- I. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH &DEVELOPMENT
- A. Luzon Agricultural Research Center (LAREC)
BREEDING & GENETICS
1. Performance of Selected Phil and VMC Sugarcane Varieties in Luzon Mill Districts - Serrano, V., A. Casupanan, R. Del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra
Nine (9) test varieties selected by SRA and VMC were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design from November 2003 to May 2006 to determine their performance in the four mill districts of Luzon.
On LKg/Ha in the plant cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13 were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 90-1237 and VMC’s 97-45, 97-41, 96-120, 97-30, 97-169 and 97-134 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 93-1601. Phil 90-1237 and VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district.
On LKg/Ha in the ratoon cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13 were Phil 94-0913 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 90-1237, VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 94-0913 and Phil 90-1237, VMC 97-45& VMC97-41 at CARSUMCO mill district.
- 2. Preliminary Yield Test 2001 Series - Serrano V., R. del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra
Forty-two (42) test clones from the 2001 Row Test series were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties under natural field conditions at LAREC.
Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten (10) clones were found to be significantly higher than the two check varieties Phil 8013 and Phil 75-44.
These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 2001-27, Phil 2001-167, Phil 2001-441, Phil 2001-529, Phil 2001-575, Phil 2001-577, Phil 2001-637, Phil 2001-695, Phil 2001-829 and Phil 2001-833
- 3. Ecological Test 1997(B) Series - Casupanan A. and M. Guevarra
Eight (8) test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1997(B) Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from January 2004 to June 2006.
Phil 97-3501 passed the selection criteria in yield performance at Balayan and Pensumil mill districts and Phil 97-2339 in Pensumil only. Phil 97-3501 and Phil 97-2339 were resistant to downy mildew. Phil 97-2339 was resistant to smut while Phil 97-3501was susceptible. Phil 97-2339 is recommended for planting at Pensumil mill district.
- 4. Ecological Test 1998 Series - Casupanan A., and M. Guevarra
Four (4) test varieties from the LGAREC 1998 series and control varieties Phil 8013 (standard) and local check varieties, Phil 7544 in Pampanga and Balayan and Phil 6607 in Pensumil and Carsumco were entered in the ecological test in four mill districts from January 2004 to June 2006.
Among the test varieties, Phil 98-1963 and Phil 98-0255 significantly out-yielded in LKg/Ha the two (2) check varieties at Balayan mill district. Phil 98-0255 is resistant to smut and downy mildew while Phil 98-1963 is susceptible to smut and downy mildew. Phil 98-0255 is recommended for planting at Balayan Mill District.
5. Ecological Test 1999 Series - Del Rosario, R., V. Serrano, A. Casupanan, L. Vidallon, A Vitug & M. Guevarra
Twelve test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1999 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in three mill districts in Luzon from December 2004 to April 2006.
Phil 99-1549 and Phil 99-0925 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 99-1549 significantly outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and Phil 66-07 in Carsumco mill district while Phil 99-0925 outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga mill district. Both varieties are intermediate resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 99-1549 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Carsumco and Phil 99-0925 in Pampanga.
None of the test varieties passed the criteria on yield performance for regional recommendation.
- 1. Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane Smut caused by Ustilago scitaminea - Vidallon, L. and M. Guevarra
The distribution of reactions to smut of the 52 test clones of 2000 series from LGAREC were as follows: two, very highly resistant; one, highly resistant; three, resistant; nine, intermediate resistant; six, intermediate average; four, intermediate susceptible; nine, susceptible; four highly susceptible; and fourteen, very highly susceptible.
- 2. Cultural Practices in the Management of Sugarcane Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra
Different cultural practices in the management of sugarcane downy mildew were evaluated. The degree of infection was lower when utilizing these cultural methods rather than using seed pieces from downy mildew-infected stools.
In both plant and ratoon crops, percent infection was significantly higher in the non-selection of seedpieces (control) than the other treatments using resistant variety, using healthy susceptible variety + rouging and intensive weeding.
