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Abstract of Completed Researches

ABSTRACT OF COMPLETED RESEARCHES (2010)

ABSTRACT OF COMPLETED RESEARCHES (2010)

LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LGAREC) IN LA CARLOTA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

Research findings are:

Phil 03-1389 is recommended for commercial propagation and released.  It is a cross between Phil 89-36-0455 and Phil 88-620-1413. The variety passed the ecological test and was observed to perform best in Bais Mill district.  Phil 03-1389 is a high tonnage, medium to high sucrose in content and very sparse flowering variety.  It is resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot.

 

In the preliminary yield test for Phil 2005 series clones, top promising varities were selected as entries to the ecological test.  These are Phil 05-0055, Phil 05-0587, Phil 05-0645, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-2083, Phil 05-2151 and Phil 05-2311.

One hundred fifty (150) test clones from Phil 2006 series were found resistant to downy mildew.  Disease screening for other major disease had to be deferred for next year due to the effect of El Niño phenomenon.

In the row test for Phil 2007 series, 220 clones from 95 crosses were selected and 218 clones forwarded to the diseases screening for major diseases of sugarcane

In the single seedling plot test for Phil 2008 series, 1,229 clones from 212 biparental crosses were selected as entries to the row test this year.

The Phil 2009 series breeding program produced 314 clones from 253 biparental crosses using 76 female and 67 male selected parents.

In five croppings of Phil 93-2349 in Guimbalaon sandy loam soil fertilized with different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers, it was observed that application of rock phosphate (as source of P fertilizer) plus inorganic N and K, produced the highest tonnage ranging from 87.39– 93.95 TC/ha, highest Lkg/TC of 2.01–2.14 and highest Lkg/ha of 180.60– 200.21.  Five crop year data indicated that 25% to 50% reduction of the recommended NPK supplemented with organic materials, lime or rock phosphate have not lowered the yield of Phil 93-2349.

Four crop year data showed that vermicompost (2 tons/ha) in combination with the recommended rate (RR) of NPK gave the highest TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha both on plant and ratoon crop (first and 2nd croppings) while on the 3rd and 4th croppings highest yield were obtained with application of the RR plus 4 tons/ha vermicompost using the variety Phil 94-0913.  Soil organic matter improved every cropping with an average increase of 1.03% in four years.  Soil pH likewise improved, while availability of other nutrients decreased.

Vermicompost at the rate of 5,10 and 15 tons/ha replace the RR of fertilizer applied to Phil 94-0913 test variety, improvement in yield can already be attained with only 5 tons/ha application.  Increasing the amount to 10 or 15 tons/ha further improved the yield but the increase cannot compensate with the cost of vermicompost.  Since vermitea application did not influence plant and ratoon yields, its application maybe omitted to further minimize production cost.

Phil 97-3933 planted in wet season (June) and applied with different strains of Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF) in combination with full or ½ NPK fertilizer gave comparable tonnage and sugar yields with the RR fertilizers both on plant and ratoon canes.

Multiple chopping of stalks (whole, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cuts) at harvest and days delay in milling (0, 2, 5 and 8 days) of Phil 97-3933, Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 99-1793, Phil 98-0255, Phil 93-2349, and Phil 93-3849 showed that the 2 days delay in milling, exhibited an average loss of 5.63%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-1601 (9.19%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (1.75%).  At 5 days delay in milling the average loss was 12.82%.  Sugar loss was highest in Phil 93-3849 (23.88%) and lowest in Phil 97-3933 (6/13%).  At 8 days delay in milling Phil 93-3849 exhibited the highest loss (35.82%) and the lowest was in Phil 98-0255 (11.57%).  The average sugar loss after 8 days was 22.14%.

The average weight loss of canes when milling was delayed for 2 days was 5.31%, 7.39% at 5 days delay and 11.66% in 8 days delay.

LUZON AGRICULTURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CENTER (LAREC) IN FLORIDABLANCA, PAMPANGA

Results of completed projects are:

Preliminary Yield Test of Phil 2005 Series. Casupanan A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  V. Serrano and M. Guevarra.

Thirty test clones from 2005 Row Test were entered in the Preliminary Yield test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties,  Phil 8013 and Phil 7544.

Based on sugar yield, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both check varieties and were resistant to diseases.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 05-645, Phil 05-3635, Phil 05-2151, Phil 05-87, Phil 05-309, Phil 05-1197, Phil 05-483, Phil 05-1379, Phil 05-329,  and Phil 05-55.

Ecological Test  of Selected Phil Varieties .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test varieties from the Phil 1999 series, Phil 2000 series and Phil 2002  series   were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2007 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 00-2417, Phil 00-0881 and Phil 00-2155 are recommended for commercial release.

Ecological Test  of Phil 2003 Series .  Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan  and M. Guevarra.

Ten test varieties selected from the 2003 series Preliminary Yield test were tested in four mill districts of Luzon from July 2008 to February 2010 to evaluate their adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

Phil 03-0021 and Phil 03-1727 had more gains and evens than losses over the check varieties in three yield parameters. These varieties were also rated resistant to smut and downy mildew and are recommended for commercial release.

Screening of Selected  Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Thirteen test clones of Phil 1999, Phil 2000 and Phil 2002 series  were screened and evaluated for their resistance to sugarcane downy mildew in the plant and ratoon canes.

Clones Phil 02-0255, 00-1015 and 00-2231 were rated very highly resistant while Phil 02-0151, 00-0791, 00-1125 and 00-2155 were rated highly resistant.  Clones Phil 00-0881, 00-2417 and 00-2061 were rated resistant while clones Phil 02-0219, 02-0241 and 99-2133 were rated intermediate resistant.

Screening of 2003  series for resistance to downy mildew. Serrano V., N. Guiyab,  P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

Ten test clones of Phil 2003  were screened and evaluated for  resistance to sugarcane downy mildew.

In the plant and ratoon canes, the following were rated very highly resistant: Phil 03-0021, Phil 03-0217, Phil 03-0617. Phil 03-1341, Phil 03-1727, Phil 03-2109 and Phil 03-2125. Phil 03-0077 were very highly resistant in the plant cane and highly resistant in the ratoon cane.  Phil 03-0933 was resistant in the plant and ratoon canes.

Screening of Phil 2004 series  for resistance to smut.  Casupanan, A.,N. Guiyab, P. Macamos,  M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Thirty clones of the 2004 series  were planted, ratooned and screened for  reaction to sugarcane smut.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

Among the test clones, one was rated very highly resistant (Phil  04-1533) and  two were resistant (Phil  04-0827 and Phil 04-1605).  Five clones were intermediate resistant, namely,  Phil  04-1547, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1885, Phil  04-1889 and Phil  04-1899.  Ten were intermediate average  to include (Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil  04-0917, Phil 04-1195, Phil  04-1409,  Phil 04-1581, Phil 04- 1981, Phil 04-2249, Phil  04-2319 and Phil 04-3785).  The rest of the clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

Effects of the disc harrowing stubbles on the growth and yield of ratoon crop. Guevarra, M.,B. Manlapaz, A. Bacani and A.Burcer

The experiment was conducted in RCBD with six treatments, namely: T1-Furrows disc harrowed with tractor wheels on top of furrows; T2-Furrows disc harrowed  with tractor wheels in between furrows; T3- Stubbles mechanically shaved (mechanical stubble shaver); T4-Stubbles manually shaved (harvesting knives); T5- Stubbles manually shaved (native grub hoe)and T6-Control (No touch). cane than in the plant cane.

In the plant cane there was no significant difference on growth and yield parameters.  In the first and second ratoon crops mechanical stubble shaver and manually recutting  gave higher number of tillers and millable stalks. Higher mortality occurred on disc harrowing  with tractor wheels on top of furrow. The treatments were comparable   on LKg/TC in the  plant and ratoon canes. In the ratoon crops, both mechanical stubble shaver and manual recutting gave higher tonnage and LKg/Ha .

ABSTRACT OF COMPLETED RESEARCHES (2009)

ABSTRACT OF COMPLETED RESEARCHES (2009)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A. LUZON AGRICULTURAL & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1.    Preliminary Yield Test of 2004 SeriesCasupanan, A.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P.; Serrano, V. and Guevarra M.

 

Thirty test clones from 2004 Row Test series were entered in the 2004 Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC.

 

Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable to both or either check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544, and resistant to smut and downy mildew.

The clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 04-0081, Phil 04-0691, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1533, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1889,  Phil 04-1981, Phil 04-2249 and Phil 04-2319.

2.    Yield Performance of Selected Phil and PSR Varieties (NCT3) – Serrano, M.V.; Guiyab, N.; Macamos, P; Santago L.; Caballero T.; Casupanan A. and Guevarra M.

 

Fourteen test varieties selected by SRA and Philsurin were laid out in RCBD to determine their performance at LAREC.

Phil 97-2041 and Phil 97-3501 were found to be comparable in sugar yield to Phil 80-13 and Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon canes.

Varieties significantly higher in sugar yield than Phil 80-13 in the ratoon cane and comparable to Phil 75-44 in both plant and ratoon cane are Phil 98-0255, PSR 00-34, PSR 00-71, PSR 00-343 and PSR 00-161.

None of the test entries gave significantly higher sugar yield than Phil 75-44 in either plant or ratoon cane.

 

3.    Screening of Phil 2003 Series for Resistance to SmutCasupanan, A; Guiyab, N; Serrano, M.V. and Guevarra, M.

 

Forty clones of the 2004 series from LGAREC were planted and rationed and screened for their reaction to sugarcane smut.

Among the forty clones, ten clones were rated very highly resistant. These clones are 03-1989, 03-2109, 03-2305, 03-0371, 03-0613, 03-0627, 03-0645, 03-1389, 03-2125 and 03-2177. Six are highly resistant, 03-1925,03-1727, 03-0217, 03-2063, 03-0617 and 03-1471.Thirteen are resistant, 03-0919, 03-0905, 03-0021, 03-0669, 03-0939, 03-1565, 03-1577, 03-1599,03-1619 , 03-1689, 03-1755, 03-1503 and  03-2279. Six are  intermediate resistant, 03-0933, 03-2091, 03-0077, 03-0167, 03-1481 and 03-2229 and one intermediate average which is clone 03-1341. The remaining clones were rated intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible.

 

 

 

B.  LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

 

Variety Improvement and Pest Management (PTCM)

 

1.   Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2008 Series

During the 2008 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of long duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.

 

A total of 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated using 92 female and 68 male selected parents and from which 357 arrows from 271 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1). The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2008 series crossing program is shown in Table 2.

 

The sowing of fuzz in 271 seedboxes resulted in the germination of seedlings in 268 bi-parental crosses consisting of 353 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 87 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded seedlings in 136 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 490 seedboxes (Table 3).

 

Seedlings in 736 seedboxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in the field.

2.   Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2007 Series

The Phil 2007 Series hybridization work which produced a total of 117,179 seedlings from 272 bi-parental crosses was transplanted from June 3 to July 3, 2008. From these seedlings, 82,109 survived in the field or a survival rate of 70.07 percent (Table 4).

 

Selection in April 2009 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,291 promising clones from 221 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.57 percent for seedlings and 81.25 percent for the crosses (Table 5).

 

3.   Row Test, Phil 2006 Series

One thousand three hundred sixty four promising clones from the Phil 2006 Series Single Seedling Plot Test were planted in the Row Test on April 4, 2008. From these, 328 promising clones from 142 crosses were selected and forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. The clone selections are listed in Table 7.

 

4.   Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2005 Series

One hundred six promising clones from 70 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 9 clones from 8 crosses of Phil 2004 Series which were re-entered in the Row Test were passed to the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage. Multiplication I was conducted from December 21, 2007 to June 30, 2008 at the same time that disease screening for smut was done. Clones with ratings 1-4 for smut were passed to the next stage of multiplication.

 

Eighty three promising clones from 58 crosses of Phil 2005 Series and 3 clones from 3 crosses of Phil 2004 Series were passed to Multiplication II Stage and at the same time screened for downy mildew. The disease resistance ratings of the clonal entries are shown in Table 8.  Thirty smut and downy mildew resistant clones were considered as entries to the next stage, the Preliminary Yield Test and at the same time tested further for disease resistance. Continuing propagation of the selected clones was done to ensure adequate planting materials for the Ecologic Test.

 

5.   Smut Resistance Test

  • Phil 2004 Series (PYT Stage, Plant Cane & Ratoon)

Thirty Phil 2004 Series clonal entries to the Preliminary Yield Test were tested against sugarcane smut.  In the plant cane, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 2 susceptible, and 1 highly susceptible. In the ratoon, 24 clones were rated very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 1 resistant and 1 intermediate average (Table 9).  Clones with ratings 1-4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.

 

  • Phil 2006 Series at Row Test

Three hundred thirty five Phil 2006 Series clones selected from the Row Test were screened for smut.  Results showed that 236 clones were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 20 resistant, 32 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 10 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 10 very highly susceptible (Table 10). Clones with ratings 1-4 were recommended for further testing in the next stage of the breeding program.

 

6.   Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series and Phil 2004 Series (Plant & Ratoon)

Eighty three Phil 2005 Series and 3 Phil 2004 Series clones were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane of Phil 2005 Series clones, 48 were rated very highly resistant, 18 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 42 clones were very highly resistant, 12 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible. With Phil 2004 Series plant cane, 1 clone was rated very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant and 1 resistant.  In the ratoon crop, 2 clones were highly resistant and 1 resistant to the disease (Table 11). Clones with ratings 1 to 4 in the plant cane were recommended for further testing in the next stage.

 

7.   Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series

Thirty Phil 2004 Series clones were rated for resistance to yellow spot disease. Two clones were highly resistant, 12 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average and 2 clones were intermediate susceptible (Table 12).  

8.   Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series

Thirty clones of the Phil 2004 Series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. Seven were found highly resistant, 18 were resistant, 4 were intermediate resistant and 1 was intermediate average to the disease (Table 13).

 

9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2004 Series

The study was laid out in February 2008 to June 2009 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of Phil 2004 Series clones.  The 30 clonal entries were selections from Phil 2004 Series Multiplication II which were also simultaneously screened for reaction to the four major diseases and further propagated in preparation for the Ecologic Test. Tables 14 & 15 present the yield data, agronomic characteristics and disease reactions of the test clones.

 

Twenty eight clones gave comparable TC/Ha as the two control varieties; two clones were of lower tonnage. Tonnage yield ranged from 54.53 to 105.11 tons cane per hectare.

 

Twenty-five clones were comparable in LKg/TC while 11 clones were comparable in LKg/Ha to Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The rest have significantly lower LKg/TC and LKg/Ha than the two control varieties.

 

After considering agronomic characteristics and disease reactions, the top ten clones were selected as entries to the Ecologic Test.  These clones now referred to as varieties were:  Phil 04-0017, Phil 04-0703, Phil 04-0827, Phil 04-0845, Phil 04-0917, Phil 04-1011, Phil 04-1195, Phil 04-1719, Phil 04-1981 and Phil 04-2991.

 

10.  Performance of Selected Phil 2000- and Phil 2002 Series Sugarcane Varieties in Three Negros Mill Districts

The performance of four Phil 2000- and six Phil 2002 Series sugarcane varieties planted in three mill districts of Negros Island from December 2007 to January 2009 was evaluated.

Phil 00-0791 and Phil 02-0359 are recommended for commercial propagation and release. The two are high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering sugarcane varieties. Phil 00-0791 is resistant to smut, downy mildew, and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. Phil 02-0359 is similarly resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and leaf scorch.

 

The yield data gathered and Gain-Even-Loss Scores are presented in Tables 16-19.

 

11. Synchronized Disease Screening for Resistance to Downy mildew, Leaf Scorch, Smut and Yellow Spot, Phil 2004 Series

The response of Phil 2004 Series clones to downy mildew was similar in synchronized and separate screenings.  For smut and yellow spot, the response was similar in resistant and intermediate clones but not in susceptible clones. For leaf scorch, response of resistant clones was comparable in both synchronized and individual screenings but differed significantly in clones with intermediate reactions. The results were consistent in three consecutive years of testing. Tables 20-21 present the reaction frequency of the clones and Chi-Square Test results of the two disease screening methods.

 

 

12.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance

 

Table 1.  Germplasm inventory as of October 31, 2009

 

SPECIES/TYPE

2009

A.  Saccharum officinarum

1.  Original Nobles

6

2.  Noble Selections

4

 

B.  Saccharum spontaneum

1.  Foreign varieties

17

2.  Local varieties

12

3.  Hybrid and segregants

4

4.  IBPGR collections

218

 

C.  Saccharum senense

2

 

D.  Saccharum sp. (Historical and Commercial Hybrids)

1.  Foreign varieties

378

2.  Phil varieties

538

3.  Non-Phil varieties

96

TOTAL

1,275

 

 

                  Table 2.  New sugarcane varieties collected from November 2008 to October 2009

 

 

1

  PHIL 2006-41-0563

2

  PSR 99-85

3

PSR  99-105

4

PSR  2000-23

5

PSR  2000-34

6

PSR  2000-71

7

PSR  2000-161

8

PSR  2000-343

9

PSR   2001-46

10

PSR   2001-105

11

K 88-65

12

  K 88-87

13

  K 88-92

14

  PS 862

15

  PS 863

16

  PSGM 88-5052

 

 

 

Production Technology and Crop Management (PTCM)

 

1.    Effect of fresh start organic blend fertilizer on the growth and yield of sugarcane

The experiment was laid out at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City from January 2008 to January 2009, to determine the efficacy of Fresh Start Organic Blend fertilizer on growth and yield of sugarcane.

 

Stalk length of Phil 97-3501 improved (4.3 cm) with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer. Recommended rate (RR) + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer gave an improvement of 18.0 cm in stalk length.

 

When ½ RR + 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer was applied, no improvement in stalk length was observed.

 

Diameter of Phil 97-3501 was not influenced by the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer.

 

Millable stalks increased with the application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer.  When combined with RR slight improvement was observed.  When combined with ½ RR, no improvement was observed.

 

Compared with the unfertilized control (T1), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer alone (T5), slightly improved the tonnage of Phil 97-3501. Compared to RR alone (T2), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + RR (T6) likewise improved the tonnage slightly.

 

Compared with ½ RR (T3), application of 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer + ½ RR (T4) decreased the tonnage of Phil 97-3501.

 

LKg/TC of Phil 97-3501 decreased when applied with 2 tons/ha organic fertilizer, (T4, T5 and T6).

 

 

II. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

    Development Projects

 

  • Annual Compendium of Philippine Refineries, FY 2007 and 2008

 

An annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements for refining year 2008.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2008)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2008)

I.      AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER – (LAREC)

Breeding, Genetics and Varietal Improvement

1. Ecological Test of 2001 Series - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, L. Santiago, T. Caballero, A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

Fourteen (14) test varieties selected from the 2001 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from July 2006 to September 2008 to evaluate their adaptability in different agro-climatic conditions.

Three varieties were either comparable or significantly higher than either or both check varieties in terms of sugar yield. They also passed the criteria for disease resistance.

The three varieties that are recommended for further testing in the National Cooperative Test or for commercial release are Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833.

2. Preliminary Yield Test 2003 Series – Casupanan A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, 10 clones were found to be significantly higher or comparable with either or both check varieties. These clones which are recommended to undergo the ecological test are, Phil 03-0021, 03—627, 03-1503, 03-0933, 03-0617, 03-2109, 03-1727, 03-0077, 03-1341.

3. Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra

The reactions to downy mildew of the 13 test clones of Phil 2000 series are as follows: Phil 00-1893 and 00-2435 were very highly resistant, Phil 00-1901, 00-1323, 00-2415 and 00-2569 were highly resistant, Phil 00-1491, 00-1419, 00-1331, 00-1115 and 00-1937 were resistant and Phil 00-1537 was intermediate susceptible.

4. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew - Serrano, M.V., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, and M. Guevarra

The reactions to downy mildew of the twelve (12) test clones of Phil 2001 series in the plant and ratoon canes were as follows: Phil 01-0295 was rated highly resistant, Phil 01-103, 01-833 and 01-695 were resistant, Phil 01-441, 01-397,01-027 and 01-577 were intermediate resistant, Phil 01-529 and 01-561 were intermediate average, Phil 01-575 was susceptible and Phil 01-829 was very highly susceptible.

