SRA Activities / OPSI

Annual Reports / Major Programs

Block Farm


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I.    AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1)    Composting Bagasse and Mudpress with Sewage Sludge

 

Sewage sludge was found an effective ingredient in the composting of sugar  mill wastes such as bagasse and mudpress.  When used in watering the compost pile, it supplies the moisture and nutrient requirements of microorganisms that hastens organic matter decomposition. The recommended fertilization level was 4 Tons/ha of compost with supplemental  dose of 90 kg/ha N by Urea (46-0-0).

 

2)    Utilization of distillery slops on sugarcane production

 

The test distillery slops which includes raw, evaporated and digested distillery slops were better applied in full dose that split dose. Based on the results, recommended application levels of distillery slops and nitrogen fertilizer that improved growth and yield of sugarcane were as follows: raw and digested distillery slops, 50-100 m3/ha with 120 kg/ha N fertilizer in both plant and ratoon crops; and evaporated distillery slops, 25-50 m3/ha with 180 kg/ha N in the plant crop and 25 to 50 m3/ha with 60 to 120 kg/ha N in the first ratoon crop.

 

Phytotoxic symptoms or adverse effect were not observed on plots applied with the test distillery slops from 25 to 100 m3/ha in combination with nitrogen fertilization in the plant and ratoon crops.

 

Raw distillery slops applied in full dose or split dose from 50 to 200m m3/ha effectively reduced the population of plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane in the plant and first ratoon crops.

 

The results of the studies showed that distillery slops can be utilized in sugarcane production as supplemental fertilizer and as control for the plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane.

3)    Smut  Infection in Relation to Irrigation – A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

 

The incidence of smut (Ustilago scitaminea) is usually high during the dry season. Irrigating the sugarcane field significantly reduced the degree of smut infection.  Sugarcane plants irrigated at 10 days interval are less infected with smut and grew vigorously.

 

B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

1.    Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements of Phil 96 series in Micro propagation Culture mediumM.T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to determine the Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements in the culture medium for micropropagation of 1996 series sugarcane varieties; namely Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3239, Phil 96-3263 and Phil-4135.

 

The test varieties varied in the requirements for BAP to the culture medium  Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3263 and Phil 96-4135 required 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the initial shoot tip explants for micro propagation while Phil 96-3239 needed 0.3ppm.

Based on the above observations, generally, most of varieties tested respond positively to 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the culture medium.

2.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patterns on Plant Cane and Ratoons D.A. de los Santos; Ma. L. Almodiente and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different planting schemes using 8 row distances on the growth and yield of Phil 8943. The experiment was laid out in November 2001 and harvested in November 2002. The row distances as treatments were set in 6m x 10m plots arranged in Randomized Complete Block design with 4 replications. The row distances used were: 1) 1m between rows, 4 cp/m;  2) 1.5 between rows, 6 cp/m;  3) 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m; 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m;  4) 1.5m between rows, 4 cp/m;  5) double row (1.5 x .05m), 4 cp/m;  6) Triple rows, 1.5 x 0.5m, 4 cp/m;  7) Quadruple rows, 1.5 x 0.5,  4 cp/m and  8) 0.75 between rows, 4 cp/m.

Preliminary plant cane results, showed that tonnage yields of Phil 8943 did not differ among treatments.  At the early stage of growth the number of tillers were higher for treatments with higher planting densities, and the lowest in the least dense treatment.  However, at harvest, millable stalks were comparable in all treatments. Stalks length, diameter, LKg/TC and also LKg/Ha were also comparable.  The results of the plant cane that low population density planting Phil 8943 gave comparable yields with higher densities given the adequate conditions for growth and development.

3.    Evaluation of Methods of Planting During Wet SeasonP.F. Gipanago, D.A. de los Santos and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

An experiment to evaluate the effect of different methods of planting cane points during wet periods was laid out in July 2001 at the La Granja Agricultural Research & Extension Center.  The five treatments consisted of planting single and double cane points flat and angled at 45o in furrows and double cane points planted along the ridges. Plot sizes were 5m x 5m, and treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.

Plant height and number of tillers per plot 3 and 5 months after planting were not significantly different among treatments.  Likewise, the number of millable stalks and stalk length were also not significant.  With the insignificance of the growth and yield components, TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha also followed the same trend.

Even without significance, the results clearly show the advantage of planting single cane points in the furrow, whether planted flat or angled at 45o.  It is economical and yields equivalent to the doubled population rate.  However, the results are not conclusive because of the high % of cv in both growth and yield parameters. Planting in July especially in water logged areas also delay harvesting as vegetative state is also prolonged.

4.    Evaluation of Different Integrated Weed Management Pratices in Sugarcane Ratoon During Wet and Dry Seasons of PlantingJ.C. Nierves, D.A. de los Santos, PH.D. and C.L. Morales

 

The experiments were conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design at La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center from November 1999 to May 2001 and ratooned after harvesting to evaluate the different integrated weed management practices in sugarcane ratoon and identify the most effective weed management practice during wet and dry seasons of planting.

In the wet season planting, the use of late post-emergence spray (26 days after stubble shaving) in combination with manual weeding (2x) and plow cultivation (2x) gave comparable cane tonnage and sugar yield with treatments applied with blanket weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) pre-emergence spray (2 days after stubble having) + manual weeding (3x) plow cultivation (3x) and row weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) but contributed the highest net income of P 54,537.32 in the ratoon crop.

In the dry season planting, the treatment applied with early post-emergence spray (12 days after stubble shaving) + manual  weeding (2X) + plow cultivation (2x) had similar TC/Ha and LKg/Ha with the rests of the weed management practices but obtained the net income of P 51,723.00.

The cost of weeding operations in the wet season planting was higher than the dry season in the ratoon crop. This was attributed by more rainfall that hastened the rapid growth of weeds.

Based on direct agricultural cost, the use of late and early port-emergence spray in combination with manual weeding and plow cultivation obtained the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield in the wet and dry seasons, respectively and found effective among the treatments used in the ratoon crop.  Hence, an efficient weed management practice involves not only a single but also a combination of the manual, mechanical and chemical application.

5.    Variety X Season of Planting Study: (Phil; 92, Phil 93 series) A. Early Season Planting – I.S. Bombio

 

A field study arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times was conducted at the SRA LGAREC Station from September 2001 to September 2002.  The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series sugarcane varieties when planted in the early milling season at the La Carlota mill district. Phil 8013 was included as control variety.

Land preparation consisted of two plowing and two harrowing by tractor with furrows set at 1m apart. The canepoints were planted double rows in the furrows and later thinned to 40,000 points per ha.  Fertilizers were applied in split doses – the 1st dose at planting; the 2nd dose two months after.  Weeds were controlled by chemical, manual and mechanical means.  Harvesting was done 12 months after planting. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the results.

At 3 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0751 was considerably taller, Phil 92-0577 and 93-2349 were as tall as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155 were consistently shorter.

All the test varieties produced fewer tillers/sqm except for Phil 93-2349 which have as much numbers as Phil 8013. At 6 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more tillers/sqm; Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as many as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 produced fewer tillers.

Tonnage yield was comparable to Phil 8013 except for Phil 93-3155 which was lower. Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as sweet as Phil 8013. Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3727 were of lower sucrose contents.  Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-2349 compared in sugar yield with Phil 8013 but Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3155 have lower yields.

Stalk length of Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-2349 were comparable to Phil 8013 but shorter in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155. Stalk diameter was bigger in Phil 92-0577 Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727, comparable to Phil 8013 in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 but smaller in Phil 92-0751.

Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more stalks/sqm, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 have fewer while Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as much number of millable stalks/sqm Phil 8013. Phil 92-0057 have heavier stalks, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3849 have lighter stalks while those of Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as heavy as Phil 8013 stalks.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

1.    DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Plant cane)R.G. Entima

 

Of the 90 clones tested, 88 were rated resistant and moderate to the disease.

b.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Ratoon)R.G. Entima

 

Out of 90 clones of the 1999 series Ratoon tested, 28 were very highly resistant, 15 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to downy mildew.

2.    SMUT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999-200 series (Row Test) – T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 157 clones tested, 39 were rated very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 28 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 9 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 45 very highly susceptible.

b.    Phil 1997-1998 series (PYT-Ratoon)T.B. Bañas

 

Among the 13 clones of the 1997-1998 series PYT ratoon tested, 2 were rated highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 2 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to smut.

3.    YELLOW SPOT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)N.S. Meneses

 

Four clones of the 1997 series ratoon were rated resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane, 23 intermediate resistant, 20 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 11 susceptible and 1 clone very highly susceptible.

4.    LEAF SCORCH RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1996 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 7 were resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 susceptibel and 35 highly susceptible to the disease.

 

b.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of the 68 clones tested, 3 were rated resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 2 susceptible while 44 were found highly susceptible to leaf scorch disease.

 

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

1.    INSECT PESTS

 

a.    Bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grubs in sugarcane – T.B. Bañas & R.V. Estioko

 

Efficacy of bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grub of sugarcane was evaluated under laboratory condition. White grubs were dosed with different concentrations of nematode alone and nematode + bacteria.

Mortality of grubs was observed in all treatments at three, six and twelve days exposure. The dosage of 5,000 nematodes + bacteria gave the highest percentage of mortality 32.81% at three days, 71.86% at six days and 100% in 12 days. All treatments except the control are statistically comparable. However the mortality with 5,000 nematodes + bacteria was comparable with 10,000 nematode + bacteria after 12 days.

The rate of 5,000 nematode + bacteria has the highest nematode recovery three days after inoculation and decreased almost consistently at 50% after six to twelve days.  In other treatment nematode recovery has oscillating increase and decrease after three to twelve days’ exposure.

b.    Further evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of white grubs – R.V. Estioko & T.B. Bañas

 

Heterorhabditis did not significantly infect the natural population of white grubs (Lepidiota sp.) in sandy soil. Although there was less population at 3 months after inoculation, such reduction was attributed to emergence of beetles and not to mortality of larvae caused by nematode infection. Due to relatively the same population of white grubs at 1 individual/stool, yields in all treatments were not significant.

c.    Effectiveness of emulsified concentrate insecticides for white grub control in sugarcane – R.G. Entima & M.C. Alba

 

With the use of emulsified concentrate insecticides, Confidor SL 100 obtained the highest percent grub mortality of 71.25%. Basudin 400 EC obtained mortality of 69.17%; Predator Plus, 64.17%; Lorsbasn 40 EC, 63.75% and Hopcin, 62.92%.

2.    DISEASES

 

a.    Integrated management of smut in sugarcane ratoon – T.B. Bañas & M.C. Alba

 

In effect and economics of integrated management technologies against smut disease of Phil 56226 ratoon were evaluated in this study. Treatments used  in addition to farmer’s practice were Vitigran Blue, Benlate, Sanitation, Roguing, Sanitation + Roguing, Roguing + Vitigran Blue, Roguing + Benlate and farmer’s practice alone.

Among the technologies, farmer’s practice with Vitigran Blue gave the lowest stool infection of 8.31% comparable with Benlate, Roguing + Vitigran Blue and Roguing + Benlate but significantly different from farmer’s practice alone having stool infection of 30.62%.

On yield, the highest TC/Ha of 95.33 and LKg/Ha of 215.20 were obtained from treatment with Vitigran Blue followed by rouging + Vitigran Blue with 91.00 TC/Ha and 210.03 LKg/Ha significantly higher compared to farmer’s practice alone.

The highest return of investment of 233.89 % was obtained with Vitigran Blue, followed by Benlate with 191.96% and rouging + Vitigran Blue with 161.20%.

b.    Effectiveness of hotwater treatment in relation to disease recurrence in plant and ratoon crops (Comparative performance of hotwater treated plants established in the nursery with and without precautionary measures) 1st year (Plant cane) – N.S. Meneses

 

Result of the 1st year study on comparative hotwater treatment showed no significant differences between treated and untreated Phil 56226 on growth parameters except for the number of tillers.

Likewise, yield parameters such as LKg/TC, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha showed comparable results. Percent nodal discoloration and bacterial counts were also comparable.

A 1.54% smut infection was observed in the field on the treated plot while 1.43% was observed on the untreated. In the nursery, yellow spot infection was below 5%.

The experiment is now on the 2nd year to further evaluate recurrence of diseases after hotwater treatment both in the nursery and field conditions.

 

SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

1.    Response of Phil 8839 5th Ratoon to Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization in Guimbala-on clay loam – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 5th ratoon to various NPK levels in Guimbalaon Clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that significant differences were observed in stalk length and stalk weight at harvest. On the other hand, stalk diameter were comparable among treatments while the total number of millable stalks differed significantly. A very slight reduction in the total number of millable stalks was obtained in the fifth ratoon compared with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all treatments were comparable. Tonnage (TC/Ha) significantly differed but were lower than the plant cane by 39.7%. Sugar yield (LK/ha) also differed significantly. The highest sugar yield was obtained at 200-150-200 NPK treatment. This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment. LKg/ha of the fifth ratoon was lower than the plant cane by 40.9%.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crop brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 fifth ratoon.

The highest net benefit of Php 63,310.32 was obtained at 200-0-0 rate with an MRR of 216.45 over the 140-35-0 NPK.

2.    Response of Phil 91-1091 secod ratoon to verying levels of NPK Fartilization – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This experiment was conducted in Guimbalaon soil at SRA-LGAREC from April 2002 to November 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon to various levels of NPK fertilization.

The highest tonnage (TC/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha and significantly higher than the O N fertilization. Similarly, the highest LKg/Ha was also obtained at 200 kg N/ha and likewise comparable with all other N treatments. The O N treatment gave the lowest sugar yield (LKg/Ha).

Stalk length, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were significantly influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Significant differences among treatment means on plant height and tiller number were obtained both at 3 and 6 MAR except the tiller number three months after rationing (3 MAR).

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC), cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was not statistically improved by phosphorus fertilization.

Stalk length, stalk diameter, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were not influenced by phosphorus fertilization, just like the plant height and tiller number both at 3 and 6 MAR.

LKg/TC was significantly influenced by potassium fertilization. Cane yield and sugar yield of Phil 91-1091 R2 did not significantly differ. The highest LKg/TC obtained at 450 kg K2O/Ha was comparable with 150 kg K2O/Ha and significantly higher than 300, 600 and O K fertilization.

Potassium, in like manner with phosphorus, did not influence stalk diameter, stalk length, weight per stalk, total millable stalks, plant height and tiller number of Phil 91-1091 R2.

Highest marginal rate of return of 4427.26 was obtained when nitrogen was applied at the rate of 50 kg N/Ha with a net profit of Php 41,237.51. AT higher N rates of 100 and 200.

3.    Influence of lime and acidic soils grown to sugarcane (ratoon)- R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted to verify further the validity of the SRA’s optimum lime requirement of acidic soils, grown to sugarcane and to determine the influence of residual lime on the growth and yield of Phil 91-1091 ratoon.

 

Arranged in a randomized block design (RCBD) with five (5) treatments replicated four (4) times, this study was conducted on a Guimbalaon soils with a pH of 4.9 at Hacienda Kanlaon II, La Castellana, Negros Occ. from December 2001 to December 2002. Calcitic lime rates at 0, 2, 4, 6 tons/ha and 4 tons/ha dolomite were used only during the plant crop.

Growth parameters such as plant height and number of tillers were not affected by lime application at different rates in both 3 and 6 MAR.

Although not significant, an increase of 7.29 T/Ha and 7.5 T/Ha at 4 and 6T/Ha calcitic lime respectively were obtained. Factors such as heavier stalks and more number of millable per plot contributed to the increase in tonnage.

Application of lime at different rates did not give significant influence on the rendement (LKg/TC), TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.  However, insignificant, application of 6 tons/ha lime gave the highest tonnage (88.57 TC/Ha) as compared to the cane applied with lime at 2 & 4 tons/has well as in 4 tons/ha dolomite that only gave 85.18, 88.36 & 83.61 TC/Ha respectively. The lowest cane tonnage (81.08 TC/Ha) was obtained in the un-limed.

A considerable increase in soil pH and exchangeable Ca++ was noted as the rate of lime increases with 6 tons/ha lime application as the highest.

Total soil N, available P and exchangeable K were not significantly different among rates of lime application.

The exchangeable Mg++ in the soil after harvest increased as the rate of lime increases with application of 4 tons/ha dolomite as the highest. The reduction of exchangeable A in the soil solution was due to the increased pH.

4.    Influence of time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and yield of                  Phil 92-0577 – R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro

 

5.    Response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization – Rosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam and Solena B. Tahum

 

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2001 to December 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 93-2349 highest yield of 152.76 TC/Ha and 339.45 LKg/Ha was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha. Both data were significantly higher than 150, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha.

P2O5 and K2O fertilization of the above variety gave the highest yield at 150 and 300 Kg/Ha respectively. Both treatments were significantly higher in their respective series of fertilization.

Phil 93-3849 highest yield of 121.19 TC/Ha and 265.43 LKg/Ha was obtained at 150 kg N/Ha. These yield data were comparable with 200, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha fertilization P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence TC/Ha and LKg/Ha and LKg/Ha of Phil 93-3849.

LKg/TC of both Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 were not influenced by NPK fertilization.

Phil 93-2349 gave the highest net profit of Php 113,866 at 200 kg N/Ha with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 1,356.45. P2O5 and K2O fertilization of Phil 93-2349 gave the highest MRR at 150 and 300 kg/Ha respectively. Phil; 93-3849 gave the highest net benefit of  Php 77,976 at 150 kg N/Ha with an MRR of 363.75 over the 100 kg N/Ha fertilization.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

RESEARCH PROJECTS

1.    Production of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks

Product development on sugarcane juice as a beverage led to the development of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks.  Cane stalks from SRA varieties – Phil 8839, Phil 092-751, Phil 7779 and Phil 8013 – were cut into cubes one inch size and treated aseptically prior to canning.  The cut canestalks were immersed in sugarcane juice and honey mixture (9:1) in the sterilized can, and sealed aseptically.

Parameters for shelf life such as pH and titrable acidity of the canned product were determined periodically for 7 weeks, of each variety tested.  All canned products were observed to maintain stable pH values of low acid range, 5.0-6.5. The titrable acidity values were observed to be within the values set for good quality shelf life of food products, which is not more than 2.5 ml titrable acidity. Sensory evaluation tests on texture of the product were also conducted on each variety of canned canestalk.  Canned canestalks from Phil 092-751 were observed to be very chewable, sweet and soft.  Each canned product contained 110 ml juice: honey mixture, and 3-5 pieceas cut canestalks weighing approximately 80-105.  Shelf-life of the canned products was stable up to 7 weeks.

2.    Handmade paper from sugarcane leaves and abaca

Two (2) sets of six runs each were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of sugarcane leaves and abaca pulp.  100-50% sugarcane leaves pulp were mixed with 0-50% abaca pulp.  The raw materials were pulped using the electric blender in the first set and the traditional mortar and pestle was used in the second set. Additives of 4% alum, 10% starch, 3% talc and 2% rosin were added to each run to enhance the quality of the paper produced.  The number of sheets formed was maintained at 15 sheets per run.  The same treatments and conditions were used for each set.

Tensile of handmade paper for each set were analyzed.  The papers produced have a tensile strength range of 213-320m.  Handmade papers from one hundred percent (100%) sugarcane leaves pulp had the lowest tensile strength.  As the proportion of the abaca mixed with sugarcane leaves increased, the tensile strength of the product also increased.

3.    Collaborative study with PNRI; processing of sugarcane wastes into high value products (mushroom)

The study was conducted to test the effect of different concentrations of molasses on the growth of submerged culture of Collybia reinekeana.

Results showed that as the concentration of molasses increases, there was also an increase in the weight of the mycelial growth.  At 1.5% molasses concentration, the yield in grams of the culture registered at 37.15; at 2% molasses, 79.37 and 2.5% molasses, 83.87.  Further increasing the concentration of molasses from 3% to 4% showed a decrease in mycelia weight.


 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

1.    The Philippine sugar industry through Philsutech’s half century

This project was conducted upon the request of PHILSUTECH as a special feature in its 50th Anniversary (50th National Convention). This is a documentary presentation of milestones and breakthroughs in the sugar industry, e.g., technology, events, institutions, legislation’s, people, production, performance, prices, varieties, transport, weather pattern, and other major events, and innovations that occurred, with PHILSUTECH in existence for the past fifty years. The presentation was conducted by Mr. F.H. Corpuz at the Plenary Session during the first day of the convention.

 

2.    Mill capacity & performance audit, PENSUMIL

The request for technical assessment of the Peñafrancia Sugar Mill (Pensumil) facilities located at Bo. Hima-ao, Pili, Camarines Sur, was coursed through Administrator James C. Ledesma by the Bicolandia’s sugar stakeholders in February 2003.  The administrator acceded to their request as an initial step towards the full development thrust of the sugar industry in Bicol.  This report contains recommendations in every aspect of the operation gleaned from observations and test results, meant to improve operations from the present levels.

 

3.    Annual synopsis of production and performance data CY 2001-2002

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

4.    An update of Philippine raw sugar milling hardware (2002)

This project is classified under technical publication.  As the title connotes, it is an update of the 1993 equipment audit.  Modifications and improvements in the mill’s equipment set-up undertaken within the last four years are noted and compiled in this edition – reporting the specifications of installed equipment added and rehabilitated from 1993 to focal year 1997.  Its tangible output is a publication entitled, “An Update of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Milling Hardware”.  The objective of this project is to generate a databank and a publication of the updated listing of the milling hardware of the Philippine Raw Sugar Factories.

 

5.    Evaluation of SRA’s clean and quality cane campaign

The study sought to bring the awareness of the trash problem to a higher level and to consolidate and reinforce the various activities currently undertaken