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I.              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

A.           LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Evaluation of  Different  Rates of  Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons -  A. Burcer, R.  del Rosario, M. Guevarra and O.  Quilloy 

 

Planting rate from 30,000 to 40,000 canepoints/ha of Phil 90-1237produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints/ha. The treatment using chipped-tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops. Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers produced the highest return on investment (ROI).

 

2.    Variety Performance at Different Seasons of Planting – B. Manlapaz and M. Guevarra

 

Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early, mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKg/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKg/TC significantly differ.  Season of planting means for TC/Ha of early planting was significantly higher than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKg/Ha means of seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant interaction between varieties and season of planting on LKg/Ha.

 

3.    Variety Performance at Different  Ages of Harvest – M. Guevarra and B.  Manlapaz

 

The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091,  Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil p3-1601,Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-0913,  VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/Ha when harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the  aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha at 12 and  14 MAP and significantly higher LKg/TC at 12 MAP.

 

4.    Evaluation of  Leguminous Cultivars as  Green Manures for Sugarcane  – E. Estanislao

 

Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and Colopogonium caerulum manuring with or without N  fertilization.  Green manuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

 

5.    Efficiency of  Fertilizer  Usage on Sugarcane – A.  Magnaye 

 

Fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose at early and late planting seasons  did not produce significant differences in growth and cane and sugar  yields.

 

6.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut Caused by  Ustilago scitaminea  Sydow  – L. Vidallon,   A.  Casupanan and M.  Guevarra

 

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments. Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging  gave higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha. In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha than strict selection + farmer’s cultural practices  and intensive weeding.  LKg/TC did not significantly differ among the treatments in both crops.

 

The LKg/Ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than strict selection of healthy seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmers cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKg/Ha.

 

7.    Cultural Practices for the Management of  Lesion  Nematodes  – J. Recuenco

 

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting. Pratylenchus populations of  plots treated with Furadan and applied with mudpress  were comparable and were significantly lower than  those where trashes were burned and those  treated  with Durabloom.

 

Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly at 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after ratooning.  Pratylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes with an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample. Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

8.    Phil 1996 Series Ecological Tests at SRA LAREC, Batangas, Pensumil-Camarines Sur and Carsumco-Cagayan – V. Serrano and  M. Guevarra

 

Thirteen test varieties selected  from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

 

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane. It significantly outyielded the local check variety Phil 66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. This variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

 

However, none passed the selection criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

9.    Phil 1997  Series  Ecological Test – Set A  – V. Serrano and M.  Guevarra

 

Fourteen test varieties selected from the 1997 Series  Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

 

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 97-1391 significantly outyielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2383 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

 

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded  either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

 

None passed the criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

10.  Preliminary  Yield  Test of Phil  2000 series  -  A. Casupanan  and   M. Guevarra 

 

Fifty-two test clones from the Phil 2000 series row test  with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid-out in RCBD at LAREC.  Agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at  LAREC

 

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha with the check varieties. Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

11.  Improvement of Phil 56226  through induced mutation -  V. Serrano,   M. Guevarra , A.  Burcer  and J.  Recuenco  

 

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kr to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

 

Selections from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years. After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control. No selections from Phil 85-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired. A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

 

 

12.  Screening of  Phil 1997-A Series Clones for  Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora  philippinensis A. Vitug  and  M.  Guevarrra 

 

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 25  were rated  very highly resistant (Phil 97-0707, 0673, 1125, 0891, 0821, 0729, 0671, 1643, 0609, 0665, 1019, 2259, 2339, 2141, 0239, 0029, 2039, 0051, 0407, 0099, 0207, 2059, 2041, 0527 and 1029), 12 were highly resistant (Phil 97-0117, 1215, 1523, 0693, 0793, 3315, 0021, 2015, 0411, 2383, 2709 and 0529), 6 were resistant        (Phil 97-0727, 0045, 0097, 1901, 1123 and 0202), 6 were intermediate resistant (Phil 97-0855, 2343, 0687, 1351, 1861 and 2135) and the rest had from  intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible reaction.

 

13.  Screening of  Phil 1997-B series  and Phil 1998  Series Clones  for Resistance to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitamineaL. Vidallon  and  M.  Guevarra  

 

Among the six clones of 1997 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the four clones of 1998 series tested for smut reaction, only Phil 98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.