5. Screening of Phil 2001 Series for Resistance to Smut - Casupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

The fourteen (14) test clones of the 2001 series had the following reaction to smut: Phil 2001-0695 and Phil 2001-0833 were very highly resistant, Phil 2001-0397, Phil 2001-0529 and Phil 2001-0103 were highly resistant, Phil 2001-0295 and Phil 2001-0027 were resistant, Phil 2001-0441, Phil 2001-0561, Phil 2001-0577, Phil 2001-0531, Phil 2001-0575, Phil 2001-0829 were intermediate resistant and Phil 2001-0167 was intermediate susceptible.

6.    Screening of Phil 2002 Series for Resistance to SmutCasupanan, A., N. Guiyab, P. Macamos, M.V. Serrano and M. Guevarra

Of the forty-six (46) clones of the 2002 Phil series, the following gave intermediate to very highly susceptible reactions to smut, Phil 02-0037,02-0175, 02-0183, 02-0241, 02-0465, 02-1015, 02-2053, 02-2061, 02-2139 and 02-2511 were very highly resistant, Phil 02-0329, 02-0027 and 02-2545 were highly resistant, Phil 02-0151 and 02-0295 were resistant, Phil 02-0095, 02-0139, 02-0219, 02-0721, 02-0791, 02-0827, 02-1125, 02-2071, 02-2155, 02-2417, 02-1601 and 02-2133 were intermediate resistant, Phil 02-0255, 02-0439, 02-0649, 02-0881, 02-1439 and 02-2231 were intermediate average.

7.    Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Septage Sludge Fertilization - Magnaye, A., B. Manlapaz and E. Estanislao

Septage sludge fertilization gave uniform germination and plant height in all treatment combinations. Fertilization at 180 kg. N/Ha of septage gave significant mean average number of tillers and stalk length. The same treatments gave significantly higher tonnage and sugar yield in both the plant and ratoon crops.

 

 

B.  LA GRANJA RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

Variety Improvement and Pest Management

1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2007 Series – R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

During the 2007 breeding season, flowering of parental clones and varieties was early and of short duration with full emergence evenly distributed throughout the pollination period.

Pollination work which started October 18 and ended December 05, 2007 utilized 97 female and 82 male selected parents. A total of 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental cross combinations were pollinated. From these, 352 arrows from 272 bi-parental crosses were harvested with no arrow from bi-parental crosses destroyed.

The sowing of fuzz in 272 seed boxes from November 27 to December 30, 2007 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 272 bi-parental crosses consisting of 352 arrows. Medium to very good germination was observed in 92 percent of the crosses. Overcrowded  seedlings in 146 bi-parental crosses were pricked in 519 seed boxes.

Seedlings in 779 seed boxes were given proper care and management like regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation prior to transplanting in June 2008.

2.  Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2006 Series – Armones, R.T., and I.S. Bombio

The 2006 hybridization work which produced a total of 133,827 seedlings from 327 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from May 25 to June 14, 2007. From these seedlings, 81,726 survived in the field or a survival rate of 61.07 percent.

Selection in April 2007 using Phil 56-226 as control variety gave 1,365 promising clones from 327 bi-parental crosses. This result showed a selection percentage of 1.67 percent for seedlings and 74.92 percent for the crosses.

All selected promising clones were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test.

3.  Row Test, Phil 2005 Series - Aloro, L.E. and J. Velasco

The planting of 2005 series Row Test was done on March 23, 2007. The entries were the 1,227 clones from 236 crosses selected from the 2005 series Single Seedling Plot Test and the 247 clones from 32 crosses of 2004 series which were re-entered due to poor germination during the 2004 series row Test. Selection was done on December 06-15, 2007. Result showed that out of 1,227 clones planted, 106 clones from 69 crosses for 2005 series and 9 clones from 8 crosses for 2004 series were selected and forwarded to the next stage, Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.

4.    Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2004 Series – L.E. Aloro & J.C. Velasco

One hundred ninety-nine promising clones from 95 crosses selected from Phil 2004 series Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously screened to smut disease from December 28, 2006 to June 30, 2007. After six months, 106 clones from 61 crosses representing 53.26 and 64.21 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected and forwarded to Multiplication II Stage. Because of bad weather, land preparation was delayed and Multiplication II was planted on August 15, 2007. In February 2008, 100 clones from 58 crosses representing 92.59 and 92.06 selection percentages for clones and crosses, respectively, were selected. Further evaluation of agronomic and morphological characteristics of the clones limited the final choice to 30 clones as entries to the Preliminary Yield Test and for simultaneous screening to yellow spot and leaf scorch and further multiplication.

5.    Smut Resistance Test

a.    Phil 2003 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) -  N.S. Meneses  & G.A. Gayoti

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were tested against smut of sugarcane. Result of the plant cane showed that 14 clones were very highly resistant, 9 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 7 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were very highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 4 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.

b.    Smut Resistance Test, Phil 2005 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses & G.A. Gayotin

One hundred fifteen (115) clones of the Phil 2004 and Phil 2005 series were rated for resistance to smut of sugarcane. Fifty (50) clones were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 12 resistant, 17 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 8 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.

6.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test, Phil 2004 Series (Plant Cane & Ratoon) -  Entima, R.G., G.A. Gayotin

One hundred eight (108) clones of the Phil 2004 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane. In the plant cane, 59 were very highly resistant, 24 highly resistant, 6 resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible and 2 susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 10 clones were very highly resistant, 21 highly resistant, 16 resistant, 15 intermediate resistant,14 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 12 very highly susceptible.

7.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series -  Meneses, N.S. and G.A. Gayotin

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 were rated for resistance to yellow spot of sugarcane. One clone was intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 29 very highly susceptible to the disease.

8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test, Phil 2003 Series -  R.G. Entima & G.A. Gayotin

Forty (40) clones of the Phil 2003 series were rated for resistance to leaf scorch of sugarcane. All clones tested were found highly resistant to the disease.

9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2003 Series -  Aloro, L.E., J.C. Velasco and I.S. Bombio

The study which was laid-out in February 2007 to June 2008 to determine the agronomic and yield performance of the Phil 2003 series sugarcane clones compared to the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. The entries were the 40 clones selected from the Phil 2003 series Multiplication II. These clones were also simultaneously screened for reaction to four major sugarcane diseases.

Thirty (30) clones did not differ significantly in tonnage yield as the two control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550. Eight clones were of lower yield. Two clones have lower tonnage than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Tonnage yield ranged from 44.64 TO 114.01 tons per hectare.

None of the test clones significantly surpassed the control varieties in sucrose content measured as Lkg/TC. Six clones were lower while twenty-five (25) were comparable. Nine clones have lower sucrose content than VMC 86-550 but were comparable to PHIL 8013. Lkg/TC ranged from 1.82 to 2.29 Lkg/TC.

In Lkg/Ha, twenty-one (21) clones have comparable sugar yield as the two control varieties while eight clones were lower. Eleven clones were lower that VMC 86-550 but were comparable to Phil 8013. Sugar yield ranged from 98.28 Lkg/Ha to 227.13 Lkg/Ha.

Result of the study showed that all the 40 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar yield than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550.

Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten (10) promising clones which were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecological Test. These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2003-11-0167, Phil 2003-17-0217, Phil 2003-46-0617, Phil 2003-64-0699, Phil 2003-96-0933, Phil 2003-154-1389, Phil 2003-158-1503, Phil 2003-163-1577, Phil 2003-175-1727 and Phil 2003-208-2063.

10.  Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series – Velasco. J.C., L.E. Aloro and R.D. Pillado

Ten (10) Phil 2001 series varieties were tested in the Ecological Test experiment in five (5) locations of Negros and Iloilo from November 2006 until March 2008. One variety was selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT). Phil 2001-0295 is a high sucrose, high tonnage, and very sparse flowering cane, resistant to smut and downy mildew but intermediate in reaction to yellow spot and to leaf scorch.

11.  Synchronized Screening of Sugarcane Clones for Resistance to Downy Mildew, Smut, Yellow Spot & Leaf Scorch, Phil 2003 Series – N.S. Meneses & R.G. Entima

The Effectiveness of synchronized screening in determining resistance of clones to downy mildew, smut, leaf scorch and yellow spot is about the same with separate screening, the usual procedure used in screening for disease resistance. Synchronized screening however has the advantage of conducting the whole process in one set of trial in one year, unlike 3-4 years in separate screening. Either of the two methods can be used in screening clones for disease resistance.

12.  Performance of the Phil 98-, Phil 97-, PSR 2000- and PSR 99- Series Sugarcane Varieties – Bombio, I.S., R.G. Entima, N.S. Meneses and V.A. Serrano

This study evaluated the performance of one Phil 98-, five Phil 97-, five PSR 2000- and three PSR 99- series sugarcane varieties in selected mill districts of Negros and Pampanga from December 2006 to January 2008.

Test varieties differed significantly with the control in tonnage, sucrose content and sugar yield.

Four varieties were higher in tonnage while five were lower than Phil 8013; seven varieties have more while eight have lesser tonnage than Local Control.

PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean tonnage; Phil 97-1123 has the lowest. TC/ha was highest in La Carlota, followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos. Highest potential yield of the test varieties was attained by Phil 98-0255 in La Carlota.

Eight varieties were of lower sucrose content than Phil 8013; two were sweeter and seven were less sweet than Local Control.

Phil 97-1123 has the highest variety mean Lkg/TC; the lowest was Phil 98-0255. Cane stalks were sweetest in HPCo, followed by La Carlota, PASUMIL and San Carlos. Highest potential for sucrose content was obtained from Phil 97-1123 planted in HPCo.

One variety was higher in sugar yield while four were lower than Phil 8013; four varieties have more while six have lesser sugar yield that Local Control.

PSR 2000-34 gave the highest variety mean sugar yield’ the lowest was Phil 97-1123. La Carlota followed by PASUMIL, HPCo and San Carlos attained the highest LKG/Ha. Highest potential sugar yield was from Phil 98-0255 planted in La Carlota.

Phil 98-0255 has the tallest stalks, PSR 99-182 the biggest diameter, PSR 2000-343 the most number of millable stalks/sqm, and PSR 2000-34 the heaviest stalks. La Carlota cane stalks were the longest, biggest in diameter and heaviest but the most number of millable stalks were produced in PASUMIL. Flowering was more pronounced in PASUMIL than in Negros. Pests and disease incidences were considered to be too minimal to be able to inflict damage on crop yield.

The Gain-Even-Loss Tally showed that seven test varieties gained over control in tonnage yield. Two varieties gained over Local Control in LKg/TC, while four varieties gained over control in sugar yield. Three varieties stood out among the test varieties in outyielding the control in tonnage and sugar yields and thus can be considered for commercial planting. These are PSR 2000-34, PSR 2000-343 and PSR 2000-161.

13.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – Armones, R.T. and I.S. Bombio

A total of 1,259 sugarcane varieties were planted in the Germplasm Collection for the year 2007. Twelve (12) new accessions came from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program and new Crossing Blocks. Eight hundred twenty two (822) clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically. Stalk alignment, aerial roots, and trichomes were the data gathered on the year 2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for selection of parent materials.

Production Technology and Crop Management

1.    Alternative Cropping Systems to Sustain Productivity in the Agrarian Reform Communities – Morales, C.L., D.A. de los Santos, M.L.C. Almodiente and J.C. Nierves

The experiment was laid out at the experimental fields of the sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research center in 2004 and terminated after 3 years. The original proposal was to conduct the study in five years in an ARB farm in Recreo, Pontevedra but due to budget constraints, it was shortened to three years and laid out instead at SRA compound for easier implementation of the treatments. This project was conceived to identify alternative production strategies that could improve and sustain  sugarcane yields and income of the agrarian reform beneficiaries and to monitor changes in soil properties.

Results of the study showed that alternative crop production strategies like application of mudpress, intercropping leguminous crops like mungo and Crotalaria juncea and trash mulching are feasible means to improve crop production and maintain sugarcane production. After three years of study, the return on investment was higher than the treatments without alternative schemes.

The changes in soil properties was not clearly manifested after three years of study. There should be a longer period of observation to validate results.

2.    Adaptation Trials on the Use of Distillery Effluents as Liquid Fertilizer or Irrigation water for Sugarcane* – Bombio, R.M., S.B.Tahum, G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay

The field experiment was laid out at DBI compound on January 2007 and harvested December 2007, while the pot experiment was set up at SRA, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center on January 2007 and harvested November 2007, to assess the efficacy of distillery effluent on growth and yield of sugarcane and to evaluate the effect of distillery effluent on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.

Field experiment results showed that Phil 94-0913 applied with inorganic fertilizer obtained the highest tonnage of 118.2 TC/Ha when combined with effluent applied after planting (T4), followed by plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) with 114.2 TC/Ha and the lowest was on plants without effluent (T2C2) with 105.3 TC/Ha.

In comparison with fertilizer treatment alone (T2C2), data revealed that application of effluent only at planting plus fertilizer (T4) gave an increase in tonnage of about 12.9 TC/Ha, while effluent applied at planting and three months after planting plus fertilizer (T6) gave an increase tonnage of 8.9 TC/Ha.

On the other hand, in comparison with the control without inorganic fertilizer (T1C1), sugar cane applied with effluent at planting minus fertilizer (T3) gave an increase in tonnage of 9.1 TC/Ha, while those applied with effluent at planting and 3 months after planting minus fertilizer (T5) gave an improvement of about 17.8 TC/Ha.

Highest sugar yield (266.9 LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 was obtained on plants applied with effluent after planting plus fertilizer (T4) but comparable with plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP plus fertilizer (T6 (263.4 LKg/Ha)); plants applied with effluent after planting and 3 MAP minus fertilizer (T5 (225.2 LKg/Ha)) and plants without effluent plus fertilizer (T2C2 (230.4 LKg/Ha)). Lowest LKg/Ha was obtained on plants without effluent and without fertilizer (T2C2 (181.3 LKg/Ha)).

Compared to the control without effluent and fertilizer (T1C1), application of effluent after planting (T3) increased the LKg/Ha of Phil 94-0913 by 23.5, while effluent applied after planting and 3 months after planting gave an increase of 43.9 LKg/Ha.

On the other hand, compared to another control T2C2 (fertilizer only) Phil 94-0913 applied with effluent after planting and fertilizer (T4) gave an increase of 36.5 LKg/Ha while those applied with effluent after planting and 3 months after planting (T6) gave an increase of 33.0 LKg/Ha.

Soil analysis of the field experiment showed that application of about 55-110 cubic meters per hectare effluent did not leave high residual amount of nutrients in the soil and did not go beyond the root zone of the sugarcane plants.

__________________________________________

*/ Cooperative study between Distileria Bago, Inc. (DBI and Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension LGAREC), La Granja, La Carlota City

Analysis of the essential nutrient is low, therefore it is recommended that inorganic fertilizer may be added to supplement the total amount of nutrients needed for optimum growth and reproduction of sugarcane.

Results of both field and pot experiment it can be used as irrigation water because no detrimental effect on growth of sugarcane was observed when planted in the soil previously saturated with a maximum volume of 1080 cubic meter effluent.

3.    Effect of WOKOZIM (Bio-Organic Stimulant) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane.** Bombio, S.B.Tahum, R.M., G.L. Talam, and R.E. Tapay

The experiment was laid out at Sugar Regulatory Administration (SRA), La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2007 to November 2008, to determine the efficacy of using WOKOZIM granules on sugarcane crop by addition on top or replacement of farmers input and to compare the performance of WOKOZIM granules versus other organic fertilizers.

Highest tonnage of 129.66 TC/Ha was obtained on canes applied with the recommended rate (RR) of inorganic fertilizer + 1 ton organic fertilizer + 8 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T11). Tonnage of Phil 97-3933 tended to decrease to 127.93 TC/Ha when 16 bags of WOKOZIM granules (T12) was used in combination with RR + 1 ton organic fertilizer.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2007)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2007)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER (LAREC)

 

RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Muscovado Production from Different Sugarcane Varieties – Guevarra, M., B. Manlapaz

 

Sixteen (16) sugarcane varieties were grown in the experimental field at LAREC following the usual cultural practices. After 12 months, the stalks of the varieties harvested and crushed. The juices were boiled to produce powder muscovado using the conventional method of cooking, with lime for juice clarification.

 

The juice of test varieties had from 2.0 and higher brix, 19 and higher pol and 2.0 and higher LKG/TC. Powdered muscovado was produced in all test varieties with various analyses: 0.63—3.22% moisture, 92.31—95.44% pol, 1.06—1.60% ash, 95.13—97.91% brix, 92.96—95.53% sucrose, 1.39—3.5% reducing sugar and 26,216—74.56 I.U. color.

 

  1. 2.    Phil 2002 Series Preliminary Yield Test - Casupanan, A., R. Del Rosario, V. Serrano, N. Guiyab, P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

 

Forty six (46) test clones from the Phil 2002 series in the Row test were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477.

 

The fifteen (15) clones were found to be significantly higher in sugar yield (LKg/Ha) than either or both check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 8477, and were moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew

 

These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 02-2155, Phil 02-1015, Phil 02-0881, Phil 02-0295, Phil 02-0151, Phil 02-0791, Phil 02-2061, Phil 02-2417, Phil 02-0219, Phil 02-1125, Phil 02-0241, Phil 02-2133, Phil 02-0037, Phil 02-2231, and Phil 02-0255.

 

  1. 3.    Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program: Ecological Testing of Phil 2000 series in Luzon – Casupanan, A., V. Serrano, R. del Rosario, L. Vidallion, N. Guiyab, L. Santiago, T. Caballero and P. Macamos and M. Guevarra.

 

Twelve (12) test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 2000 Preliminary Yield Test and two control varieties were entered in the Ecological Test in the four ecological sites in Luzon from July 2005 to July 2007.

 

Six varieties, Phil 00-1893, Phil 00-1491, Phil 00-1419, Phil 00-1323, Phil 00-2435 and Phil 00-2569, passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease resistance.

 

The selected varieties are recommended for department release and for further testing in the National Cooperative Test.

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

      Production Technology and Crop Management

 

 

  1. 1.    Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid  fertilizer)  on the   Growth   and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M.Bombio, G.L.Talam, S.B.Tahum, N.D.Navarro

 

Humus and nitrofert application did not influence germination of Phil 94-0913.  Comparable germination percentages were obtained.  The result did not conform to the data obtained on Phil 93-3849 where germination improved.  This indicates that response to applied humus + nitrofert differed between varieties.

 

Tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 94-0913 significantly improved when humus and nitrofert  was applied together with 50% RR or 100% RR.

 

When humus and nitrofert was combined with 50% RR, tonnage and sugar yield   significantly improved by about 17.06 TC/Ha and 37.15 LKg/Ha over 50% RR only.

 

On the other hand when humus and nitrofert was applied together with 100% RR, significant increase of 18.16 TC/Ha and 42.98 LKg/Ha over 100% RR was obtained.

 

Further more when humus + nitrofert was applied without inorganic fertilizer, improvement in tonnage and sugar yield of about 9.06 TC/Ha and 22.06 LKg/Ha over the unfertilized was attained but statistically,  the difference was not significant.

 

Highest added income due to humus and nitrofert was realized at 50% RR, but highest total yield of 368.58 LKg/Ha was observed at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert, while on 50% RR + humus and nitrofert the total yield was 342.86 LKg/Ha, therefore in terms of money value, highest net income will be at 100% RR + humus and nitrofert.

 

 

  1. 2.    Refinement of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations For Sugarcane – O.T.Quilloy, M.C.Gerardino, G.L.Talam

 

The growth and yield response of sugarcane as influenced by varying phosphorus and potassium rates were evaluated in selected farms in La Carlota and BISCOM mill districts.

 

Sugarcane soils from the experimental sites contain varying amounts of available P and exchangeable K.

 

Significant yield increments with P205 and K20 fertilization were observed in Guimbalaon soil at Hda. Jamandre (La Carlota Mill District) Negros Occidental. Potash fertilization likewise did not influence sugarcane yields despite low exchangeable soil K in Luisiana soil at Hda. Erlinda  (BISCOM Mill District).

Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilization in specific soil type is a better option in determining the P205 and K20 fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.

 

 

  1. 3.    The Effect of Cultivation and Planting Pattern on Yield of Phil 93-2349 – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales

 

The study was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of Phil 93-2349 with four (4) different cultivation practices and three (3) planting patterns.