- 3. Screening of Phil ’99 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra
Among the twelve (12) clones of Phil 99 series evaluated, nine were rated very highly resistant, one highly resistant, one intermediate resistant and one was highly susceptible to downy mildew.
The growth parameters on the various practices including the control were comparable in stalk height, diameter and weight but significantly differ in number of tillers. Seed pieces from disease-infected stools (control) gave the least number of tillers and significantly lower TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha than the other treatments.
- 4. Screening of Phil ‘98 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra
Of the four (4) clones of Phil ’98 series tested for resistance to downy mildew, two clones were rated highly resistant (Phil 98-0255 and Phil 98-2139) one was highly susceptible, Phil 98-1863 and one was very highly susceptible, Phil 98-3403 to downy mildew.
5. Screening of Phil 1997 (B) Series for Resistance to Downy mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra
Of the seven (7) clones screened for resistance to downy mildew, Phil 97-1297 was rated highly resistant; Phil 97- 3041 and Phil 97-2339 were resistant; Phil 97-4151, Phil 97-3941 and Phil 97-3933 were resistant and Phil 97-2509 was susceptible.
- 6. Screening of Phil ‘99 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane smut caused by U. scitaminea - Vidallon, L. and M. Guevarra
The reactions of 2 test clones of ‘99 series from LGAREC to sugarcane smut were as follows:
Resistant — 3
intermediate resistant — 6
intermediate average — 1
intermediate susceptible — 2
- 1. Evaluation of Furrow Arrangements in Sugarcane Growing - Burcer, A., R. del Rosario and O. Quilloy
The eight (8) test furrow arrangements with Phil 90-1237 as test variety were: single row 1m, 1.25m and 1.5m apart, 4 cpts/m; 1.5m apart, 8 cpts; double rows,0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1.0m apart, 1.5m distance, 4cpts; triple rows, 0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1m apart, 1.5m distance, 4 cpts.
Single row 1.0m and 1.25m apart and triple rows 0.5. apart, 1m distance consistently produced more millable stalks, heavier stalk and higher TC/Ha, Lkg/Ha and ROI compared to the other furrow arrangements.
- 2. Evaluation of Planting Patterns in Sugarcane Growing - Guevarra, M. and S. Villasanta
The seven (7) planting patterns tested for the plant crop and three ratoon crops were single row – 1m apart, 4 canepoints/m; 1.5m apart, 4cp; 1.5m apart, 6cp; 1.5m apart, 10 cpts; and double row, 0.5m apart, triple row, 0.5m apart and quadruple row, 0.5m apart with 1.5m distance each. Test variety was Phil 8943.
The planting patterns gave comparable % canepoint germination, millable stalk counts and cane yields (TC/Ha) but significantly differ in tiller counts in the plant and ratoon canes. Sugar yields in LKg/TC among treatments significantly differ in the second ratoon while LKg/Ha were comparable in the plant and ratoon canes.
- 3. Ratoon Performance of New Sugarcane HYV’s - Manlapaz, B. and J. Recuenco
Among the 17 sugarcane varieties tested, Phil 8943, Phil 90-1237 gave lower percentage reduction in TC/Ha and second ratoon crops. In terms of Lkg/TC these four (4) sugarcane varieties were significantly comparable with those sugarcane varieties with high Lkg/TC.
Soils & Plant Nutrition
- 1. Efficacy of Fortified Digested Distillery Slops - Burcer, A. and M. Guevarra
The full dose RRFDDS was comparable with the full dose RRCF and other treatment combinations in enhancing the growth and cane yield of Phil 90-1237 in the plant and first ratoon canes. All treatment combination and control were comparable in Lkg/TC. On sugar yield (Lkg/Ha) full dose RRFDDS was comparable with full dose RRCF, ½ dose RRCF + full dose RR FDDS in both plant and ratoon canes. ROI was highest at full dose RRFDDS in the plant cane and at ½ RRCF + full dose RRFDDS in the ratoon cane.