 

In both tests, smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

 

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Ecological Test of 1996 SeriesV.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Thirteen test varieties were selected by LAREC and LGAREC from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill district in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane.  It significantly out yielded the local check variety Phil-66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. The variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

However, none passed the selection criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 2.    Ecological Test of Phil 1997 Series: Set A – V.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Fourteen test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 1997 Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating.  Phil 97-1391 significantly out yielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew.  Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2382 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

None passed the criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 3.    Preliminary Yield Test of 2000 Series – A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

Fifty two test clones from the 2000 row test series with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid out in RCBD at LAREC.  Actual agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at LAREC.

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and LKG/Ha with the check varieties, Phil 7544 and Phil 8013.  Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

  1. 4.    Improvement of Phil 56226 Through Induced Mutation – V.A. Serrano, M.M. Guevarra, A.M. Burcer and J.D. Recuenco

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kg to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

Selection from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years.  After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control.  No selection from Phil 53-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired.  A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

  1. 5.    Screening of 1997 – A Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew – A. Vitug and M.M. Guevarra

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 49 were rated from intermediate resistant to very highly resistant, 2 were highly susceptible, 1 was highly susceptible and 4 were intermediate susceptible.

  1. 6.    Screening of 1997 –B Series for Resistance to Smut – L.Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Among the six clones of ’97 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane then in plant cane.

  1. 7.    Screening of 1998 Series for Resistance to Smut – L.S. Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Of the four clones of 1998 series from LGAREC tested for smut reaction, only  98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

EFFICIENT FARMING SYSTEMS

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Rates of Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons - A.M. Burcer, R.A. del Rosario, M.M. Guevarra and O.T. Quilloy

Planting rate from 20,000-40,000 canepoints per hectare with Phil 90-1237 produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints.  The treatment using chipped tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops.  Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers also produced the highest return on investment (ROI) in ratooned canes.

  1. 2.    Variety Performance at different season of planting and age of harvesting – M.M. Guevarra and B.G. Manlapaz

Study 1.  The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091, Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 093-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-1913. VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha.  When harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha at 12 and 14 MAP and significantly higher LKG/TC at 12 MAP

Study 2.  Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKG/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKG/TC significantly differ than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKG means seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant between varieties and season of planting on LKG/Ha.

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Leguminous Cultivars as Green Manures for Sugarcane – E.B. Estanislao

Study 1.  Evaluation of Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum as Green Manure of Sugarcane.

Study 2.  Evaluation of Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium caeruleum as Green Manure Crop of Sugarcane.  Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium Caerulum with or without N fertilization.  In contrast, green mannuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

  1. 2.    Efficiency of Fertilizer Usage on Sugacane – A.A. Magnaye

Application of fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose with different methods did not produce significant differences in growth and yield data.  Although the results were comparable it showed that a combination of the methods of application whether applied during early and late planting seasons produced high tonnage and sugar yield.

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut, Ustilago scitaminea Sydow – L.S. Vidallon, A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments.  Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging gave the lowest TC/Ha and LKG/ha.  In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha that strict5 selection + farmer’s cultural practices and intensive weeding, LKG/TC did not significantly differ.  The LKG/ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than the strict selection seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKG/Ha.

  1. 2.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Lesion Nematodes – J.D. Recuenco.

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting.  Pratylenchus populations of plots treated with Furadan and applied with Furadan with mudpress were comparable and were significantly lower than those trashes were burned and those treated with Durabloom.

In the ratoon canes, Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after rationing.  Patylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes and had an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample.  Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patters on Plant Cane and Ratoons – D.A. delos Santos, T.B. Banas, M.L.C. Almodiente and M.T. D. Alejendrino

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns on three croppings of Phil. 8943.  There were eight (8) furrow spacing used.  Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare each treatment.  Result on plant cane showed highest number of tillers from the .75 m furrow spacing although comparable with other treatments.  Other parameters such as length and diameter at harvest were comparable.  Yield in LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha were also comparable.

On first ratoon crop, statistically highest tiller count was obtained from the .75 m spacing.  At harvest however, stalks lengths ,diameter and number of millable stalks gave comparable results.   The same was observed on LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha. Almost the same trend was observed on the second ratoon crop.

The highest returns of investment (ROI) in plant cane, first and second ratoon were obtained in 1.5 m (40,000 population density), 1.5 m (66,666) and 1 m (40,000), respectively.

Generally 1 m spacing proved to be economically advantageous, however, for purposes of trash mulching and intercropping other row schemes such as double triple and quadruple rows are recommended.

  1. 2.    Effect of De-trashing Standing Canes on Sugarcane Yield  – T.S. Jereza, D.A. delos Santos

To generate information on the effect of de-trashing standing canes on the growth and yield of sugarcane, the study was conducted at LGAREC in December 2003 to December 2004.