 

Different cultivation practices and planting patterns did not significantly influence the growth and yield performance of Phil 93-2349.  The result on plant cane implies that yield of sugarcane at minimum tillage is still comparable with cane grown in maximum tillage regardless of planting pattern.

  1. 4.    Performance of 99 and 2000 Series Clones – T.B. Bañas, C.L.Morales, D. Delos Santos

The study evaluated 6 clones and one control variety as to their growth and yield performance. Clones tested were Phil 2000-240-1707, Phil 2000-322-2191, Phil 2000-139-1031, Phil 99-2641, Phil 99-1867 and Phil 99-1459. Control variety used was Phil 8013.

 

Two clones exhibited flowering capacity namely Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 99-1867. Minimal pests and diseases like borer, pokkahboeng and downy mildew were observed attacking the test clones. No clones out yielded Phil 8013, however only Phil 99-1459 gave comparable TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.

 

  1. 5.    Effect of Bio-Organic Fertilizer (Probiotics)  on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – C.L.Morales, J.C.Nierves

 

The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from October 2005 to December 2006 to evaluate the growth and yield performance of sugarcane to the application of Probiotics and the economics of using Probiotics as fertilizer for sugarcane.  The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 6m x 9m experimental plot.

 

The application of Probiotics alone at the rate of 50 bags per hectare did not outdo the yield performance of farmers practice by using inorganic fertilizers in their sugarcane farms.  It can be applied or used only as soil conditioner.

  1. 6.    Effect of Bacterial Enzyme as Soil Conditioner on the Nutrient Assimilation of Micropropagated Plantlets and Different Varieties – T.O.Macuro, G.A.Gayotin, C.L. Morales

 

Production of sugarcane is highly dependent on commercial fertilizers that are very costly. Sugarcane farming in this study is supplemented with enzyme-producing bacterial isolates. Sufficient population of bacteria was supplied to the field to produce a nitrogenase system and together with cofactors needed for potassium and phosphorus assimilation.

 

Enzyme-producing isolates were sprayed to the field for six months, once a month. Results showed significant effect on the morphological characteristics of sugarcane by increased millable stalks, high tonnage and brix at harvest.

 

The bacterial isolates increased the organic matter of the soil, enhance the water-holding of the plants and the early maturing of some sugarcane varieties by 15%. High yielding varieties used in this study (Phil 93-3155, Phil 8013, 93-3727 and Phil 94-0913) were responsive and adaptable to the bacterial isolates used while Phil 93-2349 was less responsive or less adaptive to the bacteria applied.

 

 

Variety Improvement and Pest Management

  1. 1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2006 Series - R.T. Harder R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

 

Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2006 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the fourth week of October to the first week of November, 2006.

 

A total of 481 arrows from 328 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 17 to November 7, 2006 using 97 selected female and 82 male parents.  From these, 478 arrows from 327 bi-parental crosses were harvested (Table 1, Appendix B).

 

Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 21 to December 18, 2006 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 327 bi-parental crosses consisting of 478 arrows.  Medium to good germination was observed in 89 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 11 percent had poor germination.  Seedlings in the 169 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 537 seedboxes.

 

Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 838 seedboxes.  This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation. The list of bi-parental crosses made from the Phil 2006 series crossing program is shown in Table 2, Appendix B.

 

  1. 2.    Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2005 Series – R.T. Harder, R.T. Armones & I.S. Bombio

 

The 2005 hybridization work which produced a total of 101,156 seedlings from 329 bi-parental crosses were transplanted from June 14 to July 13, 2006.  From these seedlings, 70,325 survived in the field or a survival rate of 69.52 percent (Table 3, Appendix B).

 

Selection in March, 2007 using Phil 56226 as control variety gave 1,217 promising clones from 228 bi-parental crosses.  This result showed a selection percentage of 1.73 percent for seedlings and 69.30 for crosses (Table 4, Appendix B).

 

All selected promising clones per cross which were forwarded to the next stage, the Row Test is shown in (Table 5, Appendix B).

 

  1. 3.    Row Test, Phil 2004 Series – L. E. Aloro , R.T. Harder & R.T. Armones

 

The planting of the Row Test, Phil 2004 Series was done on March 16, 2006. The entries were the 1,494 clones from 227 crosses selected from the Single Seedling Plot Test, Phil 2004 Series.  The clones were planted in plots measuring 3 x 3 meters with furrow distance of one meter. Phil 56226 the control variety was planted every 10 clones/plots for comparison during selection.

 

Selection on December, 2006 gave 199 promising clones from 95 crosses out of 1,494 clones from 227 crosses planted.  This result showed a selection percentage of 10.63 percent for clones and 41.85 percent for crosses. The selected clones as shown in Table 6, Appendix B were forwarded to the next stage, the Multiplication and Disease Screening Stage.

 

 

  1. 4.    Multiplication and Disease Screening, Phil 2003 Series – L.E. Aloro ,  R.T. Harder  & R.T. Armones

 

Two hundred sixty four (264) promising clones from (142) different crosses of the 2003 series, Row Test were multiplied and simultaneously subjected to smut disease screening test from December, 2005 to July 2006.  Result of the study showed 179 were selected out of 264 clones planted on a selection percentage of 67.80%. These come from 113 out of 142 crosses on a selected percentage of 79.57%.

 

The 179 selected clones from 142 crosses were further multiplied and subjected to downy mildew disease screening test from July 2006 to February, 2007.

 

Result of the study showed 154 clones from 101 different crosses were selected or a selection percentage of 86.03 percent for clones and 89.38 percent for crosses (Table 7, Appendix B).  These clones were supposed to be tested in the Preliminary Yield Test.  However due to budgetary constraints, the entries were limited only to 40 clones.

 

The 40 smut and downy mildew resistant clones with their parentage and agronomic characters selected from the Phil 2003 Series Multiplication and Disease screening stage are presented in  (Table 8, Appendix B).

  1. 5.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2003 series (Plant cane & Ratoon) - R.G. Entima

 

One hundred seventy eight clones of the 2003 series were tested against downy mildew of sugarcane.  In the plant cane, 111 were very highly resistant, 30 highly resistant, 13 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease. In the ratoon crop, 28 clones were very highly resistant, 14 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 15 susceptible, 11 highly susceptible and 65 very highly susceptible. (Table 9, Appendix B)

 

  1. 6.    Smut Resistance Test

 

  1. a.    Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series at PYT stage (Plant cane & Ratoon) -  N.S. Meneses

           

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series plant cane tested against smut, 1 was highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series plant cane, 8 were very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series plant cane, 7 were very highly resistant, 2 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 4 very highly susceptible. In the ratoon crop of 1999 series, 1 clone was intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 highly susceptible. For 2000 series ratoon, 7 were very highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible. For 2002 series ratoon, 5 were very highly resistant, 1 highly resistant, 1 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 4 very highly susceptible (Table 10, Appendix B).

 

  1. b.    Smut Resistance Test Phil 2004 series at Row test - N.S. Meneses

 

One hundred ninety seven clones of the 2004 series were rated for resistance to smut. Sixty seven clones were very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 29 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 13 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 43 very highly susceptible to the disease (Table 11, Appendix B).

 

  1. 7.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – N.S. Meneses

 

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against yellow spot, 3 were intermediate and 3 susceptible. For 2000 series, 3 were resistant, 4 intermediate and 17 susceptible. For 2002 series, 3 were resistant, 3 intermediate and 10 susceptible (Table12, Appendix B).

 

  1. 8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1999, 2000 & 2002 series – R.G. Entima

 

Of the 6 clones of 1999 series tested against leaf scorch, 4 were resistant and 2 intermediate. For 2000 series, 16 were resistant and 8 intermediate while for 2002 series, 9 were resistant and 7 intermediate (Table 13, Appendix B).

 

  1. 9.    Preliminary Yield Test, Phil 2002 Series- R.T. Harder L.E. Aloro & R.T. Armones

The study which was laid-out in February, 2006 aimed to determine the agronomic, disease resistance, and yield performance of 16 Phil 2002 series, 24 Phil 2000 series and 6 Phil 1999 series clones against the control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86550.

 

Result of the study showed that almost all of the 46 clones tested have comparable or significantly lower tonnage, sugar content and sugar per hectare than control varieties, Phil 8013 and VMC 86-550 except for Phil 2002-33-0151 which gave significantly higher TC/Ha (127.09) than VMC 86-550 (105.63) as shown in  Table 14, Appendix B.

 

Further evaluation of these clones using their yield, agronomic and disease resistance resulted in the selection of ten promising clones.  These clones which are now called varieties were Phil 2002-33-0151, Phil 2002-35A-0175, Phil 2002-41-0241, Phil 2002-45A-0295, Phil 2002-79-0359, Phil 2002-104-0465, Phil 2000-112-0791, Phil 2000-158-1175, Phil 2000-240-1707 and Phil 2000-354-2417.  Table 15, Appendix B showed the summary data of these ten selected varieties.

 

All selected varieties were recommended as entries in the next stage, the Ecologic Test.

 

  1. 10.  Ecologic Test, Phil 2000 Series -  R.D. Pillado, L.E. Aloro & R.T. Harder

 

Ten Phil 2000 series varieties were tested in the Ecologic Test experiment in 6 locations of Negros and Iloilo from November, 2006 until February, 2007.  Three varieties were selected for further testing in the National Cooperative Test (NCT).  They are as follows:

 

Phil 2000-2569, a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and yellow spot but susceptible to leaf scorch.

 

Phil 2000-2435 a high sucrose, high tonnage, sparse to moderately profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and moderate to leaf scorch and yellow spot.

 

Phil 2000-1331, a high sucrose, high tonnage, moderately to profuse flowering cane, resistant to smut, downy mildew and leaf scorch but susceptible to yellow spot. The summary of information of the 2000 series Ecologic Test is presented in Table  16, Appendix B.

 

  1. 11.   Support Projects
  1. 1.    High Yielding Varieties (HYV) Propagation – R.D. Pillado , J.C. Velasco & L.E. Aloro

 

·      Phil 2002 Series Project

 

Ten promising varieties of the 2002 series were propagated last August, 2007 for source of planting materials of the Ecological Test in five different locations of Negros and Panay this coming November, 2007 until February, 2008 lay-outs.

 

·      Phil 2001 Series Project

 

Ten promising test varieties of the 2001 series Ecological Test were propagated last March, 2007.  These served as source of planting materials for any variety that will be selected after the evaluation of the results of the Ecological Test, Phil 2001 Series in March, 2008.

 

·         Phil 2000 Series Project

 

Ten varieties of the 2000 series were ratooned March, 2007.  Three varieties that were selected from this series were further multiplied in October, 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test in 2008.

 

·         Phil 1999 and 1998 Series Project

 

Four varieties selected in the 1999 series and another three from the 1997 series were planted in January 2007 in preparation for the National Cooperative Test IV in Crop Year 2007-2008.  All canepoints were cutbacked Oct, 2007 and turned over to the NCT project, Research Division.  

 

·         Miscellaneous Varieties

 

Phil 8013, VMC 86-550 were ratooned February and March, 2006, to serve as control varieties in the Ecological Test, 2002 Series, Crop Year 2007-2008.

 

·         Canepoints Produced and Distributed

 

Excess canepoints of Phil 98, Phil 97, Phil 93 series were distributed to planters and OPSI participants.

 

2.  Germplasm Collection, Characterization and Maintenance – R.T. Armones, R.T. Harder & L.E. Aloro

 

One thousand two hundred forty-seven sugarcane varieties/clones were ratooned/planted in the Germplasm Collection area for the year 2006 (Table 17, Appendix B).  From these, twenty new accessions from the Sugarcane Variety Improvement Program were collected and planted in the Germplasm plot (Table 18, Appendix B).  Eight hundred twenty two clones/varieties were partially characterized morphologically (Table 19, Appendix B).   Characterization for bud groove, corky patch and corky cracks were the data gathered for the Crop Year 2006-2007 characterization to primarily provide necessary information for the selection of parent materials.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Establishment of Pollution Load Factors for the Sugar Industry – Agosto, R.

A project that aims to seek exemption from DENR to allow equitable and attainable effluent standards (air and water) for the sugar industry sector based on the pollution load factor in Philippine sugar processing.

 

With the passage of the RA 8749 or the Clean Air Act (CAA) or 1999 and RA 9275 or the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 2004, a more stringent water and air emission standards have become a major setback to the ailing sugar industry. Pursuant to Section 3.B. of DENR Administrative Order No. 2007-22, Series of 2007 (Guidelines on the Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring System, all air emission sources with potential to emit more than 100 but less than 750 tons/yr. of total suspended particulates (TSP) after the air pollution control devices (APCD) may utilize a Predictive or Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS), a system or device used by the Special Action Group for the Environment (SAGE). PEMS refers to a mathematical model that predicts the gas concentration in a stack based on a set of operating data such as but not limited to fuel flow rate, temperature, stack excess oxygen, pressure, heat input, fuel analysis and others without requiring the Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). CEMS refers to the equipment stipulated in the DAO 2000—81 (IRR or CAA) used to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by any means of readings recorded at least once very 15 minutes (using an automated data acquisition and handling system), a permanent record of relevant regulated pollutant emissions or stack gas volumetric flow rate.

 

Results obtained by the Special Action Group for the Environment’s (SAGE) quarterly environmental monitoring provided baseline data to establish pollution load factor needed by the sugar mills/refineries in order for them to know if their air pollution control facilities and wastewater treatment facilities are inefficient or not. These data are important to know if CEMS should not be installed anymore on their APCD. Sugar mills invest huge amount of money for their operations upgrading and likewise on their pollution control facilities. The CEMS alone costs around PhP95 M and around PhP10-30 M just for the upgrade of wastewater treatment plant (WTP).

 

This project enabled the sugar industry to gather and establish in-house data for pollution parameters and thus forewarn and enable the mills to retrofit their pollution control facilities accordingly and, moreso, avoid regulatory problems.

 

Data gathered by SAGE proved that sugar mill/refineries with efficient APCD can attain less than 750 tons/yr of total suspended particulates as stipulated under Section 3.B of DAO 2007-22, Series of 2007.

 

  1. 2.    Relevance of Quality Canes Towards Effective & Efficient Production Process - Pedalizo

 

This project evaluates data on quality cane vis-à-vis effective and efficient production process.

  1. 3.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries for 2004, 2005 & 2006 - Villamor, M.T., et. al. 

 

This annual publication contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating refineries in the Philippines either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements of refining year 2004 and 2005.

 

  1. 4.    Annual Synopsis of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Production and Performance Data for CY 2004-2005 and CY 2005-2006 - Sabordo, A., et. al.

 

An annual publication that embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance records of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.

 

  1. 5.    Capital Efficiency:  An Approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line - Banjao, L.

 

The project covers capital matters towards reducing cost of raw sugar production.  Through questionnaires and surveys among Philippine sugar mills, technical calculation and analyses can be established.

 

  1. 6.    Labor Productivity – An approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line – Tienda, D.

 

The project covers labor matters toward reducing cost of raw sugar production

Abstract of Completed Researches (2006)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2006)

  1. I.      AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH &DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   Luzon Agricultural Research Center (LAREC)

 

BREEDING & GENETICS

 

1.    Performance of Selected Phil and VMC Sugarcane Varieties in Luzon Mill Districts - Serrano, V., A. Casupanan, R. Del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra

 

Nine (9) test varieties selected by SRA and VMC were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design from November 2003 to May 2006 to determine their performance in the four mill districts of Luzon.

 

On LKg/Ha in the plant cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13  were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 93-1601, Phil 90-1237 and VMC’s 97-45, 97-41, 96-120, 97-30, 97-169 and 97-134 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 93-1601 and VMC 97-45 at LAREC and Phil 93-1601. Phil 90-1237 and VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district.

 

On LKg/Ha in the ratoon cane, varieties which were significantly higher than Phil 80-13 were Phil 94-0913 at LAREC and Phil 94-0913, Phil 90-1237, VMCs 97-45, 97-41 and 96-120 at CARSUMCO mill district. Significantly higher than the local control were Phil 94-0913 and Phil 90-1237, VMC 97-45& VMC97-41 at CARSUMCO mill district.

 

  1. 2.    Preliminary Yield Test 2001 Series - Serrano V.,  R. del Rosario, L. Vidallon and M. Guevarra

 

Forty-two (42) test clones from the 2001 Row Test series were entered in the Preliminary Yield Test at LAREC using RCBD to compare their agronomic and yield potential with two check varieties under natural field conditions at LAREC.

 

Based on sugar yield and disease resistance, ten (10) clones were found to be significantly higher than the two check varieties Phil 8013 and Phil 75-44.

 

These clones which are recommended to undergo ecological testing are Phil 2001-27, Phil 2001-167, Phil 2001-441, Phil 2001-529, Phil 2001-575, Phil 2001-577, Phil 2001-637, Phil 2001-695, Phil 2001-829 and Phil 2001-833

 

  1. 3.    Ecological Test 1997(B) Series - Casupanan A. and  M. Guevarra

 

Eight (8) test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1997(B) Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from January 2004 to June 2006.

 

Phil 97-3501 passed the selection criteria in yield performance at Balayan and Pensumil mill districts and Phil 97-2339 in Pensumil only. Phil 97-3501 and Phil         97-2339 were resistant to downy mildew. Phil 97-2339 was resistant to smut while Phil 97-3501was susceptible. Phil 97-2339 is recommended for planting at Pensumil mill district.

 

  1. 4.    Ecological Test 1998 Series - Casupanan A., and  M. Guevarra

 

Four (4) test varieties  from the LGAREC 1998 series and control varieties Phil 8013 (standard) and local check varieties, Phil 7544 in Pampanga and Balayan and Phil 6607 in Pensumil and Carsumco were entered in the ecological test in four mill districts from January 2004 to June 2006.

 

Among the test varieties, Phil 98-1963 and Phil 98-0255 significantly out-yielded in LKg/Ha the two (2) check varieties at Balayan mill district. Phil 98-0255 is resistant to smut and downy mildew while Phil 98-1963 is susceptible to smut and downy mildew. Phil 98-0255 is recommended for planting at Balayan Mill District.

 

5.    Ecological Test 1999 Series - Del Rosario, R., V. Serrano, A. Casupanan, L. Vidallon, A Vitug & M. Guevarra 

Twelve test varieties selected by LGAREC from the 1999 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in three mill districts in Luzon from December 2004 to April 2006.

Phil 99-1549 and Phil 99-0925 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 99-1549 significantly outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga and Phil 66-07 in Carsumco mill district while Phil 99-0925 outyielded Phil 75-44 in Pampanga mill district.  Both varieties are intermediate resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 99-1549 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Carsumco and Phil 99-0925 in Pampanga.

None of the test varieties passed the criteria on yield performance for regional recommendation.

 

 

CROP PROTECTION

 

  1. 1.    Screening of Phil 2000 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane Smut caused by Ustilago scitaminea  - Vidallon, L. and M. Guevarra

 

The distribution of reactions to smut of the 52 test clones of 2000 series from LGAREC  were as follows: two, very highly resistant; one,  highly resistant; three,  resistant; nine,  intermediate resistant; six, intermediate average; four,  intermediate susceptible; nine, susceptible; four highly susceptible; and fourteen, very highly susceptible.

 

  1. 2.    Cultural Practices in the Management of Sugarcane Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis  - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

Different cultural practices in the management of sugarcane downy mildew were evaluated. The degree of infection was lower when utilizing these cultural methods rather than using seed pieces from downy mildew-infected stools.

 

In both plant and ratoon crops, percent infection was significantly higher in the non-selection of seedpieces (control) than the other treatments using resistant variety, using healthy susceptible variety + rouging and intensive weeding.

 

  1. 3.    Screening of Phil ’99 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Among the twelve (12) clones of Phil 99 series evaluated, nine were rated very highly resistant, one highly resistant, one intermediate resistant and one was highly susceptible to downy mildew.

 

The growth parameters on the various practices including the control were comparable in stalk height, diameter and weight but significantly differ in number of tillers. Seed pieces from disease-infected  stools  (control)  gave  the  least  number  of  tillers  and significantly lower TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha  than the other treatments.

 

  1. 4.    Screening of Phil ‘98 Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Of the four (4) clones of Phil ’98 series tested for resistance to downy mildew, two clones were rated highly resistant (Phil 98-0255 and Phil 98-2139) one was highly susceptible, Phil 98-1863 and one was very highly susceptible, Phil 98-3403 to downy mildew.