- 2. Efficacy of Organic Fertilizer from Mill Wastes and Distillery Slops - Estanislao, E. and M. Guevarra
Organic fertilization at varying levels of N fertilization significantly affected the growth and tillering of plant cane. Organic fertilizer with 90 or 180 kg N/Ha produced the highest cane and sugar yields in the plant and ratoon canes. The treatments produced comparable sucrose content. Organic application and fertilization with 90 kg N/ha increased profitability of the plant and ratoon canes.
- 3. Distillery Slops as Soaking Solution for Canepoints - Guevarra, M. and B. Manlapaz
Canepoints soaked in Raw DS – 3, 6,12, 24 hrs and Treated DS – 3, 6. 12, 24 and 48 hrs gave comparable percent germination with water and significantly higher than the untreated. The treatments were comparable in stalk height and stalk diameter. Raw DS-12 hrs and Treated DS – 12 and 24 hrs -had significantly more millable stalks/plot than water and untreated.
Treated DS-6, 12 and 24 hours were significantly higher on TC/Ha than the control. Treatments were comparable on Lkg/TC. Only Treated DS – 12 hrs gave significantly higher Lkg/Ha than water and the untreated.
- 4. Nitrogen Fertilization of Sugarcane for Cutback Canepoint Production - Guevarra. M. and B. Manlapaz
In the plant and first ratoon crops, application of 80 to 110 kg N/ha gave comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60 and 70 kg N/ha. In the second ratoon crop, 90 to 110 kg N/ha had comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60, 70 and 80 kg N/ha.
The 90 kg N/ha level gave the highest return on equity in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops.
- 5. Refinement of P & K Fertilizer Recommendation - Quilloy, O. and B. Manlapaz
Phosphorus and K uptake by the sugarcane plant were not always associated with P & K fertility of the soil. Significant correlation of P uptake with rates of P2O5 fertilization was observed only at Bautista’s Farm and K uptake with K2O fertilization at LAREC and Coral’s Farm. The experimental data showed inconsistent observations on soil test values, nutrient uptake and yield response of sugarcane to varying levels of P2O5 and K2O fertilization in the different test sites. Laboratory analysis of available P and exchangeable K in the soil and leaf uptake of P and K can not be relied in assessing the P and K needs of sugarcane. Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilizer is a better option in determining the P2O5 and K2O fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.
- 6. Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Using Processed Septage and Biosolids - Quilloy, O. and B. Manlapaz
Sugarcane yields and profitability were increased with the application of processed septage and biosolids at varying rates of urea fertilization. Yields obtained from 170 kg/ha N fertilization were statistically comparable with the 100 m3/ha processed septage applied alone or supplemented with urea. Improvement of sugarcane yields with biosolids fertilization was observed only when urea was supplemented to the organic waste applied at 5 tons/ha.
In the succeeding ratoon crop, sugarcane yields and farm incomes were higher when the plant cane was fertilized with 100 m3/ha processed septage and urea. Higher production and profit were attained when biosolids were applied at 10 T/ha. Residual effect on soil fertility with biosolids was more pronounced than processed septage application.
- B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)
1. Ratoon Performance of New Sugarcane HYV’s (Phil 92 and Phil 93 Series Varieties) - Jean C. Nierves and Cresenciana L. Morales
The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from December 2002 to December 2005 to determine the ratoon performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 5m x 6m experimental plots.
Phil 92-0051 consistently obtained higher cane tonnage and sucrose content than the other varieties tested from 1st up to the 3rd ratoons and up to the 2nd ratoon in sugar yield.
Generally, ratooning decreased tonnage and sugar yields of the tested varieties after the third ratoon and LKg/TC increased only up to 2nd ratoon.
Based on the results, Phil 92-0051 is the only variety that consistently increased in TC/Ha and LKg/TC up to the 3rd ratoon and sugar yield up to the 2nd ratoon.
- 2. Degree of Land Preparation and its Effects on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoon Crop - D. A. De Los Santos and M. L. C. Almodiente
A study was conducted to find out the influence of the degree of land preparation and the frequency of cultivation on Phil 93-3727 ratoon cane. Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare interaction among treatments.
Results showed that degree of land preparation and frequency of cultivation did not significantly affect the tiller number, plant height, stalk length and stalk diameter of ratoon cane. Other parameters such as number of millable stalks and weight per plot significantly differed with the degree of land preparation specifically treatment L4 using 2 tractor plowing, sub-soiling, and tow tractor harrowing. This treatment also produced higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha than the rest of the treatments. Treatment L5 using two carabao plowing and two carabao harrowing gave the lowest cane and sugar yields. LKG/TC was not affected by any degree of land preparations and frequency of cultivation.
Good ratoon stand is influence by the degree of land preparation specifically the use of two tractor plowing, subsoiling and two tractors harrowing while frequency of cultivation did not significantly influence ratoon cane and sugar yields.
- 3. Evaluation of Micropropagated Plantlets at Different Cycles of Multiplication - T.D. Macuro and C. L. Morales
This study employed 2-D electrophoresis technique in evaluating micropropagated plantlets at different cycles of multiplication to determine their homogeneity and variability. It utilizes protein separation procedures based on solubility differences as function of pH and ionic strength.
The isoelectric pH’s of extracted proteins for both Phil 8013 and Phil 92-0913 microplantlets produced in each cycle of multiplication were found to be comparable, hence regenerated plantlets produced in every cycle were considered to be homogenous. Statistical data show that Phil 94-0913 microplantlets produced in cycles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 were statistically comparable with each other; hence uniformity and homogeneity among regenerated plantlets or cultivars are assured. For Phil 8013, microplantlets produced in cycles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were found to be comparable; hence uniformity and homogeneity of cultivars are assured.
Protein extracted from different sugarcane varieties used in this study has IE values in the range of 6.45 – 7. 65. The amino acids actively present in extracted proteins could be phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, threonine, cysteine, glycine or serine. Molecular weight of extracted protein could also be determined based on IE values of extracted protein.
SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT
- 1. The Effect of Humic Acid on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane - R. M. Bombio, G. L. Talam, S. B. Tahum, N .D. Navarro and R. E. Tapay
The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to test the efficacy of granular humic acid on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913 sugarcane variety.
Application of 2 bags humic acid per hectare in addition to the recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis improved the yield of Phil 94-0913 by about 14.89 LKg/Ha with a corresponding net benefit of Php 8,354.24.
Application of 2 bags humic acid alone or in combination with 8 bags urea did not improve but otherwise decreased the yield.
It is therefore recommended that humic acid should not be applied alone, but should be combined with recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis, so that balance amount of nutrients will be provided to the sugarcane plants for a higher sugar yield.
Soil analysis of the experimental area after harvest showed that organic matter percentages of all fertilized plots were comparable, and significantly higher than the untreated plots. Results indicated that applied fertilizer alone or in combination with humic acid produced a higher biomass that eventually decomposed to improve the organic matter of the soil or the applied humic acid left a residual amount for the succeeding sugarcane crop.
- 2. The Effect of Duofos Phosphate on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, N.D. Navarro and R.E. Tapay
The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to evaluate the effect of Duofos phosphate on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913.
Duofos phosphate as source of P fertilizer for Phil 94-0913 gave comparable results with the application of 18-46-0. Both fertilizer sources were significantly higher than the unfertilized control.
In comparison with the recommended rate of 18-46-0, highest saving per hectare in the amount of Php 3,374.80 was obtained with the application of 3 bags Duofos phosphate. This is equivalent to about 25.38% saving in terms of fertilizer input.
Available soil P analysis of the soil samples after harvest were comparable with the unfertilized plot, therefore it is recommended that Duofos phosphate will be applied every cropping, to provide the phosphorous requirement of the sugarcane plants.