Results showed that the number of millable stalks of Phil 93-3727 increase when detrashed at 9 and 21 months after planting (MAP).  Significant difference was also observed on plant height when the canes were de-trashed at 9 and 12 MAP.

Sugar yield per hectare (LKG/ha) significantly increased when de-trashing was done at harvest and when canes were de-trashed monthly starting at 8 months until harvest.

Other growth and yield parameter such as stalk length and diameter, tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar per ton cane (LKG/TC) were either comparable and/or not significant among treatments.

Based on the findings of the study de-trashing of standing canes should be done at harvest for clean cane delivery to mills thus increasing sugar recovery.

  1. 3.    Monitoring of Released Micropropagated Plantlets to Different Planters/recipients M.T.D. Alejandrino, C.L. Morales, T.B. Banas and D.A. delos Santos

A total of 289,000 Phil 94-0913 micropropagated plantlets were released to twelve (12) planters/recipients from nine (9) different mill districts.

Of the seven recipients who have already cutbacked their microplantlets, an average of 79.30% survival rate was observed.  The highest survival rate of 98.0% was observed at DMC Farms (Kabankalan City) and Had. Bayabas (Cadiz City) and the lowest was at 30.0% at ELRO, Had. Valencia (Bais City).  ELRO got the lowest survival rate because the microplantlets were unloaded from the truck three (3) days after release which resulted to high mortality of plantlets.

There were not much of pests and diseases except for minimal occurrence of borers, downy mildew and rust which were controlled also by the planters/recipients.

An average of 21.13 lacsas were produced by the different planters/recipients.  ELRO, Had. Valencia of Bais City has the lowest production (7.0 lacsas) while Had Bayabas, Cadiz City had the highest production of 39 lacsas.

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3727 Plant Cane and Ratoon to Varying NPK Fertilization and Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 93-3155 & Phil 93-3727 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 93-3727 plant cane was laid-out on October 2002 and Phil 93-3155 was on November 2002.

Phil 93-3155.  Significant variations in tonnage and LKG/ha of Phil 93-3155 plant cane was due to the significant differences in stalk length and total millable stalks as influenced by nitrogen.  The longest canes and the highest total millable stalks were obtained from the 150N treatment resulting to a high TC/Ha of this N treatment.  The highest cane yield (109.06 TC/Ha) and sugar yield (245.62 LKG/ha) of newly planted Phil 93-3155 obtained at 150 kg N/Ha were comparable with 50 and 200 kg N/Ha but significantly higher than 100 kg N/Ha.  Application of 50, 100 and 200 kg N/Ha also gave comparable tonnage and LKG/Ha.  Cane and sugar yield of all nitrogen treated plots were significantly higher than the 0 N treatment. Nitrogen rates did not anymore influenced the cane and sugar yield of Phil 93-3155 during the ratoon crop.  Sugar rendement (LKG/TC) was not significantly affected by N fertilization in both plant and ratoon cropping.

Phosphorous and potassium did not influence the yield on Phil 93-3155 in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendement (LKG/TC) and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) among various P and K treatments did not differ significantly.

Phil 93-3727.  Except in weight per stalk, growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter and total number millable stalks were comparable among the different N rates in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Heaviest stalk was observed at 200 kg N/Ha, comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha, significantly heavier than 50 kg N/ha and without N.

Phil 93-3727 (PC) fertilized with 200 kg N/Ha obtained a significantly higher sugar yield ILKG/Ha) due to high tonnage per hectare produced.  This result however, was comparable with 100 and 150 kg/ha, significantly higher than fertilization of 0 and 50 kg/ha.  In ratoon crop, tonnage (TC/Ha –and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) regardless of rates did not suffer significantly, however significantly higher than without N.

Nitrogen fertilization did not influence the quality of juice (LKG/TC) extracted among the different treatments.

Varying levels of phosphorous and potassium, did not affect the yield of Phil-93-3727.  Differences in the cane yield (TC/Ha), LKG/TC and LKG/Ha were not significant among treatments.

The highest net benefit in the plant cane was obtained using 150 kg N/Ha giving an ROI of 62.20%.  In ratoon crop, N fertilization at 100 kg N/Ha gave the highest net benefit with an ROI of 73.64%.

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 94-0913 Plant Cane and Ratoon Crop to Varying NPK Fertilization on Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA –LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 94-0913 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 94-0913 plant cane was laid-out on November 2002 and harvested November 2003 while the ratoon crop was started November 2003 and harvested October 2004.