 

5.    Screening of Phil 1997 (B) Series for Resistance to Downy mildew caused by                   P. philippinensis - Vitug, A. and M. Guevarra

 

Of the seven (7) clones screened for resistance to downy mildew, Phil 97-1297 was rated highly resistant; Phil 97- 3041 and Phil 97-2339 were resistant; Phil 97-4151, Phil 97-3941 and Phil 97-3933 were resistant and Phil 97-2509 was susceptible.

 

  1. 6.    Screening of Phil ‘99 Series for Resistance to Sugarcane smut caused by U. scitaminea  - Vidallon, L. and  M. Guevarra

 

The reactions of 2 test clones of ‘99 series from LGAREC to sugarcane smut were as follows:

 

Resistant                             —       3

intermediate resistant         —       6

intermediate average         —       1

intermediate susceptible      —       2

 

 

AGRONOMY

 

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Furrow Arrangements in Sugarcane Growing - Burcer, A., R. del Rosario and O. Quilloy

 

The eight (8) test furrow arrangements with Phil 90-1237 as test variety were: single row 1m, 1.25m and 1.5m  apart, 4 cpts/m; 1.5m apart, 8 cpts; double rows,0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1.0m apart, 1.5m distance, 4cpts; triple rows, 0.5m apart, 1m distance and 1m apart, 1.5m distance, 4 cpts.

 

Single row 1.0m and 1.25m apart and  triple  rows 0.5. apart, 1m distance  consistently produced more millable stalks, heavier stalk and higher TC/Ha, Lkg/Ha  and ROI compared to the other furrow arrangements.

 

  1. 2.    Evaluation of  Planting Patterns in Sugarcane Growing - Guevarra, M. and S. Villasanta 

             

The  seven (7) planting patterns tested for the plant crop and three ratoon crops were single row – 1m apart, 4 canepoints/m; 1.5m apart, 4cp; 1.5m apart, 6cp; 1.5m apart, 10 cpts; and double row, 0.5m apart, triple row, 0.5m apart and quadruple row, 0.5m apart with 1.5m distance each. Test variety was Phil 8943.

 

The planting patterns gave comparable % canepoint  germination, millable stalk counts and cane yields (TC/Ha) but significantly differ in tiller counts in the plant and ratoon canes. Sugar yields  in LKg/TC among treatments significantly differ in the second ratoon while LKg/Ha were comparable in the  plant and ratoon canes. 

 

  1. 3.    Ratoon Performance of New Sugarcane HYV’s - Manlapaz, B. and J. Recuenco 

 

Among the 17 sugarcane varieties tested, Phil 8943, Phil 90-1237 gave lower percentage reduction in TC/Ha and second ratoon crops.  In terms of Lkg/TC these four (4) sugarcane varieties were significantly comparable with those sugarcane varieties with high Lkg/TC.

 

 

Soils & Plant Nutrition

 

  1. 1.    Efficacy of Fortified Digested Distillery Slops - Burcer, A. and M.  Guevarra 

 

The full dose RRFDDS was comparable with the full dose RRCF and other treatment combinations in enhancing the growth and cane yield of Phil 90-1237 in the plant and first ratoon canes. All treatment combination and control were comparable in Lkg/TC.  On sugar yield (Lkg/Ha) full dose RRFDDS was comparable with full dose RRCF, ½ dose RRCF + full dose RR  FDDS in both plant and ratoon canes.  ROI was highest at full dose RRFDDS in the plant cane and at ½ RRCF + full dose RRFDDS in the ratoon cane.

 

  1. 2.    Efficacy of Organic Fertilizer from Mill Wastes  and Distillery  Slops - Estanislao, E. and M. Guevarra

 

Organic fertilization at varying levels of N fertilization significantly affected the growth and tillering of plant cane. Organic fertilizer with 90 or 180 kg N/Ha produced the highest cane and sugar yields in the plant and ratoon canes. The treatments produced comparable sucrose content. Organic application and fertilization with  90 kg N/ha increased profitability of the plant and ratoon canes.

  1. 3.    Distillery Slops as Soaking Solution for Canepoints - Guevarra, M. and B. Manlapaz

 

Canepoints soaked in Raw DS – 3, 6,12, 24 hrs and Treated DS – 3, 6. 12, 24 and 48 hrs gave comparable percent germination with water and significantly higher than the untreated.  The treatments were comparable in stalk height and stalk diameter. Raw DS-12 hrs and Treated DS – 12 and 24 hrs -had significantly more millable stalks/plot than water and untreated.

 

Treated DS-6, 12 and 24 hours were significantly higher on TC/Ha than the control.     Treatments were comparable on Lkg/TC.  Only Treated DS – 12 hrs gave significantly     higher Lkg/Ha than water and the untreated.

 

  1. 4.    Nitrogen Fertilization of Sugarcane for Cutback Canepoint Production - Guevarra. M. and B. Manlapaz 

 

In the plant and first ratoon crops, application of 80 to 110 kg N/ha gave comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60 and 70 kg N/ha.  In the  second ratoon crop, 90 to 110 kg N/ha had comparable canepoint yield which were higher than 60, 70 and 80 kg N/ha.

 

The 90 kg N/ha level gave the highest return on equity in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops.

 

  1. 5.    Refinement of P & K Fertilizer Recommendation - Quilloy, O. and  B. Manlapaz

 

Phosphorus and K uptake by the sugarcane plant were not always associated with P & K fertility of the soil.  Significant correlation of P uptake with rates of P2O5 fertilization was observed only at Bautista’s Farm and K uptake with K2O fertilization at LAREC and Coral’s Farm.  The experimental data showed inconsistent observations on soil test values, nutrient uptake and yield response of sugarcane to varying levels of P2O5 and K2O fertilization in the different test sites. Laboratory analysis of available P and exchangeable K in the soil and leaf uptake of P and K can not be relied in assessing the P and K needs of sugarcane.  Field testing on phosphate and potash fertilizer is a better option in determining the P2O5 and K2O fertilizer needs for optimum yields of sugarcane plant and ratoon crops.

 

  1. 6.    Productivity  Improvement  of  Sugarcane Using  Processed Septage and Biosolids - Quilloy, O.  and    B. Manlapaz  

                     

Sugarcane yields and profitability were increased with the application of processed septage and biosolids at varying rates of urea fertilization. Yields obtained from 170 kg/ha N fertilization were statistically comparable with the 100 m3/ha processed septage applied alone or supplemented with urea.  Improvement of sugarcane yields with biosolids fertilization was observed only when urea was supplemented to the organic waste applied at 5 tons/ha.

 

In the succeeding ratoon crop, sugarcane yields and farm incomes were higher when the plant cane was fertilized with 100 m3/ha processed septage and urea.  Higher production and profit were attained when biosolids were applied at 10 T/ha.  Residual effect on soil fertility with biosolids was more pronounced than processed septage application.

 

 

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

  

Agronomy Department

 

1.    Ratoon  Performance  of  New  Sugarcane  HYV’s  (Phil 92 and Phil 93 Series Varieties) - Jean C. Nierves and Cresenciana L. Morales

 

The study was conducted at SRA LGAREC Station, La Granja, La Carlota City from December 2002 to December 2005 to determine the ratoon performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series.  The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times using 5m x 6m experimental plots.

Phil 92-0051 consistently obtained higher cane tonnage and sucrose content than the other varieties tested from 1st up to the 3rd ratoons and up to the 2nd ratoon in sugar yield.

 

Generally, ratooning decreased tonnage and sugar yields of the tested varieties after the third ratoon and LKg/TC increased only up to 2nd ratoon.

 

Based on the results, Phil 92-0051 is the only variety that consistently increased in TC/Ha and LKg/TC up to the 3rd ratoon and sugar yield up to the 2nd ratoon.

 

  1. 2.    Degree of Land Preparation and its Effects on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoon Crop - D. A. De Los Santos and M. L. C. Almodiente 

 

A study was conducted to find out the influence of the degree of land preparation and the frequency of cultivation on Phil 93-3727 ratoon cane. Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare interaction among treatments.

 

Results showed that degree of land preparation and frequency of cultivation did not significantly affect the tiller number, plant height, stalk length and stalk diameter of ratoon cane.  Other parameters such as number of millable stalks and weight per plot significantly differed with the degree of land preparation specifically treatment L4 using 2 tractor plowing, sub-soiling, and tow tractor harrowing. This treatment also produced higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha than the rest of the treatments.  Treatment L5 using two carabao plowing and two carabao harrowing gave the lowest cane and sugar yields.  LKG/TC was not affected by any degree of land preparations and frequency of cultivation.

 

Good ratoon stand is influence by the degree of land preparation specifically the use of two tractor plowing, subsoiling and two tractors harrowing while frequency of cultivation did not significantly influence ratoon cane and sugar yields.

 

  1. 3.    Evaluation of Micropropagated Plantlets at Different Cycles of Multiplication - T.D. Macuro and C. L. Morales 

 

This study employed 2-D electrophoresis technique in evaluating micropropagated plantlets at different cycles of multiplication to determine their homogeneity and variability. It utilizes protein separation procedures based on solubility differences as function of pH and ionic strength.

 

The isoelectric pH’s of extracted proteins for both Phil 8013 and Phil 92-0913 microplantlets produced in each cycle of multiplication were found to be comparable, hence regenerated plantlets produced in every cycle were considered to be homogenous.  Statistical data show that Phil 94-0913 microplantlets produced in cycles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 were statistically comparable with each other; hence uniformity and homogeneity among regenerated plantlets or cultivars are assured.  For Phil 8013, microplantlets produced in cycles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were found to be comparable; hence uniformity and homogeneity of cultivars are assured.

 

Protein extracted from different sugarcane varieties used in this study has IE values in the range of 6.45 – 7. 65.  The amino acids actively present in extracted proteins could be phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, threonine, cysteine, glycine or serine.  Molecular weight of extracted protein could also be determined based on IE values of extracted protein.

 

 

SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    The Effect of Humic Acid on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane - R. M. Bombio, G. L. Talam, S. B. Tahum, N .D. Navarro and R. E. Tapay 

 

The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to test the efficacy of granular humic acid on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913 sugarcane variety.

 

Application of 2 bags humic acid per hectare in addition to the recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis improved the yield of Phil 94-0913 by about 14.89 LKg/Ha with a corresponding net benefit of Php 8,354.24.

Application of 2 bags humic acid alone or in combination with 8 bags urea did not improve but otherwise decreased the yield.

 

It is therefore recommended that humic acid should not be applied alone, but should be combined with recommended rate of fertilizer based on soil analysis, so that balance amount of nutrients will be provided to the sugarcane plants for a higher sugar yield.

 

Soil analysis of the experimental area after harvest showed that organic matter percentages of all fertilized plots were comparable, and significantly higher than the untreated plots.  Results indicated that applied fertilizer alone or in combination with humic acid produced a higher biomass that eventually decomposed to improve the organic matter of the soil or the applied humic acid left a residual amount for the succeeding sugarcane crop.

 

  1. 2.    The Effect of Duofos Phosphate on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, N.D. Navarro and R.E. Tapay 

 

The experiment was laid out in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2004 to November 2005 to evaluate the effect of Duofos phosphate on the growth and yield of Phil 94-0913.

Duofos phosphate as source of P fertilizer for Phil 94-0913 gave comparable results with the application of 18-46-0.  Both fertilizer sources were significantly higher than the unfertilized control.

In comparison with the recommended rate of 18-46-0, highest saving per hectare in the amount of Php 3,374.80 was obtained with the application of 3 bags Duofos phosphate.  This is equivalent to about 25.38% saving in terms of fertilizer input.

 

Available soil P analysis of the soil samples after harvest were comparable with the unfertilized plot, therefore it is recommended that Duofos phosphate will be applied every cropping, to provide the phosphorous requirement of the sugarcane plants.

 

  1. 3.    Indigenous Organic Materials for Fertility Improvement of Guimbalaon Soil  - R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum

 

To survive in a sugarcane farming business nowadays, there is a need to reduce production cost but maintain the high productivity of your farm. Thus, many farmers are now utilizing indigenous soil amendments to supplement or substitute the high cost of inorganic fertilizer.  The Department of Soils & Plant Nutrition laid out a demo-project last July 2004 at SRA, La Granja, La Carlota City, to showcase the effects of different indigenous fertilizer materials for sugarcane production. It is a long term demo-project that will eventually help determine the build-up of organic matter in the soil and the availability of other essential elements for sustainable sugarcane production.

 

Although yield results among various treatments were not significantly different, the highest LKg/TC was obtained by applying the recommended rate of lime plus the recommended rate of NPK.  The highest tonnage however, was obtained by applying the recommended rate of rock phosphate as source of P plus the recommended rate of N and K.  Stalk length and weight per stalk of plants treated with rock phosphate plus N and K were longer and heavier, the reasons why highest LKg/Ha of 201.93 was obtained from this treatment.  The average sugar yield of the various fertilization packages is 184 LKg/Ha.  Using rock phosphate as source of P fertilizer could give as much as Php 81,000 net benefit.

 

  1. 4.    Influence of Time of Fertilization and Age at Harvest on Growth and Yield of Phil 94-0913 - R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro

 

To determine the proper age at harvest of Phil 94-0913 in relation to the time of 2nd dose N & K fertilization, two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja City from January 2004 to December 2005.

 

Insignificant results were noted in the growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter, weight/stalk, total millable stalks as well as in TC/Ha.  LKG/TC and LKG/Ha among the different period of 2nd dose N & K fertilization in relation to the age at harvest in both plant and ratoon crop.

 

However, regardless of fertilization timing, cane aged 11 months produced high sucrose content than canes harvested at aged 10 or 12 months.

 

A significant decline in tonnage per hectare of 8.7% & 15.9%, and 14.2% and 30.4% in LKg/Ha was noted at canes harvested earlier than 11 months or a month later, respectively.

 

In ratoon, although insignificant, cane fertilized with ½ N & K, 2 months after ratooning, seemed to produce more tonnage than at fertilization full dose or ½ N & K applied later than 3-5 months after stubble shaving.

 

Regardless, of fertilization timing, cane aged 12 months produced the highest tonnage/sugar yield (98.72 TC/Ha / 223.44 LKg/Ha) comparable with cane aged 11 months (95.88 TC/Ha / 219.29 LKg/Ha).  The lowest was at cane aged 10 months (91.17 TC/HA / 202.62 LKg/Ha).

 

Second dose fertilization at 2 months in both plant & ratoon crop, harvested at 11 months, consistently obtained the highest cane & sugar yield which was reflected in the net profit, giving the highest ROI of 254.3% in plant cane & 251.10% in ratoon crop.

 

Generally, cane aged 11 months, regardless of fertilization timing, obtained the highest average mean ROI of 242.34% in plant cane and 221.30% in ratoon crop.  Cane aged 12 months got the lowest ROI in plant crop (151.36%), while in ratoon crop the lowest was at cane aged 10 months (201.64%).

 

 

Breeding & Genetics Department

 

  1. 1.    Pollination, Sowing and Seedling Care, Phil 2005 Series - R.T. Harder, L.E. Aloro and R.T. Armones 

 

Flowering of parental clones and varieties in the 2005 breeding season was early and of long duration with intense full emergence during the third week of October to the first three days of November, 2005.

 

A total of 479 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were pollinated from October 14 to November 25, 2005 using 97 selected female and 69 male parents.  From these, 475 arrows from 332 bi-parental crosses were harvested.

 

Sowing of fuzz which was done from November 18 to December 23, 2005 resulted in the germination of seedlings in 329 bi-parental crosses consisting of 472 arrows. Medium to good germination was observed in 90 percent of the bi-parental crosses while 10% had poor germination. Seedlings in the 172 bi-parental crosses which were overcrowded were pricked in 588 seedboxes. Proper care and maintenance were given to seedlings grown in 892 seedboxes. This includes regular watering, fertilization, spraying of insecticides and fungicides, trimming of leaves, weeding and cultivation.


 

  1. II.    INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

      Development Projects

 

  1. 1.    An update on Economic Hauling Distance

 

A technical survey which looked at the economic hauling distance based on the industry’s existing transport system, hauling costs, processing costs and price of sugar and molasses.

 

  1. 2.    Update on Energy Consumption

This study came-up with an updated Specific Energy Consumption of Philippine Sugar Mills.  The data would be of use to gauge the energy efficiency of mills and would also serve as inputs to further energy-related studies.

 

  1. 3.    Annual Compendium of Philippines Sugar Refineries 2003

 

This is an annual publication which contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance of all operating sugar refineries in the Philippines.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2005)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2005)

I.              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

A.           LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Evaluation of  Different  Rates of  Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons -  A. Burcer, R.  del Rosario, M. Guevarra and O.  Quilloy 

 

Planting rate from 30,000 to 40,000 canepoints/ha of Phil 90-1237produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints/ha. The treatment using chipped-tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops. Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers produced the highest return on investment (ROI).

 

2.    Variety Performance at Different Seasons of Planting – B. Manlapaz and M. Guevarra

 

Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early, mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKg/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKg/TC significantly differ.  Season of planting means for TC/Ha of early planting was significantly higher than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKg/Ha means of seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant interaction between varieties and season of planting on LKg/Ha.

 

3.    Variety Performance at Different  Ages of Harvest – M. Guevarra and B.  Manlapaz

 

The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091,  Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil p3-1601,Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-0913,  VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/Ha when harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the  aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha at 12 and  14 MAP and significantly higher LKg/TC at 12 MAP.

 

4.    Evaluation of  Leguminous Cultivars as  Green Manures for Sugarcane  – E. Estanislao

 

Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and Colopogonium caerulum manuring with or without N  fertilization.  Green manuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

 

5.    Efficiency of  Fertilizer  Usage on Sugarcane – A.  Magnaye 

 

Fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose at early and late planting seasons  did not produce significant differences in growth and cane and sugar  yields.

 

6.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut Caused by  Ustilago scitaminea  Sydow  – L. Vidallon,   A.  Casupanan and M.  Guevarra

 

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments. Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging  gave higher TC/Ha and LKg/Ha. In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha than strict selection + farmer’s cultural practices  and intensive weeding.  LKg/TC did not significantly differ among the treatments in both crops.

 

The LKg/Ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than strict selection of healthy seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmers cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKg/Ha.

 

7.    Cultural Practices for the Management of  Lesion  Nematodes  – J. Recuenco

 

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting. Pratylenchus populations of  plots treated with Furadan and applied with mudpress  were comparable and were significantly lower than  those where trashes were burned and those  treated  with Durabloom.

 

Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly at 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after ratooning.  Pratylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes with an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample. Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

8.    Phil 1996 Series Ecological Tests at SRA LAREC, Batangas, Pensumil-Camarines Sur and Carsumco-Cagayan – V. Serrano and  M. Guevarra

 

Thirteen test varieties selected  from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

 

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane. It significantly outyielded the local check variety Phil 66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. This variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

 

However, none passed the selection criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

9.    Phil 1997  Series  Ecological Test – Set A  – V. Serrano and M.  Guevarra

 

Fourteen test varieties selected from the 1997 Series  Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

 

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating. Phil 97-1391 significantly outyielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2383 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

 

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded  either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

 

None passed the criteria  for regional recommendation.

 

10.  Preliminary  Yield  Test of Phil  2000 series  -  A. Casupanan  and   M. Guevarra 

 

Fifty-two test clones from the Phil 2000 series row test  with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid-out in RCBD at LAREC.  Agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at  LAREC

 

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and Lkg/Ha with the check varieties. Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

11.  Improvement of Phil 56226  through induced mutation -  V. Serrano,   M. Guevarra , A.  Burcer  and J.  Recuenco  

 

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kr to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

 

Selections from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years. After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control. No selections from Phil 85-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired. A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

 

 

12.  Screening of  Phil 1997-A Series Clones for  Resistance to Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora  philippinensis A. Vitug  and  M.  Guevarrra 

 

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 25  were rated  very highly resistant (Phil 97-0707, 0673, 1125, 0891, 0821, 0729, 0671, 1643, 0609, 0665, 1019, 2259, 2339, 2141, 0239, 0029, 2039, 0051, 0407, 0099, 0207, 2059, 2041, 0527 and 1029), 12 were highly resistant (Phil 97-0117, 1215, 1523, 0693, 0793, 3315, 0021, 2015, 0411, 2383, 2709 and 0529), 6 were resistant        (Phil 97-0727, 0045, 0097, 1901, 1123 and 0202), 6 were intermediate resistant (Phil 97-0855, 2343, 0687, 1351, 1861 and 2135) and the rest had from  intermediate susceptible to very highly susceptible reaction.