- 3. Indigenous Organic Materials for Fertility Improvement of Guimbalaon Soil - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum
To survive in a sugarcane farming business nowadays, there is a need to reduce production cost but maintain the high productivity of your farm. Thus, many farmers are now utilizing indigenous soil amendments to supplement or substitute the high cost of inorganic fertilizer. The Department of Soils & Plant Nutrition laid out a demo-project last July 2004 at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City, to showcase the effects of different indigenous fertilizer materials for sugarcane production. It is a long term demo-project that will eventually help determine the build-up of organic matter in the soil and the availability of other essential elements for sustainable sugarcane production.
Although yield results among various treatments were not significantly different, the highest LKg/TC was obtained by applying the recommended rate of lime plus the recommended rate of NPK. The highest tonnage however, was obtained by applying the recommended rate of rock phosphate as source of P plus the recommended rate of N and K. Stalk length and weight per stalk of plants treated with rock phosphate plus N and K were longer and heavier, the reasons why highest LKg/Ha of 201.93 was obtained from this treatment. The average sugar yield of the various fertilization packages is 184 LKg/Ha. Using rock phosphate as source of P fertilizer could give as much as Php 81,000 net benefit.
- 4. Influence of Time of Fertilization and Age at Harvest on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro
To determine the proper age at harvest of Phil 94-0913 in relation to the time of 2nd dose N & K fertilization, two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja City from January 2004 to December 2005.
Insignificant results were noted in the growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter, weight/stalk, total millable stalks as well as in TC/Ha. LKG/TC and LKG/Ha among the different period of 2nd dose N & K fertilization in relation to the age at harvest in both plant and ratoon crop.
However, regardless of fertilization timing, cane aged 11 months produced high sucrose content than canes harvested at aged 10 or 12 months.
A significant decline in tonnage per hectare of 8.7% & 15.9%, and 14.2% and 30.4% in LKg/Ha was noted at canes harvested earlier than 11 months or a month later, respectively.
In ratoon, although insignificant, cane fertilized with ½ N & K, 2 months after ratooning, seemed to produce more tonnage than at fertilization full dose or ½ N & K applied later than 3-5 months after stubble shaving.
Regardless, of fertilization timing, cane aged 12 months produced the highest tonnage/sugar yield (98.72 TC/Ha / 223.44 LKg/Ha) comparable with cane aged 11 months (95.88 TC/Ha / 219.29 LKg/Ha). The lowest was at cane aged 10 months (91.17 TC/HA / 202.62 LKg/Ha).
Second dose fertilization at 2 months in both plant & ratoon crop, harvested at 11 months, consistently obtained the highest cane & sugar yield which was reflected in the net profit, giving the highest ROI of 254.3% in plant cane & 251.10% in ratoon crop.
Generally, cane aged 11 months, regardless of fertilization timing, obtained the highest average mean ROI of 242.34% in plant cane and 221.30% in ratoon crop. Cane aged 12 months got the lowest ROI in plant crop (151.36%), while in ratoon crop the lowest was at cane aged 10 months (201.64%).
Breeding & Genetics Department
- 1. Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2005 Series - R.T. Harder, L.E. Aloro and R.T. Armones
Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2005 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the third week of October to the first three days of November, 2005.
A total of 479 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 14 to November 25, 2005 using 97 selected female and 69 male parents. From these, 475 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were harvested.
Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 18 to December 23, 2005 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 329 bi-parental crosses consisting of 472 arrows. Medium to good germination was observed in 90 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 10% had poor germination. Seedlings in the 172 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 588 seedboxes. Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 892 seedboxes. This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation.
- II. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- 1. An update on Economic Hauling Distance
A technical survey which looked at the economic hauling distance based on the industry’s existing transport system, hauling costs, processing costs and price of sugar and molasses.
- 2. Update on Energy Consumption
This study came-up with an updated Specific Energy Consumption of Philippine Sugar Mills. The data would be of use to gauge the energy efficiency of mills and would also serve as inputs to further energy-related studies.
- 3. Annual Compendium of Philippines Sugar Refineries 2003
This is an annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance of all operating sugar refineries in the Philippines.