Phil 94-0913 plant cane gave the highest yield of 188.79 TC/Ha and 401.03 LKG/Ha at 150 kg N/Ha in combination with 150 kg/Ha P2O5 and 300 kg/Ha K2O.  These yield results were comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.  P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence the yield of Phil 94-0913 plant cane.

Highest TC/Ha of Phil 94-0913 ratoon was obtained at 150-150-300 kg/Ha NPK while the highest LKg/Ha was observed at 200 kg/Ha NPK.  Both yield data were comparable with 100 kg/Ha NPK.  P2O5 fertilization gave significant yield at 150 kg/Ha, compare with 200 kg/ha.  K2O had no significant influence on yield of Phil 94-0913 ratoon.

Sugar segment (LKG/TC) of both plant and ratoon crops of Phil 94-0913 were not influence by NPK fertilization.

Highest net benefit and return on investment (OI) derived from nitrogen fertilization of Phil 94-0913 plant cane was attained at 150 kg N/Ha at constant rate of P2O5 and K2O (150 and 300 kg/Ha, respectively).

Phil 94-0913 ratoon obtained the highest net benefit and OI at 200 kg/Ha N and 150 kg/Ha.  P2O5 at constant rate.

  1. 3.    Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid Fertilizers) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and S.B. Tahum

Early growth results showed that HUMUS + nitrofert alone or in combination with ½ of the recommended rate improved the germination percentage as well as tiller number of Phil 93-3849.

Yield results indicated that application of HUMUS + nitrofert alone improved the yield of sugarcane by about 10.92 LKG/Ha over the control.  When combined with ½ of the recommended rate of fertilization improvement was 15.06 LKG/Ha against the ½ RR alone.  In contrast, when HUMUS + nitrofert was applied together with the full recommended rate fertilizer, yields tended to decrease when compared to full R alone.

Based on the results, it is therefore recommended that HUMUS + nitrofert should be applied together with only ½ of the fertilization recommendation to be effective.  To minimize fertilizer cost combined application of HUMUS + Nitrofert and only ½ of the recommended rate of fertilizer is likewise recommended.

Futhermore, since no residual nutrients were detected on the soil analysis after the harvest of the plant crop, the same amount of HUMUS + Nitrofert will be applied together with ½ of the fertilizer recommendation, if ratoon crop will be continued.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2001 Series from Row Test (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 61 clones plant cane tested against downy mildew of sugarcane, 42 were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease.  In the ratoon crop, 25 clones were very highly resistant, 13 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 5 very highly susceptible.

  1. 2.    Smut Resistance Test Phil 1999 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 5 clones plant cane tested against smut of sugarcane, 1 was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 1 susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 1 clone was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 3.    Phil 2000 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 48 clones plant cane tested, 5 were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 4 clone were very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.

  1. 4.    Phil 1999 and 2002 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses

Two (2) clone of the 1999 series were rated highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible to the disease.  For 2002 series, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 25 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and resistant and 33 very highly susceptible to the disease.

  1. 5.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil-1997-1998 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against yellow spot or sugarcane, 1 was resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series plant cane, 1 was highly resistant, 1 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 4 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 2 clones were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 2 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series ratoon, 2 were intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.

  1. 6.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 40 clones plant cane tested, 1 was resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 3 clones were intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 18 very highly susceptible.

  1. 7.    Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.V. Estioko

The 1997 series clone was rated intermediate resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane.  Two (2) clones of the 1999 series were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  Of the 2000 series clone 1 was rated vey highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 7 resistant, 16 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1997-1998 Series PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against leaf scorch or sugarcane, 8 were highly resistant, 3 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series plant cane, 10 were highly resistant, 1 intermediate and 1 intermediate average.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 7 clones were highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series ratoon, 8 were highly resistant, 2 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate average.

  1. 9.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 40 clones plant cane tested, 13 were highly resistant, 19 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were highly resistant, 20 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible and 3 highly susceptible.

  1. 10.  Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.G. Entima

The 1997 series clone was related intermediate resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane.  Of the 4 clones of the 1999 series, 2 were highly resistant while the others were intermediate resistant.  Thirty seven clones of the 2000 series were highly resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane, 7 intermediate resistant and 3 intermediate average.

  1. II.        INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (IR&D)

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

  1. 1.    Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2004)

 

To apprise the sugar industry technocrat on the preceding milling season’s milling status, performance, recent development in processing, problems, constraints and breakthroughs.  The review’s findings will serve as important reference for the industrial and agricultural sectors in improving their productivity and efficiency levels.

2.   Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2005)

                  Same as above but contains data for the year 2005

  1. 3.     Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data CY 2003-2004

 

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers