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I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Sewage Sludge Fertilization

 

Liquid sewage sludge applied after planting had no effect on canepoints germination. However, it enhance early growth and improved significantly plant height at 80 and 90 kg/ha N fertilizer treatments. Tillering was also improved significantly by increased rates of N and sewage sludge. More millable stalks were produced when the required 180 kg/ha N was supplied with 90 kg/ha N from urea and 80 T/ha sludge. Millable stalks were longer at 120 T/ha sludge at varying rates of N fertilization. Cane tonnage and sugar yields were significantly improved by sewage sludge application at varying rate of N fertilization particularly with the 90 kg/ha N + 80 tons sludge/ha combination.  Significant reduction in fertilization cost can be realized when half of the required N is supplied by urea and the other half with the sludge.

 

2.    Evaluation of New Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner for Sugarcane

 

Application of zeolite and bentonite in combination with nitrogenous fertilizer, increased the number of tillers and height of sugarcane plants, number of millable stalks and TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha. Although application of zeolite and bentonite did not cause statistically significant affects, the yields were higher than the urea fertilization or in combination with mudpress.

 

3.    Lime Requirement of Acidic Soils Grown to Sugarcane

 

The study determined the effects of different rates of lime applied in Angeles sandyloam (2,4,6,8, and 10 tons/ha) and Guadalupe clayloam (2,4 and 6 tons/ha) on the growth and yield of sugarcane.

 

Six tons/ha of lime incorporated in acidic Guadalupe clayloam improved the growth of Phil 8715 and increased the cane and sugar yields. Soil pH slightly increased with application of 4-6 tons/ha lime. Residual effect of 4 tons/ha of lime gave higher cane tonnage in the ratoon crop.

 

Application rates of 2-6 tons/ha did not increase the sucrose content and sugarcane yield of Phil 7544 in the ratoon crop.

 

Sugar yield of Phil 7544 in acidic Angeles sandy soil applied with 6 tons/ha of lime significantly increased.

 

4.    Evaluation of Different Harvesting and Post Harvest Practices

 

Increase in height of uncut stubble decreased tonnage but had no effect on sugar rendement (LKg/TC). Increase in number of top points cut from the stalk decreased tonnage and increased sugar rendement. Sugar rendement of milled trashy cane was lower than clean cane. Milled trashy stalk without top has lower sugar rendement than clean stalk without top. Milled trashy stalk without top has higher sugar rendement that milled trashy whole stalk and clean stalk with top. Topped green and burnt cane and left standing had higher sugar rendement and lower percentage loss than cut green and burnt cane left piled in the field.

 

5.    First Ratoon Performance of Phil 92 series at Pura, Tarlac

 

Ten  clones from the 1992 La Granja selection in the ecological test were ratooned and maintained to determine their ratoon performance. Low sugar yield per hectare was obtained inspite of high purity. Cane yield (TC/Ha) in the ratoon was low due to less number of millable stalks and decrease in length and weight of canes. Only Phil 92-0435 gave an increase in LKG/TC with 32.54% over the control. The other entries yielded lower than the 16% allowable yield reduction limit from plant canes to ratoon canes.  The ratoon yield decrease ranged from 5.42% to 14.24%, as compared to plant cane. Further testing of five clones were recommended.

 

6.    Recommended Soil Fertility Management Practices

 

Sugarcane fields at LAREC Floridablanca, Pampanga limed and fertilized with the required urea applied in split doses produced high sucrose canes and higher sugar yield which were comparable with 170-170-170 kg/ha fertilization with Triple 14.

 

Organic fertilizer like bagasse compost should be mixed with half of the required N and applied in full dose immediately after stubble shaving.  Maintenance dosage of P2O5 and K2O along with the required N tend to improve the nutrition of the cane plant as well as cane and sugar yields.

 

X-Rice fertilization as silicon supplement is not necessary on highly amorphous volcanic sandy soils of LAREC. Further studies should be undertaken to verify the observed influence of this growth hormone from New Zealand.

 

7.    Alternate and Blanket Mulching of Ratoon Canes

 

Alternate and blanket mulching of trashes in the first, second and third ratoon of Phil 8013 were compared with the control practice at LAREC. Both test mulching of trashes in rows of ratoon canes were beneficial in preventing rapid loss of soil moisture on ratoon crop. Yield of the three ratoon crops of Phil 8013 were improved by either mulching practices.

 

8.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones  of  Phil 91 and 93  Series to Sugarcane Downy Mildew (Ratoon) Caused Perosclerospora philippinensis

 

Twenty sugarcane clones of 91 series and fifty seven 93 series  were ratooned and tested for their  reaction to sugarcane downy mildew.

 

For 91 series, 11 were very highly resistant, two were resistant, one each was intermediate resistant and intermediate average and five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the 59 clones in  the 93 series, 44  were rated very highly resistant, three each were highly resistant, resistant  and  susceptible and four were  very highly susceptible.

 

 

9.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones of Phil 94 and Phil 95 Series  to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitaminea Sydow (Plant cane)

 

Sixty eight  clones of the 1994 series and 35 clones of the 1995 series were screened for resistance to sugarcane smut.

 

Reactions of  the 68  clones of 94 series were: very highly resistant, 12;   highly resistant, 2; intermediate resistant, 9; 5 intermediate average, 5;  intermediate susceptible,2; susceptible, 7; highly susceptible, 4; and very highly susceptible, 22.

 

On 95 series, of the 35 clones tested, 8 were very highly resistant, 3 were highly resistant, 3 were resistant, 7 were intermediate resistant, 2 each were intermediate average, intermediate susceptible and  susceptible and 8 were very highly susceptible.

 

 

10.  Survey, Distribution and Yield Loss Assessment of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Attacking Sugarcane

 

Soil samples collected from four mill districts, Don Pedro, Balayan, Pampanga and Tarlac, showed that Don Pedro and Balayan Mill District had the highest nematode populations which ranged from 300 to 1000 nematodes per 200 grams of soil. The predominant species  were Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Tylenchorynchus.

 

Sugarcane plants inoculated with more Pratylenchus had higher population 30, 60 and 120 days after inoculation. The Pratylenchus population multiplied and increased as the sugarcane plants developed more roots.   The nematode population ranged from 281.75 to 610.75, which were higher than the critical level, 120 days after inoculation.

 

The uninoculated sugarcane plants had better weight of green leaves, length and weight of stalk and diameter of base that those infected with nematodes. The plants with less Pratylenchus inoculated had heavier green leaves and longer and bigger stalks than those with higher nematode inoculated.

 

Starguard, Cadusophos and Carbofuran effectively controlled the nematode populations. One to 4 months after treatment, however, Starguard controlled nematode populations better than Cadusophos and Carbufuran. Five months after treatment the nematode populations increased and continued until sugarcane maturity.