 

13.  Screening of  Phil 1997-B series  and Phil 1998  Series Clones  for Resistance to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitamineaL. Vidallon  and  M.  Guevarra  

 

Among the six clones of 1997 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the four clones of 1998 series tested for smut reaction, only Phil 98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.

 

In both tests, smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

 

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Ecological Test of 1996 SeriesV.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Thirteen test varieties were selected by LAREC and LGAREC from the 1996 series Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill district in Luzon from December 2001 to April 2005.

Only Phil 96-3263 passed the selection criteria on yield performance and disease rating in the plant cane.  It significantly out yielded the local check variety Phil-66-07 in sugar yield in Pensumil and was rated moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew. The variety is recommended for planting in the district of Pensumil.

However, none passed the selection criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 2.    Ecological Test of Phil 1997 Series: Set A – V.A. Serrano & M.M. Guevarra

Fourteen test varieties selected by LGAREC and LAREC from the 1997 Preliminary Yield Test were entered in the Ecological Test in four mill districts in Luzon from November 2002 to April 2005.

Phil 97-1391 and Phil 97-2383 passed the selection criteria in yield performance and disease rating.  Phil 97-1391 significantly out yielded both check varieties in Pampanga and the local check Phil 90-1237 in Balayan. Phil 97-2383 outyielded Phil 90-1237 in Balayan.  Both varieties are moderately resistant to smut and downy mildew.  Phil 97-1391 is recommended for planting in Pampanga and Balayan while Phil 97-2382 is recommended for planting in Balayan.

Phil 97-3315, Phil 97-2041, Phil 97-1215, Phil 97-0727 and Phil 97-2039 also passed the criteria in yield performance but failed in disease reaction.  These varieties are recommended for re-screening to smut using the dipping method.  Varieties that passed the re-screening will be recommended for planting in the district where they outyielded either the local or standard check in sugar yield.

None passed the criteria for regional recommendation.

  1. 3.    Preliminary Yield Test of 2000 Series – A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

Fifty two test clones from the 2000 row test series with two check varieties, Phil 8013 and Phil 7544 were entered in the preliminary yield test laid out in RCBD at LAREC.  Actual agronomic/yield performance and disease reaction were compared under natural field condition at LAREC.

Nine clones were comparable on TC/Ha and LKG/Ha with the check varieties, Phil 7544 and Phil 8013.  Recommended for ecological testing are Phil 00-0637, Phil 00-0647, Phil 00-1429, Phil 00-2435, Phil 00-2425, Phil 00-1901, Phil 00-0993, Phil 00-1937 and Phil 00-1323.

  1. 4.    Improvement of Phil 56226 Through Induced Mutation – V.A. Serrano, M.M. Guevarra, A.M. Burcer and J.D. Recuenco

Shoot tips of two commercial varieties Phil 56226 and Phil 8583 were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 2 to 5 kg to induce mutation for smut resistance and improved yield performance.

Selection from the second vegetative mutation generation (MV2) based on smut resistance were multiplied and studied for their stability for two years.  After the first ratoon in the preliminary yield test, one selection, Phil 56226-51 showed resistance to smut but with no yield improvement compared with the control.  No selection from Phil 53-83 possessed the agronomic traits desired.  A wider range of mutagen treatment and larger population may be needed to obtain mutants with desirable characteristics.

  1. 5.    Screening of 1997 – A Series for Resistance to Downy Mildew – A. Vitug and M.M. Guevarra

Among the fifty six clones of Phil 97 (A) series tested for their reactions to downy mildew, 49 were rated from intermediate resistant to very highly resistant, 2 were highly susceptible, 1 was highly susceptible and 4 were intermediate susceptible.

  1. 6.    Screening of 1997 –B Series for Resistance to Smut – L.Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Among the six clones of ’97 series screened for resistance to smut, only Phil 97-4151 was rated very highly resistant while the other five were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane then in plant cane.

  1. 7.    Screening of 1998 Series for Resistance to Smut – L.S. Vidallon and M.M. Guevarra

Of the four clones of 1998 series from LGAREC tested for smut reaction, only  98-2137 showed intermediate resistant reaction while the others were very highly susceptible.  Smut infection was higher in ratoon cane than in plant cane.

 

EFFICIENT FARMING SYSTEMS

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Rates of Planting and Kinds of Replanting Materials on Cane and Sugar Yields of Ratoons - A.M. Burcer, R.A. del Rosario, M.M. Guevarra and O.T. Quilloy

Planting rate from 20,000-40,000 canepoints per hectare with Phil 90-1237 produced significantly higher cane and sugar yields than 20,000 canepoints.  The treatment using chipped tillers as replanting materials gave significantly higher cane tonnage and sugar yield compared with the use of 3-eye canepoints and 1-eye pre-germinated seedlings in the first and second ratoon crops.  Replanting the ratoon crops with chipped tillers also produced the highest return on investment (ROI) in ratooned canes.

  1. 2.    Variety Performance at different season of planting and age of harvesting – M.M. Guevarra and B.G. Manlapaz

Study 1.  The 14 test varieties (Phil 90-1237, Phil 91-1091, Phil 92-0051, Phil 92-0751, Phil 093-3849, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 93-3727, Phil 93-3155, Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-2349, Phil 94-1913. VMC 84-524, VMC 86-550 and VMC 87-599) planted in March (late planting season) gave comparable canepoint germination, TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha.  When harvested at 10, 12 and 14 months after planter (MAP).  Variety means significantly differ in all the aforementioned parameters.  Age of harvesting means gave significantly higher TC/Ha and LKG/Ha at 12 and 14 MAP and significantly higher LKG/TC at 12 MAP

Study 2.  Percent germination of 14 test varieties significantly differ with season of planting (early mid and late planting season).  TC/Ha and LKG/TC of the varieties were statistically comparable at different seasons of planting.  Variety means for TC/Ha and LKG/TC significantly differ than those in mid and late planting seasons.  LKG means seasons of planting were significantly different.  There was a significant between varieties and season of planting on LKG/Ha.

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Leguminous Cultivars as Green Manures for Sugarcane – E.B. Estanislao

Study 1.  Evaluation of Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum as Green Manure of Sugarcane.

Study 2.  Evaluation of Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium caeruleum as Green Manure Crop of Sugarcane.  Cane and sugar yields were increased by Centrosema pubescens and COlopogonium Caerulum with or without N fertilization.  In contrast, green mannuring with Pucraria phaseloides and Centrosema macrocarpum produced comparable cane and sugar yield with control.

  1. 2.    Efficiency of Fertilizer Usage on Sugacane – A.A. Magnaye

Application of fertilizer whether applied in full or split dose with different methods did not produce significant differences in growth and yield data.  Although the results were comparable it showed that a combination of the methods of application whether applied during early and late planting seasons produced high tonnage and sugar yield.

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

  1. 1.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Sugarcane Smut, Ustilago scitaminea Sydow – L.S. Vidallon, A.M. Casupanan and M.M. Guevarra

The effects of different cultural practices in the management of smut on percent infection and yields of Phil 8715 were evaluated.

In the plant crop, percent smut infection was significantly higher in the control (non-selection of seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices) than the other treatments.  Smut infections were comparable in the ratoon crop.  Strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices + rouging gave the lowest TC/Ha and LKG/ha.  In the plant cane, the control gave significantly lower TC/Ha that strict5 selection + farmer’s cultural practices and intensive weeding, LKG/TC did not significantly differ.  The LKG/ha in the plant cane of the control was significantly lower than the strict selection seedpieces + intensive weeding but comparable with strict selection of healthy seedpieces + farmer’s cultural practices.  In the ratoon cane, no significant differences occurred on LKG/Ha.

  1. 2.    Cultural Practices for the Management of Lesion Nematodes – J.D. Recuenco.

Application of cultural practices showed highly significant differences in the lesion nematode populations six months after planting.  Pratylenchus populations of plots treated with Furadan and applied with Furadan with mudpress were comparable and were significantly lower than those trashes were burned and those treated with Durabloom.

In the ratoon canes, Pratylenchus populations in the different cultural practices applied differ significantly 5, 6, 8 and 12 months after rationing.  Patylenchus adults were 17.64% higher in the ratoon canes than in the plant canes and had an average of 189.29 per 200 grams soil sample.  Mudpress application and Furadan treatment had 30.80% lower nematode populations than burning of trashes and treatment with Durabloom.

 

B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patters on Plant Cane and Ratoons – D.A. delos Santos, T.B. Banas, M.L.C. Almodiente and M.T. D. Alejendrino

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns on three croppings of Phil. 8943.  There were eight (8) furrow spacing used.  Growth measurements and yield were taken to compare each treatment.  Result on plant cane showed highest number of tillers from the .75 m furrow spacing although comparable with other treatments.  Other parameters such as length and diameter at harvest were comparable.  Yield in LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha were also comparable.

On first ratoon crop, statistically highest tiller count was obtained from the .75 m spacing.  At harvest however, stalks lengths ,diameter and number of millable stalks gave comparable results.   The same was observed on LKG/TC, LKG/Ha and TC/Ha. Almost the same trend was observed on the second ratoon crop.

The highest returns of investment (ROI) in plant cane, first and second ratoon were obtained in 1.5 m (40,000 population density), 1.5 m (66,666) and 1 m (40,000), respectively.

Generally 1 m spacing proved to be economically advantageous, however, for purposes of trash mulching and intercropping other row schemes such as double triple and quadruple rows are recommended.

  1. 2.    Effect of De-trashing Standing Canes on Sugarcane Yield  – T.S. Jereza, D.A. delos Santos

To generate information on the effect of de-trashing standing canes on the growth and yield of sugarcane, the study was conducted at LGAREC in December 2003 to December 2004.

Results showed that the number of millable stalks of Phil 93-3727 increase when detrashed at 9 and 21 months after planting (MAP).  Significant difference was also observed on plant height when the canes were de-trashed at 9 and 12 MAP.

Sugar yield per hectare (LKG/ha) significantly increased when de-trashing was done at harvest and when canes were de-trashed monthly starting at 8 months until harvest.

Other growth and yield parameter such as stalk length and diameter, tonnage (TC/Ha) and sugar per ton cane (LKG/TC) were either comparable and/or not significant among treatments.

Based on the findings of the study de-trashing of standing canes should be done at harvest for clean cane delivery to mills thus increasing sugar recovery.

  1. 3.    Monitoring of Released Micropropagated Plantlets to Different Planters/recipients M.T.D. Alejandrino, C.L. Morales, T.B. Banas and D.A. delos Santos

A total of 289,000 Phil 94-0913 micropropagated plantlets were released to twelve (12) planters/recipients from nine (9) different mill districts.

Of the seven recipients who have already cutbacked their microplantlets, an average of 79.30% survival rate was observed.  The highest survival rate of 98.0% was observed at DMC Farms (Kabankalan City) and Had. Bayabas (Cadiz City) and the lowest was at 30.0% at ELRO, Had. Valencia (Bais City).  ELRO got the lowest survival rate because the microplantlets were unloaded from the truck three (3) days after release which resulted to high mortality of plantlets.

There were not much of pests and diseases except for minimal occurrence of borers, downy mildew and rust which were controlled also by the planters/recipients.

An average of 21.13 lacsas were produced by the different planters/recipients.  ELRO, Had. Valencia of Bais City has the lowest production (7.0 lacsas) while Had Bayabas, Cadiz City had the highest production of 39 lacsas.

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3727 Plant Cane and Ratoon to Varying NPK Fertilization and Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 93-3155 & Phil 93-3727 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 93-3727 plant cane was laid-out on October 2002 and Phil 93-3155 was on November 2002.

Phil 93-3155.  Significant variations in tonnage and LKG/ha of Phil 93-3155 plant cane was due to the significant differences in stalk length and total millable stalks as influenced by nitrogen.  The longest canes and the highest total millable stalks were obtained from the 150N treatment resulting to a high TC/Ha of this N treatment.  The highest cane yield (109.06 TC/Ha) and sugar yield (245.62 LKG/ha) of newly planted Phil 93-3155 obtained at 150 kg N/Ha were comparable with 50 and 200 kg N/Ha but significantly higher than 100 kg N/Ha.  Application of 50, 100 and 200 kg N/Ha also gave comparable tonnage and LKG/Ha.  Cane and sugar yield of all nitrogen treated plots were significantly higher than the 0 N treatment. Nitrogen rates did not anymore influenced the cane and sugar yield of Phil 93-3155 during the ratoon crop.  Sugar rendement (LKG/TC) was not significantly affected by N fertilization in both plant and ratoon cropping.

Phosphorous and potassium did not influence the yield on Phil 93-3155 in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendement (LKG/TC) and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) among various P and K treatments did not differ significantly.

Phil 93-3727.  Except in weight per stalk, growth parameters such as stalk length, stalk diameter and total number millable stalks were comparable among the different N rates in both plant cane and ratoon crop.  Heaviest stalk was observed at 200 kg N/Ha, comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha, significantly heavier than 50 kg N/ha and without N.

Phil 93-3727 (PC) fertilized with 200 kg N/Ha obtained a significantly higher sugar yield ILKG/Ha) due to high tonnage per hectare produced.  This result however, was comparable with 100 and 150 kg/ha, significantly higher than fertilization of 0 and 50 kg/ha.  In ratoon crop, tonnage (TC/Ha –and sugar yield (LKG/Ha) regardless of rates did not suffer significantly, however significantly higher than without N.

Nitrogen fertilization did not influence the quality of juice (LKG/TC) extracted among the different treatments.

Varying levels of phosphorous and potassium, did not affect the yield of Phil-93-3727.  Differences in the cane yield (TC/Ha), LKG/TC and LKG/Ha were not significant among treatments.

The highest net benefit in the plant cane was obtained using 150 kg N/Ha giving an ROI of 62.20%.  In ratoon crop, N fertilization at 100 kg N/Ha gave the highest net benefit with an ROI of 73.64%.

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 94-0913 Plant Cane and Ratoon Crop to Varying NPK Fertilization on Guimbalaon Clay Loam – R.M. Bombio, G.L. Talam, S.B. Tahum, et al

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA –LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City to evaluate the response of Phil 94-0913 plant cane and ratoon crop to varying levels of NPK fertilization.  Phil 94-0913 plant cane was laid-out on November 2002 and harvested November 2003 while the ratoon crop was started November 2003 and harvested October 2004.

Phil 94-0913 plant cane gave the highest yield of 188.79 TC/Ha and 401.03 LKG/Ha at 150 kg N/Ha in combination with 150 kg/Ha P2O5 and 300 kg/Ha K2O.  These yield results were comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.  P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence the yield of Phil 94-0913 plant cane.

Highest TC/Ha of Phil 94-0913 ratoon was obtained at 150-150-300 kg/Ha NPK while the highest LKg/Ha was observed at 200 kg/Ha NPK.  Both yield data were comparable with 100 kg/Ha NPK.  P2O5 fertilization gave significant yield at 150 kg/Ha, compare with 200 kg/ha.  K2O had no significant influence on yield of Phil 94-0913 ratoon.

Sugar segment (LKG/TC) of both plant and ratoon crops of Phil 94-0913 were not influence by NPK fertilization.

Highest net benefit and return on investment (OI) derived from nitrogen fertilization of Phil 94-0913 plant cane was attained at 150 kg N/Ha at constant rate of P2O5 and K2O (150 and 300 kg/Ha, respectively).

Phil 94-0913 ratoon obtained the highest net benefit and OI at 200 kg/Ha N and 150 kg/Ha.  P2O5 at constant rate.

  1. 3.    Effect of Humus 56.9 WSG and Nitrofert (Liquid Fertilizers) on the Growth and Yield of Sugarcane – R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and S.B. Tahum

Early growth results showed that HUMUS + nitrofert alone or in combination with ½ of the recommended rate improved the germination percentage as well as tiller number of Phil 93-3849.

Yield results indicated that application of HUMUS + nitrofert alone improved the yield of sugarcane by about 10.92 LKG/Ha over the control.  When combined with ½ of the recommended rate of fertilization improvement was 15.06 LKG/Ha against the ½ RR alone.  In contrast, when HUMUS + nitrofert was applied together with the full recommended rate fertilizer, yields tended to decrease when compared to full R alone.

Based on the results, it is therefore recommended that HUMUS + nitrofert should be applied together with only ½ of the fertilization recommendation to be effective.  To minimize fertilizer cost combined application of HUMUS + Nitrofert and only ½ of the recommended rate of fertilizer is likewise recommended.

Futhermore, since no residual nutrients were detected on the soil analysis after the harvest of the plant crop, the same amount of HUMUS + Nitrofert will be applied together with ½ of the fertilizer recommendation, if ratoon crop will be continued.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

  1. 1.    Downy Mildew Resistance Test Phil 2001 Series from Row Test (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 61 clones plant cane tested against downy mildew of sugarcane, 42 were very highly resistant, 8 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible to the disease.  In the ratoon crop, 25 clones were very highly resistant, 13 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 2 intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 1 susceptible and 5 very highly susceptible.

  1. 2.    Smut Resistance Test Phil 1999 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 5 clones plant cane tested against smut of sugarcane, 1 was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average and 1 susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 1 clone was very highly resistant, 1 resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 3.    Phil 2000 Series at PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 48 clones plant cane tested, 5 were very highly resistant, 7 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 4 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 4 clone were very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 3 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 6 highly susceptible and 6 very highly susceptible.

  1. 4.    Phil 1999 and 2002 Series at Row Test – N.S. Meneses

Two (2) clone of the 1999 series were rated highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible to the disease.  For 2002 series, 17 clones were rated very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 25 resistant, 9 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and resistant and 33 very highly susceptible to the disease.

  1. 5.    Yellow Spot Resistance Test Phil-1997-1998 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against yellow spot or sugarcane, 1 was resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 3 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series plant cane, 1 was highly resistant, 1 resistant, 3 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 4 susceptible and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 2 clones were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 2 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.  For 1998 series ratoon, 2 were intermediate resistant, 2 intermediate average, 4 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 3 very highly susceptible.

  1. 6.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane and Ratoon) – N.S. Meneses

Out of 40 clones plant cane tested, 1 was resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 5 susceptible, 4 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 3 clones were intermediate resistant, 8 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible, 7 susceptible, 3 highly susceptible and 18 very highly susceptible.

  1. 7.    Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.V. Estioko

The 1997 series clone was rated intermediate resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane.  Two (2) clones of the 1999 series were intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.  Of the 2000 series clone 1 was rated vey highly resistant, 5 highly resistant, 7 resistant, 16 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible and 1 very highly susceptible.

  1. 8.    Leaf Scorch Resistance Test Phil 1997-1998 Series PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 12 clones of 1997 series plant cane tested against leaf scorch or sugarcane, 8 were highly resistant, 3 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series plant cane, 10 were highly resistant, 1 intermediate and 1 intermediate average.  In the ratoon crop of 1997 series, 7 clones were highly resistant, 4 intermediate resistant and 1 intermediate average.  For 1998 series ratoon, 8 were highly resistant, 2 intermediate resistant and 2 intermediate average.

  1. 9.    Phil 1999 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane & Ratoon) – R.G. Entima

Of the 40 clones plant cane tested, 13 were highly resistant, 19 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average and 1 highly susceptible.  In the ratoon crop, 5 clones were highly resistant, 20 intermediate resistant, 10 intermediate average, 2 intermediate susceptible and 3 highly susceptible.

  1. 10.  Phil 1997, 1999 and 2000 Series from PYT Stage (Plant Cane) – R.G. Entima

The 1997 series clone was related intermediate resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane.  Of the 4 clones of the 1999 series, 2 were highly resistant while the others were intermediate resistant.  Thirty seven clones of the 2000 series were highly resistant to leaf scorch of sugarcane, 7 intermediate resistant and 3 intermediate average.

  1. II.        INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (IR&D)

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

  1. 1.    Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2004)

 

To apprise the sugar industry technocrat on the preceding milling season’s milling status, performance, recent development in processing, problems, constraints and breakthroughs.  The review’s findings will serve as important reference for the industrial and agricultural sectors in improving their productivity and efficiency levels.

2.   Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2005)

                  Same as above but contains data for the year 2005

  1. 3.     Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data CY 2003-2004

 

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers

Abstract of Completed Researches (2004)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2004)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Evaluation of Different Harvesting and Post-harvest Practices on Yield of Sugarcane – A.  Burcer,  R. del Rosario,  M. Guevarra and O. Quilloy.

                 

The study assessed losses in cane weight and sugar rendement (Lkg/TC) due to some harvesting and post harvest practices in  two sugarcane varieties, Phil 8715 and Phil 90-1237 and estimated losses in sugar yield per hectare (Lkg/Ha) based on data generated.

 

Canes cut at  6 inches above the base produced significant mean stalk weight loss compared to canes cut to the base.  Phil 8715 tend to produce higher stalk weight loss and lower Lkg/TC loss compared to Phil 90-1237.

 

Mean total trashes in a cane stalk was about 17.8%.  Trashy canes were significantly heavier than clean canes but Lkg/TC were lower.  Phil 8715 contained higher trashes and had higher losses in Lkg/TC.

 

The more cane tops removed the lower was the cane weight and the higher was the Lkg/TC.

 

Significant mean weight loss in green cane stalks topped and left standing in the field occurred after 15 days.  Apparent purity significantly decreased after 15 days on Phil 8715 and after 3 days on Phil 90-1237.  Significant losses in Lkg/TC occurred after 15 days and 6 days on Phil 8715 and Phil 90-1237, respectively.

 

Weight, apparent purity and Lkg/TC of green cane stalks cut and piled in the field and burned cane stalks cut and filed or left standing in the field of the two varieties decreased with prolonged number of days of delay in harvesting/milling.

 

Estimated loss in Lkg/Ha due to cutting 6 inches above the base of stalk was 11.86%  while  removal  of  2  and  3  top  points  had 7.22 and 26.22%, respectively.  Estimated  loss  in  Lkg/Ha  due  to trashes ranged from 3.09 to 8.70%.

Delay in milling of green cane stalks topped and left standing from 3 to 20 days gave Lkg/Ha losses from 4.01 to 35.22%.   Lkg/Ha losses with delay in milling from 3 to 15 days of green canes cut and piled in the field, burned canes cut and piled and burned canes left standing were 7.49% -50.69 %, 2.20 -100% and 0.20 – 98%, respectively.

 

2.    Use  of  Enerplant as Growth Hormone on Sugarcane -  B. Manlapaz  and  O. Quilloy    

 

The effects on growth and yield of sugarcane of Enerplant growth regulator in combination with varying levels of nitrogen was tested  in Angeles loamy sand.

 

Germination of canepoints among treatments which ranged from 86 to 90 percent was statistically comparable.  Tillering and plant height varied significantly among  enerplant growth regulator and nitrogen levels at 7 and 10  months after planting, respectively.

 

Significant means differences were observed on diameter of millable stalks at harvest, where the enerplant treated canes gave smaller stalk diameter.

 

Mean differences on number, weight and length of millable stalks at harvest among nitrogen levels and enerplant treatments were statistically insignificant.

 

Application of 5.2 and 7.8 ml/ha of enerplant growth regulator gave higher Lkg/TC at 135 kg N/ha level of fertilization.  Other rates of enerplant treatments with varying levels of nitrogen fertilization gave comparable  Lkg/TC means.

 

Higher cane and sugar yields were observed only among nitrogen levels. Enerplant growth regulator treatments had lower cane tonnage yield than the control. The rate of 7.8 ml/ha of enerplant growth regulator produced slightly higher sugar yield than the control.  However, the sugar yield differences among treatment means were not significant.

 

Foliar spray application of enerplant  on sugarcane during the early vegetative growth stages did not significantly improve sugar yield.

 

3.    Evaluation of Mercena pruriens as Green Manure for Sugarcane – E. Estanislao   and  O. Quilloy

 

Canepoint    germination,  plant  height and tillering were not significantly affected by green manuring with  M. pruriens.   Incorporation of M. pruriens into the soil before  planting  significantly  increased  millable stalk production with or without N fertilization.

 

M. pruriens  planted at 2m x 2m distance of seeding and fertilized with 90 kg/ha N significantly increased cane and sugar yields of the plant cane.

 

Significant differences in cane tonnage and sugar yields means were observed in the ratoon crop at different levels of nitrogen.

 

4.    Increasing Efficiency of Applied Fertilizer for Sugarcane.  Study 1.  Evaluation of different forms/ kinds of nitrogenous fertilizer – A. Magnaye and O. Quilloy

 

Fertilization  with  different forms/kinds of nitrogenous fertilizer in combination with different organic fertilizers in pellet forms were conducted in Angeles loamy sand from June 2002 to March, 2004.

 

Application of combined organic and inorganic fertilizer in pellet form did not  produce  significant growth and  cane and sugar yield.  Although results were comparable,  ammosul applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers produced higher cane  tonnage  and sugar yield  in both plant and ratoon canes.

 

5.    Ecological  Test of  Phil 94 series at LAREC, Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol – Serrano V. and M. Guevarra  

 

Test clones from the Phil 1994 series were entered in the ecological test in  LAREC-Pampanga, Batangas, Bicol and Cagayan during the CY 2001-2004 to determine their geographical adaptability.

 

Combined ANOVA based  on sugar yield and mean comparison showed Phil 94-3491 to be geographically adapted in Batangas, LAREC and Cagayan and  Phil 94-0913 to be  adapted in Bicol, LAREC and Cagayan.

 

These clones were also rated from  intermediate average to very highly  resistant to either smut or downy mildew. They are  recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

6.    Ecological  Test  of   Phil 95 series at LAREC,  Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol – R. Del Rosario,   A. Burcer and  M.  Guevarra    

 

Fourteen test clones from the Phil 1995 series were entered in the ecological test in  LAREC-Pampanga, Batangas, Cagayan and Bicol during the CY 2001-2003 to determine their geographical adaptability.

 

Combined ANOVA based on sugar yield and mean comparisons  showed Phil 95-1029, Phil 95-0887 and Phil 95-3877 to be geographically adapted in Pampanga, Cagayan and Batangas while Phil 95-1421 is adapted to Cagayan, Batangas and Bicol.

These  clones  were  rated  from intermediate average to very highly resistant to either smut or downy mildew.  These   clones are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

7.    Species  Identification  and  Damage  Assessment  of  Borer on Sugarcane – J. Recuenco 

 

Borer infested stalks sampled from 11 sugarcane farms in Pampanga, Balayan and Don Pedro mill districts and LAREC experiment station showed that the white top borer, Scirpophaga nivella (F.) was the predominant  species found infesting three-to-eight-month sugarcane of different Phil and VMC varieties. The stemborer, Chilotraea  infuscatella Sn., had  lower incidence.

 

In the field test, infestation by S. nivella  started three months after planting in all seven test sugarcane varieties at varying levels with highly significant differences.  Mean infestation started at 2.5% three MAP, was highest at  six months and declined at 2.3% on the eight month. Tillers per furrow increased on sugarcane varieties highly infested with top borers.  Varieties with high top borer infestation at three to six MAP had higher losses in cane and sugar yields at maturity than those infested at eight MAP.

 

Among the test varieties, Phil 93-2349 had the lowest top borer infestation,  highest % germination, more tillers, longest stalk with small diameter and produced the highest  cane and sugar yields with highest ROI of 1.68.

 

Linear correlations of growth and yield parameters with % top borer infestation indicated that the higher the % infestation, the lower the  cane and sugar yields while varieties with bigger stalk diameter had higher % infestation with reduced stalk length.

 

It is recommended that top borer infestation on three-to-six-month sugarcane should be monitored to detect borer damage trends for timely application of control strategies particularly  on early maturing varieties.

 

8.    Screening   of Phil  97 Series Clones to  Sugarcane  Smut caused by  Ustilago    scitaminea  Syd. – A. Casupanan  and  M.  Guevarra   

 

Fifty-five  clones of the 1997 series were screened and tested for  reaction to sugarcane smut in both plants and ratoon canes. Ratings were as follows: two each were   very highly resistant (97-0407 and 97-1411), and   highly resistant (97-0929 and 97-2059), 1 was  resistant (97-0891), 3  were intermediate resistant (97-1165, 97-275 and 97-2135), 6 were  intermediate average, 2 were intermediate susceptible, 3 were susceptible, 2 were  highly susceptible and 34 were  very highly susceptible.

 

9.    Screening  of   Phil  96   Series  Clones  for  Resistance to Downy Mildew  – A. Vitug  and  M.  Guevarra    

 

Downy  mildew  ratings of test 50 clones of 96  series were as follows:  very highly resistant, 13;   highly resistant, 6;  resistant, 8;  intermediate resistant, 9;  intermediate  average, 3; intermediate  susceptible, 1; susceptible, 3;  highly  susceptible, 3; and very highly susceptible, 4.


 

B. LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

1.    Ecological testing of Phil 97-selections in Ma-ao/La Carlota, SONEDCO, BISCOM, and Passi mill districts – R.D. Pillado, R.G. Entima, N.S. Meneses and R.T. Harder

 

Phil 97-0693, Phil 97-1123 and Phil 97-2041 performed at least comparable or better than Phil 8013 and Phil 8477 in the five test sites in Negros and Panay in terms of cane tonnage, TC/Ha and sucrose content, LKg/TC. The three Phil 97-selections are resistant to smut and downy mildew and will be further evaluated in the National Cooperative Test (NCT) along with ther VMC-bred selections.

2.    Hot water treatment of canepoints in relation to disease recurrence in plant and ratoon crops - N.S. Menses and M.C. Alba

 

Canepoints of smut-susceptible Phil 56226 were soaked in 500C hot water for 2 hours and planted in the field nursery. Smut and downy mildew infections are not manifested on the plants until cutback at 6 months. However smut infection recur when cutback canepoints are planted in the field. Smut infection in the untreated canepoints was higher and yields were lower than canepoints taken from the nursery using hot water treated planting materials. Hot water treatment was found effective in controlling plant diseases only in the nursery.

 

3.    Tolerance of micropropagated plantlets of sugarcane to herbicides – L.C. Almodiente, T.D. Alejandrino and D.A. Delos Santos

 

Micropropagated plantlets sprayed with Authority 480SA showed bleaching and burning of leaf tips after 2 days but the injury caused by the chemical disappeared within 15 days. Command 3ME+ 2, 4-D and Sencor + 2, 4-D manifested crop injury that caused 11 to 14 percent mortality of plantlets which is still within the acceptable range of survival rate. More canepoints with bigger stalks are produced when weeds on micropropagated plantlets are controlled by herbicides.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

1.    Pollution Management  Appraisal of Selected Sugar Mills

 

This project attempts to address environmental concerns of the mills vis-à-vis their modern technology acquisitions.  Four (4) sugar mills have been audited for Pollution Management.

 

2.    Liquid Sweeteners from Molasses

 

Liquid sweeteners are liquid saccharides derived from corn, wheat, cassava, etc which are very rich in glucose and fructose and produced by acid hydrolysis or fermentation of sucrose-based material.

 

This study produced liquid sweetener form molasses.  The process involved fermentation of molasses in a period of 3 months to produce alcohol and liquid sweetener.  The liquid syrup obtained has a bitter taste due to high concentration of glucose; further isomerization by the action of enzymes for 3 days allowed conversion of glucose into fructose, which reduced the bitter taste.

 

Liquid sweetener obtained from fermented molasses was stable up to a 2-year period. However, after enzymatic isomerization, 250 Brix syrup deteriorated after 2 weeks while 350 Brix, after a month of storage.

The relative sweetness of liquid syrup may be comparable to sucrose and other liquid sweetener but the preserving characteristics and high antioxidant contents could be suitable for some commercial products as additives or supplements.  I was palatable and consumable in small dosage (1-2 tablespoons).

The significance of this study on liquid sweeteners is its relevance in the present demand for alcohol production for fuel.  The process of liquid sweetener production is the conventional method of alcohol production by continuous process.  The alcohol and liquid sweetener are co-products in the process.  The waste product, stillage, in the continuous process is only 7 liters per liter ethanol, compared to 13 liters/L ethanol in the batch method.  The disposal of the stillage is a major environmental problem of distilleries.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

1.    Philippine Sugar Industry Performance Review (2003)

 

To apprise the sugar industry technocrat on the preceding milling season’s operations status, performance, recent development in processing, problems, constraint and breakthroughs.  The review’s findings will serve as important reference for the industrial and agricultural sectors in improving their productivity and efficiency levels.

2.    Equipment  Sizing

 

This study is a joint project of FOD and PHILSUTECH, Fabrication Division. FOD personnel was tasked to survey, compile results and compute for different equipment capacities of all operating sugar mills.  These capacities are to be used in determining the capacity standards under Philippine condition.  A sort of a guide was published.

 

3.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries, Year 2001

 

This publication contains data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating sugar refineries in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly refinery statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and refineries and sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

4.    Annual Compendium of Philippine Sugar Refineries, Year 2002

 

Same as above but contains data for the refining year 2002.

 

5.    Capacity and Performance Audit Manual

 

This project produced a standard operating manual of procedures and methods to be used in conducting a Capacity and Performance Audit in the sugar mills and refineries.

 

6.    Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data CY 2002-2003

 

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

7.    Standardization of Reports/MI Instruments Data Log for the Raw Sugar Factories (Phase II)

 

To be able to come up with a standard production and performance statement/report format for the industry’s raw sugar factories based on internationally adapted standard in line with bigger undertaking of standardizing mill operations.

8.    Energy Efficiency: An Approach to Improve Mill’s Bottom Line

 

The project covers energy matters towards reducing cost of raw sugar production.  Through questionnaires and surveys among Philippine sugar mills, technical calculations and analyses may be established.

 

9.    Refinery Equipment Audit

 

This publication contains listing of all major equipment in sugar refineries in the Philippines.

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2003)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2003)

I.    AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1)    Composting Bagasse and Mudpress with Sewage Sludge

 

Sewage sludge was found an effective ingredient in the composting of sugar  mill wastes such as bagasse and mudpress.  When used in watering the compost pile, it supplies the moisture and nutrient requirements of microorganisms that hastens organic matter decomposition. The recommended fertilization level was 4 Tons/ha of compost with supplemental  dose of 90 kg/ha N by Urea (46-0-0).

 

2)    Utilization of distillery slops on sugarcane production

 

The test distillery slops which includes raw, evaporated and digested distillery slops were better applied in full dose that split dose. Based on the results, recommended application levels of distillery slops and nitrogen fertilizer that improved growth and yield of sugarcane were as follows: raw and digested distillery slops, 50-100 m3/ha with 120 kg/ha N fertilizer in both plant and ratoon crops; and evaporated distillery slops, 25-50 m3/ha with 180 kg/ha N in the plant crop and 25 to 50 m3/ha with 60 to 120 kg/ha N in the first ratoon crop.

 

Phytotoxic symptoms or adverse effect were not observed on plots applied with the test distillery slops from 25 to 100 m3/ha in combination with nitrogen fertilization in the plant and ratoon crops.

 

Raw distillery slops applied in full dose or split dose from 50 to 200m m3/ha effectively reduced the population of plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane in the plant and first ratoon crops.

 

The results of the studies showed that distillery slops can be utilized in sugarcane production as supplemental fertilizer and as control for the plant parasitic nematodes attacking sugarcane.

3)    Smut  Infection in Relation to Irrigation – A. Casupanan and M. Guevarra

 

The incidence of smut (Ustilago scitaminea) is usually high during the dry season. Irrigating the sugarcane field significantly reduced the degree of smut infection.  Sugarcane plants irrigated at 10 days interval are less infected with smut and grew vigorously.

 

B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

1.    Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements of Phil 96 series in Micro propagation Culture mediumM.T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to determine the Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) requirements in the culture medium for micropropagation of 1996 series sugarcane varieties; namely Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3239, Phil 96-3263 and Phil-4135.

 

The test varieties varied in the requirements for BAP to the culture medium  Phil 96-0579, Phil 96-0637, Phil 96-1781, Phil 96-2691, Phil 96-2983, Phil 96-3263 and Phil 96-4135 required 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the initial shoot tip explants for micro propagation while Phil 96-3239 needed 0.3ppm.

Based on the above observations, generally, most of varieties tested respond positively to 0.2ppm BAP for faster and more shoot formation in the culture medium.

2.    Evaluation of Different Planting Patterns on Plant Cane and Ratoons D.A. de los Santos; Ma. L. Almodiente and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different planting schemes using 8 row distances on the growth and yield of Phil 8943. The experiment was laid out in November 2001 and harvested in November 2002. The row distances as treatments were set in 6m x 10m plots arranged in Randomized Complete Block design with 4 replications. The row distances used were: 1) 1m between rows, 4 cp/m;  2) 1.5 between rows, 6 cp/m;  3) 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m; 1.5m between rows, 10 cp/m;  4) 1.5m between rows, 4 cp/m;  5) double row (1.5 x .05m), 4 cp/m;  6) Triple rows, 1.5 x 0.5m, 4 cp/m;  7) Quadruple rows, 1.5 x 0.5,  4 cp/m and  8) 0.75 between rows, 4 cp/m.

Preliminary plant cane results, showed that tonnage yields of Phil 8943 did not differ among treatments.  At the early stage of growth the number of tillers were higher for treatments with higher planting densities, and the lowest in the least dense treatment.  However, at harvest, millable stalks were comparable in all treatments. Stalks length, diameter, LKg/TC and also LKg/Ha were also comparable.  The results of the plant cane that low population density planting Phil 8943 gave comparable yields with higher densities given the adequate conditions for growth and development.

3.    Evaluation of Methods of Planting During Wet SeasonP.F. Gipanago, D.A. de los Santos and Ma. T.D. Alejandrino

 

An experiment to evaluate the effect of different methods of planting cane points during wet periods was laid out in July 2001 at the La Granja Agricultural Research & Extension Center.  The five treatments consisted of planting single and double cane points flat and angled at 45o in furrows and double cane points planted along the ridges. Plot sizes were 5m x 5m, and treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.

Plant height and number of tillers per plot 3 and 5 months after planting were not significantly different among treatments.  Likewise, the number of millable stalks and stalk length were also not significant.  With the insignificance of the growth and yield components, TC/ha, Lkg/TC and Lkg/ha also followed the same trend.

Even without significance, the results clearly show the advantage of planting single cane points in the furrow, whether planted flat or angled at 45o.  It is economical and yields equivalent to the doubled population rate.  However, the results are not conclusive because of the high % of cv in both growth and yield parameters. Planting in July especially in water logged areas also delay harvesting as vegetative state is also prolonged.

4.    Evaluation of Different Integrated Weed Management Pratices in Sugarcane Ratoon During Wet and Dry Seasons of PlantingJ.C. Nierves, D.A. de los Santos, PH.D. and C.L. Morales

 

The experiments were conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design at La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center from November 1999 to May 2001 and ratooned after harvesting to evaluate the different integrated weed management practices in sugarcane ratoon and identify the most effective weed management practice during wet and dry seasons of planting.

In the wet season planting, the use of late post-emergence spray (26 days after stubble shaving) in combination with manual weeding (2x) and plow cultivation (2x) gave comparable cane tonnage and sugar yield with treatments applied with blanket weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) pre-emergence spray (2 days after stubble having) + manual weeding (3x) plow cultivation (3x) and row weeding + plow cultivation (1,2,3,4 months after stubble shaving) but contributed the highest net income of P 54,537.32 in the ratoon crop.

In the dry season planting, the treatment applied with early post-emergence spray (12 days after stubble shaving) + manual  weeding (2X) + plow cultivation (2x) had similar TC/Ha and LKg/Ha with the rests of the weed management practices but obtained the net income of P 51,723.00.

The cost of weeding operations in the wet season planting was higher than the dry season in the ratoon crop. This was attributed by more rainfall that hastened the rapid growth of weeds.

Based on direct agricultural cost, the use of late and early port-emergence spray in combination with manual weeding and plow cultivation obtained the highest cane tonnage and sugar yield in the wet and dry seasons, respectively and found effective among the treatments used in the ratoon crop.  Hence, an efficient weed management practice involves not only a single but also a combination of the manual, mechanical and chemical application.

