Medium to good germination was observed in 89 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 11 percent had poor germination. Seedlings in the 169 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 537 seedboxes.
Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 838 seedboxes. This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation. The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2006 series crossing program is shown in Table 2, Appendix B.
- 2. Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2005 Series – R.T. Harder, R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio
The 2005 hybridization work which produced a total of 101,156 seedlings from 329 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 14 to July 13, 2006. From these seedlings, 70,325 survived in the field or a survival rate of 69.52 percent (Table 3, Appendix B).
Selection in March, 2007 using Phil 56226 as control variety gave 1,217 promising clones from 228 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.73 percent for seedlings and 69.30 for crosses (Table 4, Appendix B).
All selected promising clones per cross which were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test is shown in (Table 5, Appendix B).
- 3. Row Test, Phil 2004 Series – L. E. Aloro , R.T. Harder & R.T. Armones
The planting of the Row Test, Phil 2004 Series was done on March 16, 2006. The entries were the 1,494 clones from 227 crosses selected from the Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2004 Series. The clones were planted in plots measuring 3 x 3 meters with furrow distance of one meter. Phil 56226 the control variety was planted every 10 clones/plots for comparison during selection.
Selection on December, 2006 gave 199 promising clones from 95 crosses out of 1,494 clones from 227 crosses planted. This result showed a selection percentage of 10.63 percent for clones and 41.85 percent for crosses. The selected clones as shown in Table 6, Appendix B were forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.
- 4. Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2003 Series – L.E. Aloro , R.T. Harder & R.T. Armones
Two hundred sixty four (264) promising clones from (142) different crosses of the 2003 series, Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously subjected to smut disease screening test from December, 2005 to July 2006. Result of the study showed 179 were selected out of 264 clones planted on a selection percentage of 67.80%. These come from 113 out of 142 crosses on a selected percentage of 79.57%.
The 179 selected clones from 142 crosses were further multiplied and subjected to downy mildew disease screening test from July 2006 to February, 2007.
Result of the study showed 154 clones from 101 different crosses were selected or a selection percentage of 86.03 percent for clones and 89.38 percent for crosses (Table 7, Appendix B). These clones were supposed to be tested in the Preliminary Yield Test. However due to budgetary constraints, the entries were limited only to 40 clones.
The 40 smut and downy mildew resistant clones with their parentage and agronomic characters selected from the Phil 2003 Series Multiplication and Disease screening stage are presented in (Table 8, Appendix B).
- 5. Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2003 series (Plant cane & Ratoon) - R.G. Entima
One hundred seventy eight clones of the 2003 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 111 were very highly resistant, 30 highly resistant, 13 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 28 clones were very highly resistant, 14 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 15 susceptible, 11 highly susceptible and 65 very highly susceptible. (Table 9, Appendix B)
- 6. Smut Resistance Test
- a. Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series at PYT stage (Plant cane & Ratoon) - N.S. Meneses
Of the 6 clones of 1999 series plant cane tested against smut, 1 was highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series plant cane, 8 were very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series plant cane, 7 were very highly resistant, 2 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 4 very highly susceptible. In the ratoon crop of 1999 series, 1 clone was intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series ratoon, 7 were very highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series ratoon, 5 were very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible (Table 10, Appendix B).
- b. Smut Resistance Test Phil 2004 series at Row test - N.S. Meneses
One hundred ninety seven clones of the 2004 series were rated for resistance to smut. Sixty seven clones were very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 29 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 13 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 43 very highly susceptible to the disease (Table 11, Appendix B).
- 7. Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – N.S. Meneses
Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against yellow spot, 3 were intermediate and 3 susceptible. For 2000 series, 3 were resistant, 4 intermediate and 17 susceptible. For 2002 series, 3 were resistant, 3 intermediate and 10 susceptible (Table12, Appendix B).
- 8. Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – R.G. Entima
Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against leaf scorch, 4 were resistant and 2 intermediate. For 2000 series, 16 were resistant and 8 intermediate while for 2002 series, 9 were resistant and 7 intermediate (Table 13, Appendix B).
- 9. Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2002 Series- R.T. Harder L.E. Aloro & R.T. Armones
The study which was laid-out in February, 2006 aimed to determine the agronomic, disease resistance, and yield performance of 16 Phil 2002 series, 24 Phil 2000 series and 6 Phil 1999 series clones against the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86550.
Result of the study showed that almost all of the 46 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar per hectare than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550 except for Phil 2002-33-0151 which gave significantly higher TC/Ha (127.09) than VMC 86-550 (105.63) as shown in Table 14, Appendix B.
Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten promising clones. These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2002-33-0151, Phil 2002-35A-0175, Phil 2002-41-0241, Phil 2002-45A-0295, Phil 2002-79-0359, Phil 2002-104-0465, Phil 2000-112-0791, Phil 2000-158-1175, Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 2000-354-2417. Table 15, Appendix B showed the summary data of these ten selected varieties.
All selected varieties were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecologic Test.
- 10. Ecologic Test, Phil 2000 Series - R.D. Pillado, L.E. Aloro & R.T. Harder
Ten Phil 2000 series varieties were tested in the Ecologic Test experiment in 6 locations of Negros and Iloilo from November, 2006 until February, 2007. Three varieties were selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT). They are as follows:
Phil 2000-2569, a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and yellow spot but susceptible to leaf scorch.
Phil 2000-2435 a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and moderate to leaf scorch and yellow spot.
Phil 2000-1331, a high sucrose, high tonnage, moderately to profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. The summary of information of the 2000 series Ecologic Test is presented in Table 16, Appendix B.
- 11. Support Projects
- 1. High Yielding Varieties (HYV) Propagation – R.D. Pillado , J.C. Velasco & L.E. Aloro
· Phil 2002 Series Project
Ten promising varieties of the 2002 series were propagated last August, 2007 for source of planting materials of the Ecological Test in five different locations of Negros and Panay this coming November, 2007 until February, 2008 lay-outs.
· Phil 2001 Series Project
Ten promising test varieties of the 2001 series Ecological Test were propagated last March, 2007. These served as source of planting materials for any variety that will be selected after the evaluation of the results of the Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series in March, 2008.
· Phil 2000 Series Project
Ten varieties of the 2000 series were ratooned March, 2007. Three varieties that were selected from this series were further multiplied in October, 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test in 2008.
· Phil 1999 and 1998 Series Project
Four varieties selected in the 1999 series and another three from the 1997 series were planted in January 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test IV in Crop Year 2007-2008. All canepoints were cutbacked Oct, 2007 and turned over to the NCT project, Research Division.
· Miscellaneous Varieties
Phil 8013, VMC 86-550 were ratooned February and March, 2006, to serve as control varieties in the Ecological Test, 2002 Series, Crop Year 2007-2008.
· Canepoints Produced and Distributed
Excess canepoints of Phil 98, Phil 97, Phil 93 series were distributed to planters and OPSI participants.
2. Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – R.T. Armones, R.T. Harder & L.E. Aloro
One thousand two hundred forty-seven sugarcane varieties/clones were ratooned/planted in the Germplasm Collection area for the year 2006 (Table 17, Appendix B). From these, twenty new accessions from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program were collected and planted in the Germplasm plot (Table 18, Appendix B). Eight hundred twenty two clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically (Table 19, Appendix B). Characterization for bud groove, corky patch and corky cracks were the data gathered for the Crop Year 2006-2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for the selection of parent materials.
II. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- 1. Establishment of Pollution Load Factors for the Sugar Industry – Agosto, R.
A project that aims to seek exemption from DENR to allow equitable and attainable effluent standards (air and water) for the sugar industry sector based on the pollution load factor in Philippine sugar processing.
With the passage of the RA 8749 or the Clean Air Act (CAA) or 1999 and RA 9275 or the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 2004, a more stringent water and air emission standards have become a major setback to the ailing sugar industry. Pursuant to Section 3.B. of DENR Administrative Order No. 2007-22, Series of 2007 (Guidelines on the Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring System, all air emission sources with potential to emit more than 100 but less than 750 tons/yr. of total suspended particulates (TSP) after the air pollution control devices (APCD) may utilize a Predictive or Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS), a system or device used by the Special Action Group for the Environment (SAGE). PEMS refers to a mathematical model that predicts the gas concentration in a stack based on a set of operating data such as but not limited to fuel flow rate, temperature, stack excess oxygen, pressure, heat input, fuel analysis and others without requiring the Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). CEMS refers to the equipment stipulated in the DAO 2000—81 (IRR or CAA) used to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by any means of readings recorded at least once very 15 minutes (using an automated data acquisition and handling system), a permanent record of relevant regulated pollutant emissions or stack gas volumetric flow rate.
Results obtained by the Special Action Group for the Environment’s (SAGE) quarterly environmental monitoring provided baseline data to establish pollution load factor needed by the sugar mills/refineries in order for them to know if their air pollution control facilities and wastewater treatment facilities are inefficient or not. These data are important to know if CEMS should not be installed anymore on their APCD. Sugar mills invest huge amount of money for their operations upgrading and likewise on their pollution control facilities. The CEMS alone costs around PhP95 M and around PhP10-30 M just for the upgrade of wastewater treatment plant (WTP).
This project enabled the sugar industry to gather and establish in-house data for pollution parameters and thus forewarn and enable the mills to retrofit their pollution control facilities accordingly and, moreso, avoid regulatory problems.
Data gathered by SAGE proved that sugar mill/refineries with efficient APCD can attain less than 750 tons/yr of total suspended particulates as stipulated under Section 3.B of DAO 2007-22, Series of 2007.
- 2. Relevance of Quality Canes Towards Effective & Efficient Production Process - Pedalizo
This project evaluates data on quality cane vis-à-vis effective and efficient production process.
- 3. Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries for 2004, 2005 & 2006 - Villamor, M.T., et. al.
This annual publication contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements of refining year 2004 and 2005.
- 4. Annual Synopsis of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Production and Performance Data for CY 2004-2005 and CY 2005-2006 - Sabordo, A., et. al.
An annual publication that embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.
- 5. Capital Efficiency: An Approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line - Banjao, L.
The project covers capital matters towards reducing cost of raw sugar production. Through questionnaires and surveys among Philippine sugar mills, technical calculation and analyses can be established.
- 6. Labor Productivity – An approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line – Tienda, D.
The project covers labor matters toward reducing cost of raw sugar production