 

The cane and sugar yields of  the treated soils were higher than those in the untreated plots. The differences, however, were not significant.

 

11.  1993 Series Ecological Test (LGAREC Selection)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LGAREC, Phil 90-1237 and one check variety Phil 75-44 were entered in the ecological test at LAREC and Pura, Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the test clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 90-1237 were geographically adapted in both LAREC and Pura, Tarlac as showed by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-4159 were also found to be adapted in LAREC while Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3583 were adapted in Pura, Tarlac.

 

These clones are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

12.  1993 Series Ecological Test (Selections  from PYT at LAREC)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LAREC, and one check variety Phil 7544, were entered in the ecological test at LAREC, Pampanga and Pura Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that all the test clones except Phil 93-655 were geographically adapted to LAREC and Pura Tarlac as shown by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-2413, Phil 93-287, Phil 93-1975, Phil 93-4703, Phil 93-2361, Phil 93-3277, Phil 93-083 and Phil 93-3663 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

13.  1992 Series Ecological Test (Selections from PYT at LAREC)

 

Eleven test clones selected by LAREC from the 1992 PYT at LGAREC and two check varieties Phil 7544 and CADP SCI were entered in the ecological test using RCBD at LAREC to determine the yield performance.

Results showed that test clones Phil 92-0721 consistently outyielded the two check varieties in terms of tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendiment (Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (Lkg/Ha). Two other test clones that gave statically comparable yield performance with the check varieties are Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137. These three test clones, Phil 92-0721, Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

 

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

 

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Ratoon performance of sugarcane HYVs - Ismael S. Bombio, Jean C. Nieves and Purita F. Gipanago

 

A Randomized Complete Block Design experiment replicated four times was laid out to determine the ratoon performance of six high yielding varieties of sugarcane. A newly harvested plant cane field used in the Variety X Season Study was cleared and stubble shaved.  The crop was fertilized in split doses and allowed to grow up to the 2nd ratoon. Weeds were controlled manually and cultivation was by use of carabao plow.  Harvesting was done 11 months after stubble shaving.  The   F-Test was conducted to test for significance. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used for mean comparison.

 

Phil 6607, Phil 8013 and Phil 8835 gave higher tonnage and sugar yields than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.  Phil 8839, Phil 8835, Phil 8727 and Phil 8013 have higher sucrose contents than Phil 8943 and Phil 6607.  Phil 8013 has the longest stalks among the test varieties.  On the other hand, Phil 8835 produced the shortest stalks that were smallest in diameter, lowest in weight but the most in number per sqm.

 

Sucrose content was improved but generally yield and growth components were reduced after rationing.  The results showed that Phil 8835, Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 gave the least reduction in yield indicating they are more stable varieties for rationing than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.

 

  1. 2.    1Influence of season of harvesting, variety and time of stubble shaving on the performance of ratoon canes - Ma. Lourdes C. Almodiente, Rodrigo E. Tapay, Ph.D. and Edmundo P. Gotera

 

A ratoon experiment was conducted at the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center, La Granja, La Carlota City to find out the performance of the two varieties in the ratoon and how they are affected by timing of stubble shaving and seasons of harvesting.

 

Increase in LKg/TC in ratoon canes was manifested in the middle milling season (January) and the late milling season (March) harvest compared to the early milling (October) season harvest.  The two tested varieties showed no significant difference in LKg/TC when rationed.  Time of stubble shaving did not affect canes LKg/TC.  Tonnage of two tested varieties increased in the first and fourth ratoon in the early milling season harvest.  Phil 8013 showed beter advantage over Phil 8353 in tonnage in the second ratoon but of no significant difference in the first, third and fourth ratoon.  A higher LKg/Ha was produced by Phil 8013 in the second ratoon but of no significant in the first, third and fourth rations.  Season of harvest of the first ratoon were all comparable but in the second ratoon the middle milling season gave more LKg/Ha than the early milling season harvest.  The early milling season harvest of the fourth ratoon gave the highest LKg/Ha than the middle and late season of harvest.  As a whole, delay in stubble shaving of more than 7 days decreased ratoon yield but did not affect LKg/TC.

 

  1. 3.    Response of Phil 90-0345 to droughtPurita F. Gipanago

 

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to four regimes of water stress.

 

The variety was planted in half drums and subjected to 12, 24 and 36 days of water stress at 1, 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP).  Regular watering served as control.  After water stress, cane plants were watered regularly up to six weeks before harvest.

 

No significant differences in leaf length, leaf width and number of tillers were noted when the variety was subjected to the four regimes of water stress at each month after planting.

 

The number of leaves were significantly reduced at 1, 5 and 7 MAP.  Leaf area exhibited a similar trend at 5 and & MAP.  The number of dry leaves significantly increased at 5 and 7 MAP at the later stress periods.

 

At harvest, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and biomass were significantly affected by the water stress regimes.

 

Highly significant differences in soil moisture were present at the four water stress regimes 3, 5 and 7 MAP.

 

At harvest, the unfavorable effect of the different water stress regimes on the number of leaves and leaf area seemed to disappear.  However, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and biomass were significantly affected.  The result shows that Phil 90-0345 lacks the characteristics of a drought tolerant variety.

 

  1. 4.    Response of Phil 8839 and 90-0345 to waterlogged conditionPurita F. Gipanago

 

Three HYV’s Phil 90-0345, Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 (control variety) were grown in normal and waterlogged conditions. Waterlogging was started at three months after planting up to one month before harvest.

 

At 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP), waterlogged condition significantly favored the plant height of the three HYV’s.  Among varieties, Phil 90-0345 was the tallest with widest leaves, followed by Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 up to 12 MAP.

 

At 3 MAP, more leaves were produced and were wider under waterlogged condition.  Likewise, at 5 MAP, more leaves were produced under the same condition.

 

On the contrary, at 7 and 12 MAP, leaf lengths was significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Among varieties, Phil 8839 had the longest leaves followed by Phil 7083 and Phil 90-0345.

 

At 12 MAP, the number of leaves and stalk weight were significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Stalk length, leaf width, stalk diameter, number of stalks/stool and number of millable stalks were comparable under normal and waterlogged conditions.

 

The yield parameters of the three HYV’s were comparable under both soil conditions in terms of TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/ha.

 

Phil 90-0345 and Phil 8839 could be planted in waterlogged areas considering that their yield compared with that of Phil 7083, a standard waterlogged-tolerant variety.

 

  1. 5.    Growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets as influenced by hardening period and time of transplantingM.L.C. Almodiente, C.L. Morales  and I.S. Bombio

 

A study was conducted to find out the influence of hardening period and time of transplanting on the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

Plantlets survival, number of tillers, plant height, diameter, weight of 100 cane points and cutback yield of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets were not affected by different hardening period of 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks.  An early hardened plantlets of 4 weeks and a longer hardened plantlets of 10 weeks did not differ significantly from 6 and 8 weeks period of hardening.

 

The time of transplanting whether early morning or late afternoon did not affect the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

The implication of the study is that nursery managers can dispose plantlets much earlier as 4 weeks thus saving time and resources.  On the other hand, as plantlets can be hardened until 10 weeks with out affecting plant vigor, planters can also delay transplanting operations depending on availability of resources and favorable conditions.

 

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. Incidence of sugarcane diseases, insect pests and rodents on Phil varieties & clones in different test locations in relation to environmental factors (1994 series)Rodolfo V. Estioko

 

Eight entries of Phil bred varieties of 1994 series in the ecological test for      CY 1999-2000 including the check varieties; Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 were evaluated for disease incidence, infestation of insect pests and rat damage in different locations in Negros and Panay.

 

Incidence of diseases was estimated based on the extent of infection and lesions on foliage while stem borer infestation and rat damage were counts of tillers and stalks affected.

 

 

  1. 2.    Smut resistance trial 1997 series (PYT-Plant cane) – Nora S. Meneses

 

A total of 68 clones of the 1997 series PYT (Plant cane) were rated for resistance to smut.  Result showed that 52 clones were resistant, 9 moderate and 7 susceptible (Table 1)

 

    Table 1.  Reaction of 1997 series clones (PYT –Plant cane) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction             Clone        Reaction

97-37-0207

74-0411

24-0117

240-1301

252-1391

368-2715

340-2015

4-0043

4-0021

320-1829

232-1215

54-0329

220-1165

387-2279

149-0727

321-1861

280-1529

405-2383

43-0265

43-0239

119-0651

387-2281

164-0855

161-0821

386-2275

346-2059

126-0671

299-1643

125-0665

74-0407

163-0793

4-0029

328-1939

137-0707

422-2709

 

 

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(4)5

(1)2                 (1)2                    (9)8                    (1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(7)8

(2)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(8)8

(1)2

(4)5

(9)8

(1)2

(1)2

(5)5                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (1)2                    (4)5                    (1)2                    (3)2                    (4)5

97-353-2135

78-0423

213-1123

550-3363

326-1901

62-0383

342-2039

Phil 6607

97-402-2343

278-1523

353-2141

193-1019

213-1125

116-0609

240-1297

150-0729

402-2339

37-0215

7-0097

137-0687

37-0693

411-2417

7-0099

378-2259

242-2041

363-2161

97-0203

105-0527

126-0673

722-4351

280-1527

784-4597

168-0891

405-2375

Phil 56226

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(3)2

(2)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(1)2

(4)5

(8)8

(1)2

(2)2

(1)2

(7)8

(9)8

(4)5

(1)2

(9)8

Legend:       2 – Resistant       5 – Moderate           8 – Susceptible

                   * Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

 

 

  1. 3.    Smut resistance trial 1998 series clones (row test)  – Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 135 clones tested, 29 clones were very highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 14 susceptible, 8 highly susceptible and 54 clones were very highly susceptible       (Table 2)

 

 

Table 2.            Reaction of 1998 series clones (Row test) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction         Clone               Reaction
 

98-144-1735

149-1831

102-1093

136-1613

149-1863

251-3375

212-3049

77-0625

134-1527

84-0733

157-2139

131-1375

24-0139

198-2895

90-0795

131-1363

251-3347

156-2119

157-2137

78-0641

97-0255

136-1603

102-0927

124-1259

1

2

1

6

1

9

9

7

9

1

7

1

9

9

1

9

8

8

2

9

5

9

9

4

 

98-49-0417

112-1077

107-1035

260-3433

177-2411

90-0789

81-0669

200-2939

157-2143

48-0407

37-0239

261-3445

47-0381

153-2025

138-1635

240-3271

85-0765

132-1511

144-1733

251-3353

258-3407

52-0445

192-2759

131-1387

9

9

3

3

7

5

9

9

9

1

9

9

7

1

1

9

1

7

9

1

9

1

9

1

               212-3061

47-0373

177-2415

14-0099

90-0791

264-3479

166-2277

112-1079

142-1693

240-3273

197-2877

166-2281

240-3265

96-0869

223-3131

112-1083

251-3337

96-0873

75-0851

251-3371

153-2033

136-1593

96-0871

132-1505

153-2059

209-3023

50-0429

155-2107

102-0941

90-0797

234-3199

1-0005

212-3043

NCO-310

CP-29-116

98-264-3515

184-2513

251-3349

206-3011

 

1

1

8

5

1

9

1

9

1

4

1

9

9

7

4

9

9

6

8

9

8

9

4

9

8

4

1

9

9

3

9

1

5

1

7

9

9

9

5

                 84-0743

272-3611

50-0431

75-0583

138-1661

48-0393

127-1339

272-3613

133-2039

143-1715

138-1659

240-3263

183-0965

149-1853

96-0863

240-3269

209-3033

Phil 56226

98-259-3431

264-3465

H44-3098

98-85-0761

1-0007

193-2785

135-1537

15-0105

258-3403

259-3425

264-3493

115-1105

SAIPAN RED

98-264-3503

259-3423

90-0799

83-0721

155-2109

247-3303

102-0945

136-1563

 

1

9

7

1

1

7

6

9

9

9

6

3

9

9

1

2

9

9

9

9

1

2

1

9

9

5

1

9

9

2

8

9

4

3

1

9

8

4

9

 

 

            Clone          Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

104-0983

266-3559

33-0175

219-3107

136-1555

138-1665

46-0335

7

9

9

2

4

7

6

149-1839

144-1739

251-3381

150-1915

166-2253

153-1995

125-1267

1

7

7

9

1

7

7

Legend: 1 – Very Highly Resistant     2 – Highly Resistant                3 – Resistant       4 – Intermediate Resistant

                         5 – Intermediate Average     6 – Intermediate Susceptible   7 – Susceptible   8 – Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 4.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 216 clones tested, 167 were rated resistant, 41 moderate and 8 susceptible to the disease (Table 3).

 

       Table 3.            Rating of 1997 series of clone (Plant cane) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

78-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

368-2215

363-2161

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

 

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

97-405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2
(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

387-2281

353-2141

(0)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

            652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

            (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

             328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

481-2909

24-0117

Thailand

                (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(5)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

             763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

            (0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

              Australia

Saipan Yellow

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

 

                (0)2

(0)2

9

0

 

                Note: Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

                Legend:       2 – Resistant                    5 – Moderate              8 – Susceptible

 

  1. 5.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 series (Ratoon)Nora Meneses

 

One hundred forty two clones, 3 foreign varieties and 2 standard varieities were rated for resistance to the disease.  Out of 142 entries, 49 clones were very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 21 resistant, 25 intermediate resistant, 5 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 12 susceptible, 5 highly susceptible and 14 very highly susceptible.  Thailand variety was intermediate resistant to the disease, Australia intermediate susceptible, and Saipan Yellow was rated susceptible       (Table 4).

 

      Table 4.          Reaction of 1997 series clones (Ratoon) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

4

1

9

368-2215

363-2161

405-2383

1

8

3

              149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

28-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

326-1901

213-1123

612-3601

617-3661

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

                  1

1

4

3

1

1

4

4

3

1

9

1

4

9

4

6

4

5

4

7

1

3

1

4

1

9

4

7

7

2

7

9

1

7

1

6

4

   6

   1

  7

  1

  1

  4

  3

             191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

7

3

1

4

1

3

4

1

4

4

1

4

7

3

6

3

1

4

1

1

4

2

3

1

5

6

3

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

1

3

7

9

1

5

7

1

 

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

1-2909

481-2909 Thailand

Australia

Saipan

 

1

3

8

1

4

1

3

3

1

1

1

1

3

8

8

4

9

4

9

6

1

8

3

7

4

6

7

387-2281

            353-2141

328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

24-0117

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

9

1

9

3

4

3

6

3

6

1

3

9

1

1

5

7

1

9

9

4

6

9

1

7

9

1

                 Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                    2 – Highly Resistant                    3 – Resistant

                            4 – Intermediate Resistant                  5 – Intermediate Average            6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                            7 – Susceptible                                   8 – Highly Susceptible                 9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 6.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon)Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 64 clones evaluated, 2 were rated resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 19 susceptible, 7 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible to yellow spot (Table 5)

 

     Table 5.  Reaction of 1995 series clones (Ratoon) to yellow spot.

 

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction
 

94-403-2697

94-628-4001

94-608-3919

95-286-1483

8

4

7

4

 

95-248-1045

95-248-1021

95-469-3027

95-311-1833

9

5

9

8

            95-280-1431

94-272-1619

94-290-1815

95-288-1529

95-286-1485

94-608-3931

95-39-0045

94-136-0801

94-500-3509

94-136-0813

94-434-3045

     94-148-0889

            94-192-1103

94-562-3797

94-739-4203

   94-32-0135

 

 

7

9

7

3

5

4

9

9

6

5

5

5

7

4

6

8

          95-286-1513

95-125-0183

95-249-1051

95-207-0591

95-279-1421

95-220-0705

95-131-0741

95-357-2143

95-469-3025

95-24-1029

95-250-1135

95-272-1363

95-222-0743

95-249-1045

95-439-2859

 95-250-1145

 

9

9

6

8

7

8

7

7

6

7

7

7

7

6

7

9

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction

94-390-2549

94-494-3453

95-279-1413

95-336-2021

94-137-0819

95-241-0887

94-88-0435

95-474-3105

95-365-2195

95-469-3065

95-223-0769

95-136-0309

 

9

7

3

4

8

6

7

5

5

4

7

6

 

95-279-1403

95-149-0501

95-127-0203

95-585-3877

95-274-0941

95-725-4627

95-502-3165

95-39-0045

95-302-1687

95-279-1405

95-291-1819

Phil 7464

7

7

8

7

9

5

7

6

6

6

5

9

Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                     2 – Highly Resistant                 3 – Resistant

                           4 – Intermediate Resistant                    5 – Intermediate Average        6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                           7 – Susceptible                                     8 – Highly Susceptible             9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 7.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1996 series (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Among the 66 clones tested, 19 were found moderate and 47 susceptible to the disease (Table 6).

 

Table 6. Reaction of 1996 series clones (Plant cane) to yellow spot.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone             Reaction

96-0509

96-3239

96-0953

96-1491

(7)8

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

96-0099

96-4077

96-4053

96-0123

(6)5

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

           96-3087

96-1781

96-1789

96-3275

96-1183

96-0961

96-2805

96-2697

96-2717

96-2983

96-2441

96-2583

96-2711

96-2255

96-0097

96-3957

96-4057

96-0507

96-2691

96-0015

96-0503

96-0477

96-0423

96-3421

96-3267

96-3363

96-3717

96-3297

96-0475

 

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(7)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

(8)8

(6)5

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(7)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

            96-4135

96-3361

96-4109

96-4111

96-4273

96-4409

96-4455

96-4233

96-4503

96-4595

96-4483

96-3283

96-4495

96-1253

96-3289

96-3007

96-3263

96-3079

96-1531

96-1497

96-3161

96-3197

96-0799

96-3341

96-1487

96-0579

96-3219

96-3165

96-0637

Phil 7464

(6)5

(4)5

(7)8

(8)8

(6)5

(6)5

(8)8

(4)5

(6)5

(5)5

(8)5

(4)8

(6)5

(7)5

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(5)5

(7)8

(6)5

(5)5

(7)8

(5)5

(9)8

Legend:         2 -  Resistant                       5 – Moderate                  8 – Susceptible

                            Note: Number in parenthesis is the actual rating of the clone

 

 

 

 

  1. 8.    Leaf scorch resistance trial 1994 series (Ratoon)Grignion L. Rosales

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 63 were found highly resistant to the disease while 5 were rated intermediate average (Table 7).

 

      Table 7.  Reaction of the 1994 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

   

94-18-0025

94-20-0029

94-21-0043

94-23-0057

94-24-0069

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

94-25-0075

94-34-0159

94-38-0177

94-44-0221

94-51-0243

94-63-0279

94-69-0327

94-71-0395

94-90-0441

94-103-0655

94-134-0759

94-134-0769

94-135-0791

94-146-0865

94-154-0961

94-171-1005

94-181-1087

94-224-1341

94-224-1345

94-243-1435

94-245-1443

94-248-1473

94-258-1499

94-259-1505

94-278-1361

94-289-1803

94-308-1917

94-320-2033

94-355-2391

94-365-2339

94-384-2445

94-397-2629

94-418-2765

94-420-2779

94-426-2823

94-426-2841

94-428-2917

94-455-3199

94-460-3237

94-461-3261

94-462-2683

94-473-3365

94-498-3491

94-504-3531

94-534-3629

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

 

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

94-539-3641

94-558-3747

94-561-3781

94-562-3797

94-563-3807

94-600-1863

94-622-3971

94-702-4149

94-744-4235

94-791-4341

94-600-265

94-149-0913

94-75-0395

94-282-1745

94-300-1873

94-400-2649

8583-1

Phil 6111

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

 

 

  1. 9.     Leaf scorch resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon) Grignion L. Rosales

 

Twenty eight clones of the 1995 series were rated highly resistant, 8 intermediate average and 12 highly susceptible to leaf scorch (Table 8).

 

Table 8.  Reaction of the 1995 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-32-0135

94-136-0813

94-494-3453

94-500-3509

94-608-3919

94-628-4001

94-125-0183

95-223-0769

95-474-3105

94-136-0801

94-290-1815

94-291-1819

94-608-3931

95-132-0203

95-247-0941

95-249-1045

95-250-1133

95-250-1145

95-272-1383

95-279-1413

95-279-1421

95-280-1431

95-286-1485

95-469-3025

95-469-3027

95-469-3065

95-502-3165

95-585-3877

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-88-0435

94-139-4203

94-434-3045

95-131-0741

95-136-0309

95-248-1025

95-365-2195

95-725-4627

95-39-0045

94-137-0819

94-148-0889

94-192-1103

94-390-2549

95-248-1021

95-248-1029

95-357-2143

95-439-2859

94-3929

94-403-2697

94-562-3797

Phil 6111

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 10.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on the yield of sugarcane in  ratoon  cropNora S. Meneses & Melanie C. Alba

 

The experiment was carried to 1st ratoon to further evaluate the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on yield of Phil 7464, a very highly susceptible variety to downy mildew.

 

Results of the experiment showed a considerable percent infection of downy mildew disease in all treatments employed.  Although insignificant results were obtained among treatments, the highest infection was observed in the control with 32.94% while chemical control + seed selection + sanitation + rouging and hotwater  treatment + seed selection + sanitation + rouging obtained infection of 24.63% and 27.44%, respectively.  This simply shows that integrating control measures with chemical and hotwater cannot guarantee control of downy mildew up to the fist ratoon crop.

 

The integration of hotwater + seed selection + sanitation + rouging resulted on an increase in yield of 14.47 TC/Ha and 30.85 LKg/Ha over the control.  The treatment integrating chemical control with seed selection, sanitation & rouging likewise yielded better than the control.

 

  1. 11.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of white grubs (Plant cane)Rosenie G. Entima & Melanie C. Alba

 

Results of the evaluation showed no significant differences on percent grub mortality and yield of Phil 8583 in all treatments.  However, the results revealed that using control measures against white grub mortality infestation increased sugar yield than no control.

 

Among the control strategies employed, chemical control using Diagan 5G obtained the highest mean grub mortality of 96.30% followed by Metarrihizium anisopliae + liming + cultivation (88.83%), M. anisopliae (84.06%), liming (78.64%), entomopathogenic nematodes (78.45%), chemical control + liming  (74.58%), entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anisopliae (74.58%), cultivation (69.33%), liming + cultivation (69.00%), chemical control + cultivation (68.80%), and entomopathogenic  nematodes + liming + cultivation  (65.73%).  The mortality rates among treatments did not reveal significant differences but higher than the control of 61.34%.

 

The treatment that gave the highest yield was with the integration of M. anisopliae + liming + cultivation with the yield difference of 35.34 TC/ha and 90.12 LKg/ha followed by entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anesopliae with 31.70 TC/ha and 79.00 LKg/ha; entomopathogenic  nematodes, 29.70 TC/ha and 73.24 LKg/ha; liming, 26.33 TC/ha  and 73.51 Lkg/ha; entomopathogenic  + liming + cultivation, 25.90 TC/ha and 61.51 LKg/ha; cultivation, 24.67 TC/ha and 65.99 LKg/ha; chemical + liming 24.70 TC/ha and 61.48 LKg/ha; M. anisopliae, 21.47 TC/ha and 56.64 LKg/ha; liming + cultivation , 20.03 TC/ha and 52.74 LKg/ha;  chemical control , 19.43 TC/ha and 55.93 LKg/ha; and chemical control + cultivation, 8.03 TC/ha and 18.18 LKg/ha.

 

  1. 12.  Effect of Canegard against pineapple disease of sugarcane (Plant cane)Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The effect of different rates of Canegard on germination and yield of sugarcane was tested as preventive and curative control measures against pineapple disease Ceratocystis paradoxa Moreau.

 

The curative measure of treatments with fungicides as highly significant difference over control (no chemical) but no significant differences as preventive measure 1-1/2 months after planting (MAP).  Germination increased 2 MAP but the curative measure has not maintained its significant differences.  It was the preventive measure that has significant differences over the control.  Treatments with fungicides were comparable with Benlate on percent germination and sugar yield of both measures.

 

The economic analysis reveals that Canegard as curative measure at 1,500 ml/200 liters water is more profitable than the preventive measure against pineapple disease.

 

  1. 13.  Screening of fungicides against pineapple diseaseMelanie  C. Alba, Rodolfo V. Estioko & Nora S. Meneses

 

The efficacy of Bumper 25EC (Propiconazole), Canegard, Antracol 75% WP, Bayleton 25% WP and Benlate 50% WP were evaluated in the laboratory and field trials.

 

Each bioassayed chemical was evaluated at four varying concentrations for the control of pineapple disease on the growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa on PDA at 5 and 12 days.  The most effective was Bumper at 300 ppm followed by 300 ppm Bayleton.  Also significantly inhibiting effectively the growth of the fungus but at lesser extent were 1% Canegard and 200  ppm Benlate (Table 9).

 

In the field at different concentrations of the fungicides (Table 10), the germination of Phil; 8943 two months after planting ranged from 81.2% – 97.9% (Table 11).  Percent germination was sustained until 2 ½ months after planting but was observed to have decreased at 3 months after planting.

 

More tillers were counted from treatments with high percentage of surviving stools after 3 1/2 months particularly with 9.6 g Benlate, 160 ml Canegard, 6.64 g Bayleton and 6.64 g Bumper (Table 12).

 

Table 9.  Growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa and percent germination in different          

                fungicides concentrations including control under laboratory conditions. c/

 

Fungicides

Concentration

(ppm; %)

Fungus Growth

(cm)

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

 

 

 

50

100

150

250

Control

5.72b

 4.07ab

2.95a

  3.30ab

 4.30ab

 

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

Control

1.72b

 1.62bc

1.12b

 0.55a

4.30d

 

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

Control

3.20a

2.70a

3.17a

2.95a

4.30b

 

 

Bumper

100

200

250

300

Control

1.15b

0.80b

0.57ab

0.12a

4.30c

 

 

Canegard

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Control

3.12a

3.42a

3.57ab

3.50a

4.30b

           c/ Fungus growth measured after 5 days on Antracol, Bayleton, Benlate and Canegard and 12 days

               on Bumper germination count after 30 days; analysis was done separately for each fungicides.

 

 

Table 10.   Concentrations/dosages of fungicides used in the laboratory and field trial for the control of pineapple disease.

 

 

Laboratory Test (ppm)

Field Trialb/  (gm (ml/16 li water)

Fungicides      a       b       c       d      a       b       c       d
 

Antracol 25% WP

50

100

150

250

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

 

Bumper 25% EC

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Canegard (%)

0.5

100

1

2

80

160

240

320

    b/ Concentrations (ppm) are equivalent dosages (gm (ml/16 li water) in Field Trial; Canegard     

       prepared based  on 1% solution (10 ml/1000 ml water).

 


 

Table 11. Germination (5) of Phil 8943 treated with different fungicides at

               1, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2 and 3 months after planting under field conditions.

 

 

Fungicides

Dosage

(gm;ml/16 li H2O

Germination (%) months after planting

1

1-1/2

2

2-1/2

3

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.70

86.4

81.2

85.4

86.4

91.6

87.5

88.5

90.6

92.7d

87.5c

91.6c

93.7e

93.7b

89.3c

92.7b

93.7b

91.6

86.6

91.6

87.5

 

Bayleton 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

85.4

72.9

77.0

86.4

89.5

78.1

88.5

90.6c

91.6c

81.2a

87.5c

93.7b

89.5c

82.2e

87.5c

89.5

90.8

81.2

86.6

 

Benlate 50%  WP

3.20

6.64

8.00

9.60

81.2

76.0

84.3

90.6

88.5

80.2

88.5

95.8

91.6c

82.2b

89.8c

97.9f

92.7b

82.2e

90.6c

96.8a

87.5

82.5

89.5

95.8

 

Bumper 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

86.4

84.3

88.5

88.5

89.5

91.6

88.5

90.6c

94.7e

93.7e

89.5c

91.6c

95.0a

91.6c

93.7b

89.5

90.8

90.8

88.7

 

Canegard

  80

160

240

320

80.2

81.2

75.0

77.0

87.5

91.6

82.2

88.5

90.6c

96.8f

84.3b

87.5c

89.5c

97.9a

87.5c

89.5c

87.5

92.9

82.5

86.6

   Control

-

72.6

82.0

84.5b

84.8d

83.3

      F-value

ns

ns

1.82*

1.77*

ns

      C.V. (%)

10.9

7.8

7.3

6.9

7.4

 

Table 12.  Number of tillers in different treatments.

 

Fungicides

 

 

Dosage (gm;ml/16 li H2O

 

Tiller Count

 

Antracol 75% WP

                   1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

                151b

145d

145d

147d

 

Bayleton 25% WP

                     3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                137e

152b

122g

132f

 

Benlate 50% WP

                     3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

                124h

118f

135f

162a

 

Bumper 25% EC

                      3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                140e

148c

138e

139e

 

Canegard

                       80

160

240

320

                139e

151b

131f

135f

   Control                   124h
      F-value                   2.42**
      C.V. (%)                   10.4

                      d/ Rating of pineapple disease infection on canepoints: 1. Slightly infected or rotting at both ends,

                   2. Less severely infected  or rotting advancing towards nodes, and 3. Severely infected or

                   rotting includes nodes.

 

  1. 14.    Yield reduction in plant and ratoon crops in sugarcane due to locust infestation: A  

        simulation model – Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The study was conducted using simulation model of locust infestation at different growth stages and degree of damage on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

Simulation of locust damage was done at three growth stages of sugarcane as follows: 3, 5 and 7 months after planting.  The different leaf damages were 0%, 5-10%, 20-30%, 40-50%, 60-70%, 80-80% and 100%.  Figure 5 at the last page.

 

Results of the experiment showed that simulation of 100% locust damage had no significant reduction in yield at 7 months after planting (MAP) both in plant and ratoon crops.  However, significant reduction was observed when plants had 100% defoliation at 3 and 5 MAP.  At 3 MAP, yield reduction in the plant cane was 17.07% TC/ha and 17.60% LKg/ha while in the ratoon crop, 30.57% TC/ha and 30.85% LKg/ha.  With 5 MAP, reduction was 17.15% TC/ha and 20.82% LKg/ha in plant cane and 1.7% TC/ha and 4.32 LKg/ha in ratoon (Table 13)

 

It was further observed that ratoon crop suffered greater yield reduction when defoliated 100% at 3 MAP compared to plant cane.  However, at 5 MAP reduction was lesser in ratoon compared to plant cane.

 

 

Table 13.   Percent and actual yield reduction with 100% defoliation due to locust

                       infestation based on simulation model during 3 and 5 MAP of plant

                       growth on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

 

Cropping

Yield Reduction

3 MAP

5 MAP

Tonnage

LKg/ha

Tonnage

LKg/ha

 

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

Plant

17.07

17.96

17.60

40.09

17.15

20.90

20.82

56.12

Ratoon

30.57

36.16

30.85

78.91

  1.71

  1.69

  4.32

  9.41

Diff.

13.50

18.20

13.25

38.82

15.44

19.21

16.50

46.71

 

 

15. Smut resistance trial 1996 series (PYT-Ratoon) Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 68 clones evaluated, 57 were found very highly resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 3 susceptible to smut (Table 14).

 

Table 14.  Rating of 1996 series clones (PYT-Ratoon) to smut.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone             Rating

96-3239

0503

3165

2717

0477

1253

3267

3717

3161

Thailand

3297

2691

2255

4047

3341

0423

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

96-3275

4409

2697

3079

3289

1531

4495

1497

0953

3197

2583

0099

3007

0799

1781

2441

1

1

4

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3361

5957

4053

4595

4273

4223

4483

0123

4135

3421

0097

0579

4109

4455

0319

4529

4111

0509

3263

Australia

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

1

1

1

3087

1789

0961

3283

4503

0637

3219

2983

2711

0475

4057

0507

0015

1491

3363

1183

2805

1487

Saipan

Phil 56226

1

1

1

7

1

1

6

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

7

4

1

1

8

6

Legend:  1 – Very Highly Resistant    2 – Highly Resistant    3- Resistant    4- Intermediate Resistant

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 90-0345 To Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

The experiment was conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from November 1999 to November 2000 to evaluate the response of Phil 90-0345 to NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 90-0345 gave the highest yield of 134.49 TC/Ha LKg and 298.64 LKg/Ha at 200 kg N/Ha fertilization, however these parameters were comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.

 

High TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were due to longer, heavier and number of millable stalk at 200 kg N/ha.

 

LKg/TC was not significantly affected by N fertilization with 2.33 as the highest value obtained.

 

There was a positive linear relationship and close association on both TC/Ha and LKg/Ha against N rates with a significant r-value of 0.99 and 0.98 respectively.

 

TC/Ha, LKg/ha and LKg/TC were not significantly affected by P and K fertilization.

 

Stalk diameter, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk did not differ with both P and K fertilization.  On the other hand K affected stalk length but not by P fertilization.

 

Application of increasing levels of N resulted to increasing percentage of N in the TVD leaf blade at 6th month of growth.  Highest concentration was obtained at 200 kg N/ha where the highest cane and sugar yield were likewise obtained.  This N concentration was likewise comparable with the value obtained at 100 and 150 kg N/ha fertilization.

 

In P and K series treatment despite the constant N fertilization, percentage concentration of N in TVD leaf blade differed.  Highest concentration of N in TVD leaf blade was observed both at zero P and K, but this value was not reflected on tonnage unlike the N series.