5.    Variety X Season of Planting Study: (Phil; 92, Phil 93 series) A. Early Season Planting – I.S. Bombio

 

A field study arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times was conducted at the SRA LGAREC Station from September 2001 to September 2002.  The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three Phil 92 series and four Phil 93 series sugarcane varieties when planted in the early milling season at the La Carlota mill district. Phil 8013 was included as control variety.

Land preparation consisted of two plowing and two harrowing by tractor with furrows set at 1m apart. The canepoints were planted double rows in the furrows and later thinned to 40,000 points per ha.  Fertilizers were applied in split doses – the 1st dose at planting; the 2nd dose two months after.  Weeds were controlled by chemical, manual and mechanical means.  Harvesting was done 12 months after planting. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the results.

At 3 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0751 was considerably taller, Phil 92-0577 and 93-2349 were as tall as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155 were consistently shorter.

All the test varieties produced fewer tillers/sqm except for Phil 93-2349 which have as much numbers as Phil 8013. At 6 MAP – 9 MAP, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more tillers/sqm; Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as many as Phil 8013 while Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 produced fewer tillers.

Tonnage yield was comparable to Phil 8013 except for Phil 93-3155 which was lower. Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as sweet as Phil 8013. Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3727 were of lower sucrose contents.  Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-2349 compared in sugar yield with Phil 8013 but Phil 92-0577, Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3155 have lower yields.

Stalk length of Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-2349 were comparable to Phil 8013 but shorter in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 93-3155. Stalk diameter was bigger in Phil 92-0577 Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727, comparable to Phil 8013 in Phil 92-0051, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 but smaller in Phil 92-0751.

Phil 92-0751, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-2349 have more stalks/sqm, Phil 92-0577 and Phil 93-3155 have fewer while Phil 93-3849 and Phil 93-3727 have as much number of millable stalks/sqm Phil 8013. Phil 92-0057 have heavier stalks, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 93-3849 have lighter stalks while those of Phil 92-0751, Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-2349 were as heavy as Phil 8013 stalks.

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

VARIETY IMPROVEMENT

1.    DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Plant cane)R.G. Entima

 

Of the 90 clones tested, 88 were rated resistant and moderate to the disease.

b.    Phil 1999 series from row test (Ratoon)R.G. Entima

 

Out of 90 clones of the 1999 series Ratoon tested, 28 were very highly resistant, 15 highly resistant, 11 resistant, 13 intermediate resistant, 7 intermediate average, 4 intermediate susceptible, 3 susceptible, 1 highly susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to downy mildew.

2.    SMUT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1999-200 series (Row Test) – T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 157 clones tested, 39 were rated very highly resistant, 3 highly resistant, 9 resistant, 28 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 6 intermediate susceptible, 9 susceptible, 9 highly susceptible and 45 very highly susceptible.

b.    Phil 1997-1998 series (PYT-Ratoon)T.B. Bañas

 

Among the 13 clones of the 1997-1998 series PYT ratoon tested, 2 were rated highly resistant, 1 intermediate resistant, 2 susceptible and 8 very highly susceptible to smut.

3.    YELLOW SPOT RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)N.S. Meneses

 

Four clones of the 1997 series ratoon were rated resistant to yellow spot of sugarcane, 23 intermediate resistant, 20 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 11 susceptible and 1 clone very highly susceptible.

4.    LEAF SCORCH RESISTANCE TRIAL

 

a.    Phil 1996 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 7 were resistant, 12 intermediate resistant, 12 intermediate average, 2 susceptibel and 35 highly susceptible to the disease.

 

b.    Phil 1997 series (Ratoon)G.L. Rosales & T.B. Bañas

 

Out of the 68 clones tested, 3 were rated resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 14 intermediate average, 2 susceptible while 44 were found highly susceptible to leaf scorch disease.

 

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

1.    INSECT PESTS

 

a.    Bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grubs in sugarcane – T.B. Bañas & R.V. Estioko

 

Efficacy of bacteria-enhanced entomopathogenic nematodes against white grub of sugarcane was evaluated under laboratory condition. White grubs were dosed with different concentrations of nematode alone and nematode + bacteria.

Mortality of grubs was observed in all treatments at three, six and twelve days exposure. The dosage of 5,000 nematodes + bacteria gave the highest percentage of mortality 32.81% at three days, 71.86% at six days and 100% in 12 days. All treatments except the control are statistically comparable. However the mortality with 5,000 nematodes + bacteria was comparable with 10,000 nematode + bacteria after 12 days.

The rate of 5,000 nematode + bacteria has the highest nematode recovery three days after inoculation and decreased almost consistently at 50% after six to twelve days.  In other treatment nematode recovery has oscillating increase and decrease after three to twelve days’ exposure.

b.    Further evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of white grubs – R.V. Estioko & T.B. Bañas

 

Heterorhabditis did not significantly infect the natural population of white grubs (Lepidiota sp.) in sandy soil. Although there was less population at 3 months after inoculation, such reduction was attributed to emergence of beetles and not to mortality of larvae caused by nematode infection. Due to relatively the same population of white grubs at 1 individual/stool, yields in all treatments were not significant.

c.    Effectiveness of emulsified concentrate insecticides for white grub control in sugarcane – R.G. Entima & M.C. Alba

 

With the use of emulsified concentrate insecticides, Confidor SL 100 obtained the highest percent grub mortality of 71.25%. Basudin 400 EC obtained mortality of 69.17%; Predator Plus, 64.17%; Lorsbasn 40 EC, 63.75% and Hopcin, 62.92%.

2.    DISEASES

 

a.    Integrated management of smut in sugarcane ratoon – T.B. Bañas & M.C. Alba

 

In effect and economics of integrated management technologies against smut disease of Phil 56226 ratoon were evaluated in this study. Treatments used  in addition to farmer’s practice were Vitigran Blue, Benlate, Sanitation, Roguing, Sanitation + Roguing, Roguing + Vitigran Blue, Roguing + Benlate and farmer’s practice alone.

Among the technologies, farmer’s practice with Vitigran Blue gave the lowest stool infection of 8.31% comparable with Benlate, Roguing + Vitigran Blue and Roguing + Benlate but significantly different from farmer’s practice alone having stool infection of 30.62%.

On yield, the highest TC/Ha of 95.33 and LKg/Ha of 215.20 were obtained from treatment with Vitigran Blue followed by rouging + Vitigran Blue with 91.00 TC/Ha and 210.03 LKg/Ha significantly higher compared to farmer’s practice alone.

The highest return of investment of 233.89 % was obtained with Vitigran Blue, followed by Benlate with 191.96% and rouging + Vitigran Blue with 161.20%.

b.    Effectiveness of hotwater treatment in relation to disease recurrence in plant and ratoon crops (Comparative performance of hotwater treated plants established in the nursery with and without precautionary measures) 1st year (Plant cane) – N.S. Meneses

 

Result of the 1st year study on comparative hotwater treatment showed no significant differences between treated and untreated Phil 56226 on growth parameters except for the number of tillers.

Likewise, yield parameters such as LKg/TC, TC/Ha and LKg/Ha showed comparable results. Percent nodal discoloration and bacterial counts were also comparable.

A 1.54% smut infection was observed in the field on the treated plot while 1.43% was observed on the untreated. In the nursery, yellow spot infection was below 5%.

The experiment is now on the 2nd year to further evaluate recurrence of diseases after hotwater treatment both in the nursery and field conditions.

 

SOILS & PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

1.    Response of Phil 8839 5th Ratoon to Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization in Guimbala-on clay loam – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 5th ratoon to various NPK levels in Guimbalaon Clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that significant differences were observed in stalk length and stalk weight at harvest. On the other hand, stalk diameter were comparable among treatments while the total number of millable stalks differed significantly. A very slight reduction in the total number of millable stalks was obtained in the fifth ratoon compared with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all treatments were comparable. Tonnage (TC/Ha) significantly differed but were lower than the plant cane by 39.7%. Sugar yield (LK/ha) also differed significantly. The highest sugar yield was obtained at 200-150-200 NPK treatment. This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment. LKg/ha of the fifth ratoon was lower than the plant cane by 40.9%.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crop brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 fifth ratoon.

The highest net benefit of Php 63,310.32 was obtained at 200-0-0 rate with an MRR of 216.45 over the 140-35-0 NPK.

2.    Response of Phil 91-1091 secod ratoon to verying levels of NPK Fartilization – R.M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This experiment was conducted in Guimbalaon soil at SRA-LGAREC from April 2002 to November 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon to various levels of NPK fertilization.

The highest tonnage (TC/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha comparable with 50, 100 and 150 kg N/Ha and significantly higher than the O N fertilization. Similarly, the highest LKg/Ha was also obtained at 200 kg N/ha and likewise comparable with all other N treatments. The O N treatment gave the lowest sugar yield (LKg/Ha).

Stalk length, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were significantly influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Significant differences among treatment means on plant height and tiller number were obtained both at 3 and 6 MAR except the tiller number three months after rationing (3 MAR).

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC), cane yield (TC/Ha) and sugar yield (LKg/Ha) of Phil 91-1091 second ratoon was not statistically improved by phosphorus fertilization.

Stalk length, stalk diameter, weight per stalk and total millable stalks were not influenced by phosphorus fertilization, just like the plant height and tiller number both at 3 and 6 MAR.

LKg/TC was significantly influenced by potassium fertilization. Cane yield and sugar yield of Phil 91-1091 R2 did not significantly differ. The highest LKg/TC obtained at 450 kg K2O/Ha was comparable with 150 kg K2O/Ha and significantly higher than 300, 600 and O K fertilization.

Potassium, in like manner with phosphorus, did not influence stalk diameter, stalk length, weight per stalk, total millable stalks, plant height and tiller number of Phil 91-1091 R2.

Highest marginal rate of return of 4427.26 was obtained when nitrogen was applied at the rate of 50 kg N/Ha with a net profit of Php 41,237.51. AT higher N rates of 100 and 200.

3.    Influence of lime and acidic soils grown to sugarcane (ratoon)- R.M. Bombio, N.D. Navarro and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted to verify further the validity of the SRA’s optimum lime requirement of acidic soils, grown to sugarcane and to determine the influence of residual lime on the growth and yield of Phil 91-1091 ratoon.

 

Arranged in a randomized block design (RCBD) with five (5) treatments replicated four (4) times, this study was conducted on a Guimbalaon soils with a pH of 4.9 at Hacienda Kanlaon II, La Castellana, Negros Occ. from December 2001 to December 2002. Calcitic lime rates at 0, 2, 4, 6 tons/ha and 4 tons/ha dolomite were used only during the plant crop.

Growth parameters such as plant height and number of tillers were not affected by lime application at different rates in both 3 and 6 MAR.

Although not significant, an increase of 7.29 T/Ha and 7.5 T/Ha at 4 and 6T/Ha calcitic lime respectively were obtained. Factors such as heavier stalks and more number of millable per plot contributed to the increase in tonnage.

Application of lime at different rates did not give significant influence on the rendement (LKg/TC), TC/Ha and LKg/Ha.  However, insignificant, application of 6 tons/ha lime gave the highest tonnage (88.57 TC/Ha) as compared to the cane applied with lime at 2 & 4 tons/has well as in 4 tons/ha dolomite that only gave 85.18, 88.36 & 83.61 TC/Ha respectively. The lowest cane tonnage (81.08 TC/Ha) was obtained in the un-limed.

A considerable increase in soil pH and exchangeable Ca++ was noted as the rate of lime increases with 6 tons/ha lime application as the highest.

Total soil N, available P and exchangeable K were not significantly different among rates of lime application.

The exchangeable Mg++ in the soil after harvest increased as the rate of lime increases with application of 4 tons/ha dolomite as the highest. The reduction of exchangeable A in the soil solution was due to the increased pH.

4.    Influence of time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and yield of                  Phil 92-0577 – R.M. Bombio and N.D. Navarro

 

5.    Response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization – Rosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam and Solena B. Tahum

 

The experiments were conducted in Guimbalaon sandy clay loam soil at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City from November 2001 to December 2002 to evaluate the response of Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 to varying levels of NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 93-2349 highest yield of 152.76 TC/Ha and 339.45 LKg/Ha was obtained at 200 kg N/Ha. Both data were significantly higher than 150, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha.

P2O5 and K2O fertilization of the above variety gave the highest yield at 150 and 300 Kg/Ha respectively. Both treatments were significantly higher in their respective series of fertilization.

Phil 93-3849 highest yield of 121.19 TC/Ha and 265.43 LKg/Ha was obtained at 150 kg N/Ha. These yield data were comparable with 200, 100 and 50 kg N/Ha fertilization P2O5 and K2O fertilization did not influence TC/Ha and LKg/Ha and LKg/Ha of Phil 93-3849.

LKg/TC of both Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-3849 were not influenced by NPK fertilization.

Phil 93-2349 gave the highest net profit of Php 113,866 at 200 kg N/Ha with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 1,356.45. P2O5 and K2O fertilization of Phil 93-2349 gave the highest MRR at 150 and 300 kg/Ha respectively. Phil; 93-3849 gave the highest net benefit of  Php 77,976 at 150 kg N/Ha with an MRR of 363.75 over the 100 kg N/Ha fertilization.

 

II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

RESEARCH PROJECTS

1.    Production of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks

Product development on sugarcane juice as a beverage led to the development of canned naturally flavored sugarcane stalks.  Cane stalks from SRA varieties – Phil 8839, Phil 092-751, Phil 7779 and Phil 8013 – were cut into cubes one inch size and treated aseptically prior to canning.  The cut canestalks were immersed in sugarcane juice and honey mixture (9:1) in the sterilized can, and sealed aseptically.

Parameters for shelf life such as pH and titrable acidity of the canned product were determined periodically for 7 weeks, of each variety tested.  All canned products were observed to maintain stable pH values of low acid range, 5.0-6.5. The titrable acidity values were observed to be within the values set for good quality shelf life of food products, which is not more than 2.5 ml titrable acidity. Sensory evaluation tests on texture of the product were also conducted on each variety of canned canestalk.  Canned canestalks from Phil 092-751 were observed to be very chewable, sweet and soft.  Each canned product contained 110 ml juice: honey mixture, and 3-5 pieceas cut canestalks weighing approximately 80-105.  Shelf-life of the canned products was stable up to 7 weeks.

2.    Handmade paper from sugarcane leaves and abaca

Two (2) sets of six runs each were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of sugarcane leaves and abaca pulp.  100-50% sugarcane leaves pulp were mixed with 0-50% abaca pulp.  The raw materials were pulped using the electric blender in the first set and the traditional mortar and pestle was used in the second set. Additives of 4% alum, 10% starch, 3% talc and 2% rosin were added to each run to enhance the quality of the paper produced.  The number of sheets formed was maintained at 15 sheets per run.  The same treatments and conditions were used for each set.

Tensile of handmade paper for each set were analyzed.  The papers produced have a tensile strength range of 213-320m.  Handmade papers from one hundred percent (100%) sugarcane leaves pulp had the lowest tensile strength.  As the proportion of the abaca mixed with sugarcane leaves increased, the tensile strength of the product also increased.

3.    Collaborative study with PNRI; processing of sugarcane wastes into high value products (mushroom)

The study was conducted to test the effect of different concentrations of molasses on the growth of submerged culture of Collybia reinekeana.

Results showed that as the concentration of molasses increases, there was also an increase in the weight of the mycelial growth.  At 1.5% molasses concentration, the yield in grams of the culture registered at 37.15; at 2% molasses, 79.37 and 2.5% molasses, 83.87.  Further increasing the concentration of molasses from 3% to 4% showed a decrease in mycelia weight.


 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

1.    The Philippine sugar industry through Philsutech’s half century

This project was conducted upon the request of PHILSUTECH as a special feature in its 50th Anniversary (50th National Convention). This is a documentary presentation of milestones and breakthroughs in the sugar industry, e.g., technology, events, institutions, legislation’s, people, production, performance, prices, varieties, transport, weather pattern, and other major events, and innovations that occurred, with PHILSUTECH in existence for the past fifty years. The presentation was conducted by Mr. F.H. Corpuz at the Plenary Session during the first day of the convention.

 

2.    Mill capacity & performance audit, PENSUMIL

The request for technical assessment of the Peñafrancia Sugar Mill (Pensumil) facilities located at Bo. Hima-ao, Pili, Camarines Sur, was coursed through Administrator James C. Ledesma by the Bicolandia’s sugar stakeholders in February 2003.  The administrator acceded to their request as an initial step towards the full development thrust of the sugar industry in Bicol.  This report contains recommendations in every aspect of the operation gleaned from observations and test results, meant to improve operations from the present levels.

 

3.    Annual synopsis of production and performance data CY 2001-2002

This publication embodies data and information pertaining to the production and performance record of all the operating mills in the country either culled or computed from their respective final weekly factory statements.  Copies were distributed to sugar mills and various sugar industry clientele including students and researchers.

 

4.    An update of Philippine raw sugar milling hardware (2002)

This project is classified under technical publication.  As the title connotes, it is an update of the 1993 equipment audit.  Modifications and improvements in the mill’s equipment set-up undertaken within the last four years are noted and compiled in this edition – reporting the specifications of installed equipment added and rehabilitated from 1993 to focal year 1997.  Its tangible output is a publication entitled, “An Update of Philippine Raw Sugar Factories’ Milling Hardware”.  The objective of this project is to generate a databank and a publication of the updated listing of the milling hardware of the Philippine Raw Sugar Factories.

 

5.    Evaluation of SRA’s clean and quality cane campaign

The study sought to bring the awareness of the trash problem to a higher level and to consolidate and reinforce the various activities currently undertaken

Abstract of Completed Researches (2002)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2002)

I.    AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

1)    Free-Proline Accumulation for Drought Tolerance of Sugarcane Varieties

 

The drought tolerance of the sugarcane high yielding varieties (HYVs) were evaluated based on free-proline accumulation. Low soil moisture condition increased free-proline accumulation in sugarcane plants. The 30-day moisture stress duration when the sugarcane plants were 5 months old, was the critical sampling period for free-proline analysis. Phil 8013, Phil 90-1237, Phil 92-0051 and Phil 91-1091 accumulated significantly higher free proline than the other test varieties. Varieties with high free-proline accumulation produced high cane tonnage and sugar yields.

 

2)    Varietal Response of Sugarcane to Distillery Effluent

 

Ten commercial varieties were tested for growth and yield response to raw distillery effluent. In general, the ten varieties gave comparable response in terms of growth and yield in both the 100 tons effluent/ha and N fertilizer treatments in both the plant and ratoon canes. None of the varieties exhibited phytotoxic effects to effluent application.

 

3)    Influence of Season of Planting on Incidence of Sugarcane Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) C. G. Shaw

 

The study  determined the incidence of  downy mildew infection when planted in October (Early season planting), December (Mid-season planting) and February (Late season planting).  Percent downy mildew infection was highest in October planting, followed by February planting and  December planting with the lowest infection. While the  differences  in  percent infection was  insignificant,   percent infection significantly influenced the number of tillers, stalks height and  cane  and sugar yields.

 

4)    Occurrence and Control of Parasitic Nematodes Attacking Sugarcane

 

Eight nematode genera were identified in the soil samples collected from four mill districts: Balayan (Batangas), Don Pedro (Nasugbu), Pampanga, Tarlac (San Miguel) and LAREC (Floridablanca, Pampanga). The most predominant genera observed were Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhychus, Helitocylenchus, Croconemella and Rotylenchus. The other nematodes found but fewer in number and lesser in distribution were Hemicycliophora, Hoplolaimus and Xiphenema. Sugarcane plants inoculated with more Pratylenchus population multiplied and increased as the sugarcane plants developed more roots. The uninoculated sugarcane plants had better green leaf weight, stalk length and weight and basal diameter than those infected with nematodes. Plants inoculated with few Pratylenchus populations had heavier green leaves and longer and bigger stalks than those with more nematode populations. Starguard D100, Cadusafos and Carbofuran significantly controlled the nematode populations. One to 5 months after treatment, Starguard D100 effectively reduced the nematode populations better than Cadusafos and Carbofuran. The effectiveness  of the test nematicides declined with growth of sugarcane but their nematodes populations remained lower than those of the of the untreated plots. The results indicate the pathogenic effects of parasitic nematodes to sugarcane  as shown in the reduction of stalk length and weight, basal diameter, number of tillers and cane and sugar yield. Sugarcane treatment with nematicides had better cane and sugar yield than those without treatment.