 

Percentage concentration of P in TVD leaf blade was comparable among the different rates of N, P and K fertilization.  These results were also reflected on the non-significant differences on tonnage and sugar yield.

 

In like manner, percentage concentration of K in TVD leaf blade was likewise comparable on the three series of fertilization.

 

Highest net profit of Php 92,446.92 was attained at 200 kg N/ha with an ROI of 143.8%.

 

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 8839 ratoons to varying levels of NPK fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam R. M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Ganja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 ratoons to various NPK levels in Guimbalon clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that stalk length and stalk weight did not differ among the various levels of NPK during plant cane, fist ratoon and third ratoon while at second ratoon significant differences were observed in these two parameters.  It was also observed that withholding K fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam soil significantly decreased the stalk weight of Phil 8839 second ratoon.

 

Stalk diameter on the other hand were comparable in all four croppings, however the number of millable stalks differed on plant cane, first ratoon and third ratoon while comparable results were obtained on the second ratoon.  There was a reduction of 4.1% in the mean millable stalks of the first ratoon, but an increase of 9.70% was obtained in the second ratoon while in the third ratoon similar number was obtained with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all croppings were comparable except for the first ratoon.  Results seemed to indicate that limiting amount of N and K at 200 N level resulted to a significantly lower LKg/TC of Phil 8839 first ratoon.

 

Tonnage (TC/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings, however in the third ratoon, cane yield of all nitrogen treated plants irrespective of rate were comparable but were significantly higher than O N.  Tonnage yield of three rations were lower than the plant cane.  The percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 32.9%, 26.8% and 34.9% respectively.

 

Sugar yield (LKg/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings.  The highest sugar yield in all croppings was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK level.  This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment.  LKg/ha of the ratoons were lower than the plant cane.  The average percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 39.1%, 21.6% and 33.6% respectively.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield in all croppings was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crops brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks of the ratoons even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 ratoons.

 

The highest total net benefit and ROI was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK treatment and the lowest net benefit and ROI was obtained at 0-150-200 treatment.

 

  1. 3.    Influence of varying levels of nitrogen, time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and Yield of Phil 8839 ratoon Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and Nimfa D. Navarro

 

Two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from Sept. 1999 to Nov. 2000, to determine the proper age of harvest of sugarcane ratoon in relation to the levels of N and time of fertilizer application.

Highest tonnage (TC/ha) and sugar obtained when canes were harvested at 12 months after rationing (MAR) in all levels of N fertilization.

 

Although not significantly different tonnage mean average of 114.6 at 12 MAR harvest was higher than 9, 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 22.03, 12.71 and 3.92 TC/Ha respectively.

 

On the other hand, mean average sugar yield of 255.19 at 12 MAR harvest was significantly higher than 9 MAR but comparable with 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 56.65, 36.42 and 11.71 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of ratoon canes harvested at different age and carrying levels of N showed comparable results.

 

Highest mean average in TC/ha and  LKg/ha were obtained when ratoon canes were fertilized immediately after stubble shaving and harvested at 12 MAR.

 

Canes fertilized after stubble shaving gave the highest mean average of 128.69 TC/Ha and 291.14 LKg/ha while ratoon fertilized at 2, 3, 4 and 5 MAR gave 120.40, 123.41, 121.58 and 107.79 TC/Ha respectively.

 

Cane harvested at 12 MRA gave the highest mean average of 152.45 TC/ha and comparable with 11 MAR harvested with 125.09 TC/ha but significantly higher than the 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 119.00 and 97.23 TC/ha respectively.

 

Sugar yield mean average of canes harvested at 12 MAR was 318.94 LKg/Ha that was significantly higher than 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 275.00, 261.41 and 214.44 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of canes fertilized at 5 MAR was significantly lower than canes fertilized after stubble shaving.

 

Although not significant canes harvested are 12 MAR have higher LKg/TC than the 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest.

 

Highest net income and ROI was attained at 100 kg N/ha fertilization and harvested 12 MAR.  On the other hand sugarcane harvested at 12 MAR gave the highest average net income and ROI irregardless of the time of fertilization and the lowest was obtained at 9 MAR.

 

  1. 4.    Magnesium fertilization of sugarcaneMila C. Gerardino, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

Response of Phil 8477 to application of magnesium was evaluated in Guimbalaon soil in La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center in La Carlota City and Hda. Louisiana in Bgy. Maao, Bago City.  The soils contain 74 and 32 ppm Mg. respectively.  The experiments were conducted from October 1998 to July 2001.  Four (4) levels of Mg were applied: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg Mg/Ha.  These treatments including a 0 Mg 0 NPK plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four (4) times.

 

Application of the different levels of Mg had no significant influence on cane yield, sugar yield and juice quality of Phil 8477 although the Mg content of both soils were considered below the critical level of Mg for sugarcane.  Generally, there was an observed increase in yield in both plant and ratoon cane with the application of 50 kg Mg/ha but not above this level.

 

There was also an observed increase in soil Mg even in Mg-untreated plots.

 

  1. 5.    Response of sugarcane to application of potassium phosphateRosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam, Dr. Rodrigo E. Tapay

 

Although not significant the results of the experiment showed that application of potassium phosphate improved the stalk length, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk of Phil 8943.

 

Improvement in these parameters was due to increased availability of the OM, P, K, Ca and Mg in the soil.  pH of the soil likewise improved while aluminum decreased.

 

Based on the results it is recommended that further study will be conducted up to harvest since the improvement of weight per stalk and number of millable stalk at 1 liter per hectare potassium phosphate although projected to give the highest tonnage at harvest yet this projection may not be conclusive because the experiment was harvested at sixth month.

 

 

  II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 2001

 

      RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Lactic Acid from Molasses

 

A total of fifteen (15) runs were conducted using Lactobacillus delbreukii in aqueous molasses and molasses/coco water solutions containing 9,9,10,11 and 12% sugar as invert. The additives used were 2% nitrogen, 1% phosphate and 8.3% invertase per 35 g molasses.  The incubation temperature was 45oC. Best yields were obtained at 10% sugar level for all substrates.  Coconut water was found to support lactic acid production. Substrates – Molasses in Coco water gave higher yields for all sugar levels.  Supplementing the molasses/coco water solution with invertase further increased the yield but only up to 10% sugar level. The presence of higher glucose/fructose levels seemed to inhibit lactic acid production.  All substrates gave decreasing yields at 11 and 12% sugar.

 

  1. 2.    Organimat and Horticulture Blocks (HB) from Bagasse

 

The project involves the development of Horticulture Blocks (HB) and organimat from bagasse. In making horticulture blocks, whole bagasse was ground, mixed with water, molded and air dried for one (1) week.  A total of 35 application runs were conducted using vegetable seeds and plantlets of ornamental plants for the initial application tests. Regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to a ratio of 1:2 and 1:5 by weight HB to BOF. Mixtures were distributed into plastic seedling bags. Using soil as the control, results showed that plants grown in the HB-BOF mixtures were healthier and taller than those grown in soil.

 

For the  succeeding application tests, regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to the ratio of 1:1 up to 1:5 parts HB to BOF.  Twenty (20) tomato seeds were planted per bag and the number of germinated seedlings were noted after one (1) week.  Growth in height (cm) was monitored for four weeks.  Results showed that 1:5 HB-BOF proportion gave the highest number of seedlings and highest seedlings growth.

 

For the organimat, bagasse was washed thoroughly with water, air dried, cut into 12 inches long strips and secured by wire to fit hanging baskets.  For the application tests, baskets were filled with soil as planting material and planted with ornamental plants. It was observed that bagasse organimat can hold and blends well with soil.

 

  1. 3.    Handmade Paper from Bagasse and Waste Papers

 

A process for the production of handmade paper from bagasse and waste paper (old magazine and office wastes) was developed. Bagasse pulp was mixed with waste paper pulp in several proportions. The sheets were analyzed for tensile strength and for number of sheets formed per run.

 

Eight (8) test runs were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of bagasse and pulp from old magazine.  Additives were added to four (4) trial runs.  Results showed that the 40:60 ratio of bagasse to magazine pulp with and without additives gave the highest tensile strength, however, the paper made without additives appear to be more stronger than the ones made with additives.

 

  1. 4.    Efficacy Trial of Bio-organic Fertilizer on Sugarcane Plant. 

 

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Central Azucarera de La Carlota Bio-organic Fertilizer (SRA Technology) on sugarcane. Nine (9) treatments were laid out on a Guimbalaon clay soil at Bgy. Najalin, La Carlota City in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times (3x) from March 2000 to February 2001.  Bio-organic fertilizer application increased the organic matter content of the soil.  This considerable increase is an indication that BOF application may be able to restore the ecological balance of the soil ravaged by excessive cultivation and chemical fertilization.

 

  1. 5.    Recovery of Anti-oxidants from Molasses. 

 

The project involves the recovery of phenolic compounds through fermentation of molasses. Phenolic compounds are one of the phytonutrients responsible for giving sugarcane its odor, flavor and color. These phytonutrients contribute to the plant’s natural defense system and could also prevent certain diseases in humans including cancer and heart disease.

 

  1. 6.    Improving Centrifugal Operations Through Innovative Fugalling Technique

 

Purging Efficiency (P.E.) is a significant control figure in the efficient operation of centrifugal operation.  It is a measure of the level of impurity removal that has been achieved during the centrifuging process.  P.E. for the three (3) runs obtained similar trends, as the washing time increases, P.E. also increases. Based on the data and results presented, water washing is better than syrup washing. The only chance of syrup as an alternative medium is in terms of steam savings specially if the factory is practicing longer washing time.

 

  1. 7.    An Inquiry into the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Installing Cane Cleaning Stations for the Local Sugar Industry. 

 

From the comparisons and discussions presented between wet and dry cleaning, a conclusion was reached – that technically, dry cleaning is the most effective technique suitable for the local condition.  The second potion of the study, i.e. the economic feasibility cannot be established clearly due to unavailability of data on costing.

 

  1. 8.    Performance Rating of Mills’ Clarification Technology Non-Pol Ratio as Index of Clarification Efficiency

 

An evaluation or assessment of the mills clarification performance on the basis of non-pol and non-sugar ratios, and other clarification data that affect BHR and / or other recovery efficiency figures.  In this study, five (5) cooperator sugar mills were considered namely, Capiz, URSUMCO, CAT, Fist Farmers and Caneland.

 

  1. 9.    The Rate of Dextran Formation in Various Stages of Sugar Processing 

 

The study deals with the identification, quantification and monitoring of dextran levels in various stages of raw sugar manufacture to be able to control or minimize its infestation.

 

  1. 10.  Collaborative Study with MWCI & Basecom – Composting Sludge in Combination with Sugar Milling B-products

 

An experiment was conducted to utilize sludge in combination with bagasse and mudpress in the production of bio-organic fertilizer.  All the treatments were composed 4 to 8 weeks after incubation except for the control which extended beyond 8 weeks of incubation period.  The shortest composting period was registered at 4 weeks when sludge application was doubled.  All the rest were composted at 5 weeks and 8 weeks time.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.  Annual Compendium of Performance – Philippine Sugar Refineries Year 1999

 

An annual publication that embodies data and information on operating sugar refineries either culled or computed from refinery statement.  Copies are distributed to the contributing refineries and various SRA units. This publication is made available to various sugar industry constituent seeking access to data and information of this kind.

 

  1. 2.  Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data for Philippines Raw Sugar Factories CY 1999-2000

 

A technical publication on production and performance statistics of operating sugar mills excerpted or computed from their respective final weekly factory repots for the season being reviewed.  Data and information therein are made available to various industry clientele for whatever downstream activities these data may be of use thereof.

 

  1. 3.  Standardization of Report/MI Instruments and Data Logs for the Raw sugar Factories. 

 

A revised factory statement and worksheet to standardized production and performance format was formulated for implementation at the local sugar industry.

 

  1. 4.  Rationalization of Cane Handling with Milling Practice.

 

The study has achieved the objective of identifying the cane handling system best suited for the local sugar industry and the importance of a handling program for an efficient milling operation.  Several recommendations were listed down in the report to establish and attain such objective.

 

  1. 5.  Cost of Efficiency Improvement of Raw Sugar Factories

 

A cost benefit analysis to provide mill management with an insight on the potential gains from such investment opportunity was undertaken.  The study dealt with the efficiency improvement in four (4) modules throughout the sugar factory areas of  operations.  

 

6.    Standardization of Refinery Reports/Statement

 

Refineries having different technologies employed in clarification and decolorization process have different material nomenclature and efficiency formula.  Hence, a standardization of Refinery Reports/Statements was conducted in coordination with PASRI headed by Mr. Apolinario Blanco and all Refinery Superintendents. The agreed standardized refinery report/statements is due for implementation. One refinery had already used the standardized form for refining year 2000.

 

  1. 7.    Capacity Utilization Gauged from the Weather Window

 

A new formula for capacity utilization of milling plants is proposed based on the allowable milling days due favorable delivery conditions as low moisture level.  The proposed formula in effect accounts for the stoppage and delays due to weather.

 

  1. 8.    Monitoring of Processes and Systems Audit of Sugar Mills 

 

The activities deal with identifying the mills and/or refineries and their facilities capable of producing Direct Consumption Sugar (DCS), intermediate to raw and refined sugars with the end view of strengthening the quedan system.  The comprehensive information is needed for a clear cut policy on DCS sugar in relation to its compliance with SRA regulatory policy and in setting up quality standard to DCS.