 

5)    Productivity Improvement of Soil Planted to Sugarcane with Liquid Sewage Sludge

 

Abstract of Completed Researches (2001)

Abstract of Completed Researches (2001)

I.  AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. A.   LUZON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LAREC)

 

1.    Productivity Improvement of Sugarcane Soils with Sewage Sludge Fertilization

 

Liquid sewage sludge applied after planting had no effect on canepoints germination. However, it enhance early growth and improved significantly plant height at 80 and 90 kg/ha N fertilizer treatments. Tillering was also improved significantly by increased rates of N and sewage sludge. More millable stalks were produced when the required 180 kg/ha N was supplied with 90 kg/ha N from urea and 80 T/ha sludge. Millable stalks were longer at 120 T/ha sludge at varying rates of N fertilization. Cane tonnage and sugar yields were significantly improved by sewage sludge application at varying rate of N fertilization particularly with the 90 kg/ha N + 80 tons sludge/ha combination.  Significant reduction in fertilization cost can be realized when half of the required N is supplied by urea and the other half with the sludge.

 

2.    Evaluation of New Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner for Sugarcane

 

Application of zeolite and bentonite in combination with nitrogenous fertilizer, increased the number of tillers and height of sugarcane plants, number of millable stalks and TC/Ha, LKG/TC and LKG/Ha. Although application of zeolite and bentonite did not cause statistically significant affects, the yields were higher than the urea fertilization or in combination with mudpress.

 

3.    Lime Requirement of Acidic Soils Grown to Sugarcane

 

The study determined the effects of different rates of lime applied in Angeles sandyloam (2,4,6,8, and 10 tons/ha) and Guadalupe clayloam (2,4 and 6 tons/ha) on the growth and yield of sugarcane.

 

Six tons/ha of lime incorporated in acidic Guadalupe clayloam improved the growth of Phil 8715 and increased the cane and sugar yields. Soil pH slightly increased with application of 4-6 tons/ha lime. Residual effect of 4 tons/ha of lime gave higher cane tonnage in the ratoon crop.

 

Application rates of 2-6 tons/ha did not increase the sucrose content and sugarcane yield of Phil 7544 in the ratoon crop.

 

Sugar yield of Phil 7544 in acidic Angeles sandy soil applied with 6 tons/ha of lime significantly increased.

 

4.    Evaluation of Different Harvesting and Post Harvest Practices

 

Increase in height of uncut stubble decreased tonnage but had no effect on sugar rendement (LKg/TC). Increase in number of top points cut from the stalk decreased tonnage and increased sugar rendement. Sugar rendement of milled trashy cane was lower than clean cane. Milled trashy stalk without top has lower sugar rendement than clean stalk without top. Milled trashy stalk without top has higher sugar rendement that milled trashy whole stalk and clean stalk with top. Topped green and burnt cane and left standing had higher sugar rendement and lower percentage loss than cut green and burnt cane left piled in the field.

 

5.    First Ratoon Performance of Phil 92 series at Pura, Tarlac

 

Ten  clones from the 1992 La Granja selection in the ecological test were ratooned and maintained to determine their ratoon performance. Low sugar yield per hectare was obtained inspite of high purity. Cane yield (TC/Ha) in the ratoon was low due to less number of millable stalks and decrease in length and weight of canes. Only Phil 92-0435 gave an increase in LKG/TC with 32.54% over the control. The other entries yielded lower than the 16% allowable yield reduction limit from plant canes to ratoon canes.  The ratoon yield decrease ranged from 5.42% to 14.24%, as compared to plant cane. Further testing of five clones were recommended.

 

6.    Recommended Soil Fertility Management Practices

 

Sugarcane fields at LAREC Floridablanca, Pampanga limed and fertilized with the required urea applied in split doses produced high sucrose canes and higher sugar yield which were comparable with 170-170-170 kg/ha fertilization with Triple 14.

 

Organic fertilizer like bagasse compost should be mixed with half of the required N and applied in full dose immediately after stubble shaving.  Maintenance dosage of P2O5 and K2O along with the required N tend to improve the nutrition of the cane plant as well as cane and sugar yields.

 

X-Rice fertilization as silicon supplement is not necessary on highly amorphous volcanic sandy soils of LAREC. Further studies should be undertaken to verify the observed influence of this growth hormone from New Zealand.

 

7.    Alternate and Blanket Mulching of Ratoon Canes

 

Alternate and blanket mulching of trashes in the first, second and third ratoon of Phil 8013 were compared with the control practice at LAREC. Both test mulching of trashes in rows of ratoon canes were beneficial in preventing rapid loss of soil moisture on ratoon crop. Yield of the three ratoon crops of Phil 8013 were improved by either mulching practices.

 

8.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones  of  Phil 91 and 93  Series to Sugarcane Downy Mildew (Ratoon) Caused Perosclerospora philippinensis

 

Twenty sugarcane clones of 91 series and fifty seven 93 series  were ratooned and tested for their  reaction to sugarcane downy mildew.

 

For 91 series, 11 were very highly resistant, two were resistant, one each was intermediate resistant and intermediate average and five were very highly susceptible.

 

Of the 59 clones in  the 93 series, 44  were rated very highly resistant, three each were highly resistant, resistant  and  susceptible and four were  very highly susceptible.

 

 

9.    Screening of Sugarcane Clones of Phil 94 and Phil 95 Series  to Smut Caused by Ustilago scitaminea Sydow (Plant cane)

 

Sixty eight  clones of the 1994 series and 35 clones of the 1995 series were screened for resistance to sugarcane smut.

 

Reactions of  the 68  clones of 94 series were: very highly resistant, 12;   highly resistant, 2; intermediate resistant, 9; 5 intermediate average, 5;  intermediate susceptible,2; susceptible, 7; highly susceptible, 4; and very highly susceptible, 22.

 

On 95 series, of the 35 clones tested, 8 were very highly resistant, 3 were highly resistant, 3 were resistant, 7 were intermediate resistant, 2 each were intermediate average, intermediate susceptible and  susceptible and 8 were very highly susceptible.

 

 

10.  Survey, Distribution and Yield Loss Assessment of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Attacking Sugarcane

 

Soil samples collected from four mill districts, Don Pedro, Balayan, Pampanga and Tarlac, showed that Don Pedro and Balayan Mill District had the highest nematode populations which ranged from 300 to 1000 nematodes per 200 grams of soil. The predominant species  were Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Tylenchorynchus.

 

Sugarcane plants inoculated with more Pratylenchus had higher population 30, 60 and 120 days after inoculation. The Pratylenchus population multiplied and increased as the sugarcane plants developed more roots.   The nematode population ranged from 281.75 to 610.75, which were higher than the critical level, 120 days after inoculation.

 

The uninoculated sugarcane plants had better weight of green leaves, length and weight of stalk and diameter of base that those infected with nematodes. The plants with less Pratylenchus inoculated had heavier green leaves and longer and bigger stalks than those with higher nematode inoculated.

 

Starguard, Cadusophos and Carbofuran effectively controlled the nematode populations. One to 4 months after treatment, however, Starguard controlled nematode populations better than Cadusophos and Carbufuran. Five months after treatment the nematode populations increased and continued until sugarcane maturity.

 

The cane and sugar yields of  the treated soils were higher than those in the untreated plots. The differences, however, were not significant.

 

11.  1993 Series Ecological Test (LGAREC Selection)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LGAREC, Phil 90-1237 and one check variety Phil 75-44 were entered in the ecological test at LAREC and Pura, Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the test clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that Phil 93-1601, Phil 93-3727 and Phil 90-1237 were geographically adapted in both LAREC and Pura, Tarlac as showed by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-3849, Phil 93-2349 and Phil 93-4159 were also found to be adapted in LAREC while Phil 93-3155 and Phil 93-3583 were adapted in Pura, Tarlac.

 

These clones are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

12.  1993 Series Ecological Test (Selections  from PYT at LAREC)

 

Nine test clones from the 1993 series selected by LAREC, and one check variety Phil 7544, were entered in the ecological test at LAREC, Pampanga and Pura Tarlac to determine the geographical adaptability of the clones.

 

Results from the combined ANOVA based on sugar yield showed that all the test clones except Phil 93-655 were geographically adapted to LAREC and Pura Tarlac as shown by their comparative performance with the check variety Phil 7544.

 

Phil 93-2413, Phil 93-287, Phil 93-1975, Phil 93-4703, Phil 93-2361, Phil 93-3277, Phil 93-083 and Phil 93-3663 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

13.  1992 Series Ecological Test (Selections from PYT at LAREC)

 

Eleven test clones selected by LAREC from the 1992 PYT at LGAREC and two check varieties Phil 7544 and CADP SCI were entered in the ecological test using RCBD at LAREC to determine the yield performance.

Results showed that test clones Phil 92-0721 consistently outyielded the two check varieties in terms of tonnage (TC/Ha), sugar rendiment (Lkg/TC) and sugar yield (Lkg/Ha). Two other test clones that gave statically comparable yield performance with the check varieties are Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137. These three test clones, Phil 92-0721, Phil 92-0023 and Phil 92-0137 are recommended to undergo further testing and evaluation.

 

 

  1. B.   LA GRANJA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER (LGAREC)

 

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Ratoon performance of sugarcane HYVs - Ismael S. Bombio, Jean C. Nieves and Purita F. Gipanago

 

A Randomized Complete Block Design experiment replicated four times was laid out to determine the ratoon performance of six high yielding varieties of sugarcane. A newly harvested plant cane field used in the Variety X Season Study was cleared and stubble shaved.  The crop was fertilized in split doses and allowed to grow up to the 2nd ratoon. Weeds were controlled manually and cultivation was by use of carabao plow.  Harvesting was done 11 months after stubble shaving.  The   F-Test was conducted to test for significance. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used for mean comparison.

 

Phil 6607, Phil 8013 and Phil 8835 gave higher tonnage and sugar yields than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.  Phil 8839, Phil 8835, Phil 8727 and Phil 8013 have higher sucrose contents than Phil 8943 and Phil 6607.  Phil 8013 has the longest stalks among the test varieties.  On the other hand, Phil 8835 produced the shortest stalks that were smallest in diameter, lowest in weight but the most in number per sqm.

 

Sucrose content was improved but generally yield and growth components were reduced after rationing.  The results showed that Phil 8835, Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 gave the least reduction in yield indicating they are more stable varieties for rationing than Phil 8943, Phil 8839 and Phil 8727.

 

  1. 2.    1Influence of season of harvesting, variety and time of stubble shaving on the performance of ratoon canes - Ma. Lourdes C. Almodiente, Rodrigo E. Tapay, Ph.D. and Edmundo P. Gotera

 

A ratoon experiment was conducted at the Sugar Regulatory Administration, La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center, La Granja, La Carlota City to find out the performance of the two varieties in the ratoon and how they are affected by timing of stubble shaving and seasons of harvesting.

 

Increase in LKg/TC in ratoon canes was manifested in the middle milling season (January) and the late milling season (March) harvest compared to the early milling (October) season harvest.  The two tested varieties showed no significant difference in LKg/TC when rationed.  Time of stubble shaving did not affect canes LKg/TC.  Tonnage of two tested varieties increased in the first and fourth ratoon in the early milling season harvest.  Phil 8013 showed beter advantage over Phil 8353 in tonnage in the second ratoon but of no significant difference in the first, third and fourth ratoon.  A higher LKg/Ha was produced by Phil 8013 in the second ratoon but of no significant in the first, third and fourth rations.  Season of harvest of the first ratoon were all comparable but in the second ratoon the middle milling season gave more LKg/Ha than the early milling season harvest.  The early milling season harvest of the fourth ratoon gave the highest LKg/Ha than the middle and late season of harvest.  As a whole, delay in stubble shaving of more than 7 days decreased ratoon yield but did not affect LKg/TC.

 

  1. 3.    Response of Phil 90-0345 to droughtPurita F. Gipanago

 

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to determine the response of Phil 90-0345 to four regimes of water stress.

 

The variety was planted in half drums and subjected to 12, 24 and 36 days of water stress at 1, 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP).  Regular watering served as control.  After water stress, cane plants were watered regularly up to six weeks before harvest.

 

No significant differences in leaf length, leaf width and number of tillers were noted when the variety was subjected to the four regimes of water stress at each month after planting.

 

The number of leaves were significantly reduced at 1, 5 and 7 MAP.  Leaf area exhibited a similar trend at 5 and & MAP.  The number of dry leaves significantly increased at 5 and 7 MAP at the later stress periods.

 

At harvest, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and biomass were significantly affected by the water stress regimes.

 

Highly significant differences in soil moisture were present at the four water stress regimes 3, 5 and 7 MAP.

 

At harvest, the unfavorable effect of the different water stress regimes on the number of leaves and leaf area seemed to disappear.  However, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and biomass were significantly affected.  The result shows that Phil 90-0345 lacks the characteristics of a drought tolerant variety.

 

  1. 4.    Response of Phil 8839 and 90-0345 to waterlogged conditionPurita F. Gipanago

 

Three HYV’s Phil 90-0345, Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 (control variety) were grown in normal and waterlogged conditions. Waterlogging was started at three months after planting up to one month before harvest.

 

At 3, 5 and 7 months after planting (MAP), waterlogged condition significantly favored the plant height of the three HYV’s.  Among varieties, Phil 90-0345 was the tallest with widest leaves, followed by Phil 8839 and Phil 7083 up to 12 MAP.

 

At 3 MAP, more leaves were produced and were wider under waterlogged condition.  Likewise, at 5 MAP, more leaves were produced under the same condition.

 

On the contrary, at 7 and 12 MAP, leaf lengths was significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Among varieties, Phil 8839 had the longest leaves followed by Phil 7083 and Phil 90-0345.

 

At 12 MAP, the number of leaves and stalk weight were significantly reduced under waterlogged condition.  Stalk length, leaf width, stalk diameter, number of stalks/stool and number of millable stalks were comparable under normal and waterlogged conditions.

 

The yield parameters of the three HYV’s were comparable under both soil conditions in terms of TC/Ha, LKg/TC and LKg/ha.

 

Phil 90-0345 and Phil 8839 could be planted in waterlogged areas considering that their yield compared with that of Phil 7083, a standard waterlogged-tolerant variety.

 

  1. 5.    Growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets as influenced by hardening period and time of transplantingM.L.C. Almodiente, C.L. Morales  and I.S. Bombio

 

A study was conducted to find out the influence of hardening period and time of transplanting on the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

Plantlets survival, number of tillers, plant height, diameter, weight of 100 cane points and cutback yield of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets were not affected by different hardening period of 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks.  An early hardened plantlets of 4 weeks and a longer hardened plantlets of 10 weeks did not differ significantly from 6 and 8 weeks period of hardening.

 

The time of transplanting whether early morning or late afternoon did not affect the survival, growth and canepoint production of Phil 8727 micropropagated plantlets.

 

The implication of the study is that nursery managers can dispose plantlets much earlier as 4 weeks thus saving time and resources.  On the other hand, as plantlets can be hardened until 10 weeks with out affecting plant vigor, planters can also delay transplanting operations depending on availability of resources and favorable conditions.

 

 

CROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. Incidence of sugarcane diseases, insect pests and rodents on Phil varieties & clones in different test locations in relation to environmental factors (1994 series)Rodolfo V. Estioko

 

Eight entries of Phil bred varieties of 1994 series in the ecological test for      CY 1999-2000 including the check varieties; Phil 6607 and Phil 8013 were evaluated for disease incidence, infestation of insect pests and rat damage in different locations in Negros and Panay.

 

Incidence of diseases was estimated based on the extent of infection and lesions on foliage while stem borer infestation and rat damage were counts of tillers and stalks affected.

 

 

  1. 2.    Smut resistance trial 1997 series (PYT-Plant cane) – Nora S. Meneses

 

A total of 68 clones of the 1997 series PYT (Plant cane) were rated for resistance to smut.  Result showed that 52 clones were resistant, 9 moderate and 7 susceptible (Table 1)

 

    Table 1.  Reaction of 1997 series clones (PYT –Plant cane) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction             Clone        Reaction

97-37-0207

74-0411

24-0117

240-1301

252-1391

368-2715

340-2015

4-0043

4-0021

320-1829

232-1215

54-0329

220-1165

387-2279

149-0727

321-1861

280-1529

405-2383

43-0265

43-0239

119-0651

387-2281

164-0855

161-0821

386-2275

346-2059

126-0671

299-1643

125-0665

74-0407

163-0793

4-0029

328-1939

137-0707

422-2709

 

 

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(4)5

(1)2                 (1)2                    (9)8                    (1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(7)8

(2)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(8)8

(1)2

(4)5

(9)8

(1)2

(1)2

(5)5                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (2)2                    (1)2                    (4)5                    (1)2                    (3)2                    (4)5

97-353-2135

78-0423

213-1123

550-3363

326-1901

62-0383

342-2039

Phil 6607

97-402-2343

278-1523

353-2141

193-1019

213-1125

116-0609

240-1297

150-0729

402-2339

37-0215

7-0097

137-0687

37-0693

411-2417

7-0099

378-2259

242-2041

363-2161

97-0203

105-0527

126-0673

722-4351

280-1527

784-4597

168-0891

405-2375

Phil 56226

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(2)2

(3)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(3)2

(2)2

(1)2

(2)2

(6)5

(1)2

(4)5

(8)8

(1)2

(2)2

(1)2

(7)8

(9)8

(4)5

(1)2

(9)8

Legend:       2 – Resistant       5 – Moderate           8 – Susceptible

                   * Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

 

 

  1. 3.    Smut resistance trial 1998 series clones (row test)  – Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 135 clones tested, 29 clones were very highly resistant, 5 resistant, 8 intermediate resistant, 6 intermediate average, 5 intermediate susceptible, 14 susceptible, 8 highly susceptible and 54 clones were very highly susceptible       (Table 2)

 

 

Table 2.            Reaction of 1998 series clones (Row test) to smut

 

            Clone          Reaction         Clone               Reaction
 

98-144-1735

149-1831

102-1093

136-1613

149-1863

251-3375

212-3049

77-0625

134-1527

84-0733

157-2139

131-1375

24-0139

198-2895

90-0795

131-1363

251-3347

156-2119

157-2137

78-0641

97-0255

136-1603

102-0927

124-1259

1

2

1

6

1

9

9

7

9

1

7

1

9

9

1

9

8

8

2

9

5

9

9

4

 

98-49-0417

112-1077

107-1035

260-3433

177-2411

90-0789

81-0669

200-2939

157-2143

48-0407

37-0239

261-3445

47-0381

153-2025

138-1635

240-3271

85-0765

132-1511

144-1733

251-3353

258-3407

52-0445

192-2759

131-1387

9

9

3

3

7

5

9

9

9

1

9

9

7

1

1

9

1

7

9

1

9

1

9

1

               212-3061

47-0373

177-2415

14-0099

90-0791

264-3479

166-2277

112-1079

142-1693

240-3273

197-2877

166-2281

240-3265

96-0869

223-3131

112-1083

251-3337

96-0873

75-0851

251-3371

153-2033

136-1593

96-0871

132-1505

153-2059

209-3023

50-0429

155-2107

102-0941

90-0797

234-3199

1-0005

212-3043

NCO-310

CP-29-116

98-264-3515

184-2513

251-3349

206-3011

 

1

1

8

5

1

9

1

9

1

4

1

9

9

7

4

9

9

6

8

9

8

9

4

9

8

4

1

9

9

3

9

1

5

1

7

9

9

9

5

                 84-0743

272-3611

50-0431

75-0583

138-1661

48-0393

127-1339

272-3613

133-2039

143-1715

138-1659

240-3263

183-0965

149-1853

96-0863

240-3269

209-3033

Phil 56226

98-259-3431

264-3465

H44-3098

98-85-0761

1-0007

193-2785

135-1537

15-0105

258-3403

259-3425

264-3493

115-1105

SAIPAN RED

98-264-3503

259-3423

90-0799

83-0721

155-2109

247-3303

102-0945

136-1563

 

1

9

7

1

1

7

6

9

9

9

6

3

9

9

1

2

9

9

9

9

1

2

1

9

9

5

1

9

9

2

8

9

4

3

1

9

8

4

9

 

 

            Clone          Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

104-0983

266-3559

33-0175

219-3107

136-1555

138-1665

46-0335

7

9

9

2

4

7

6

149-1839

144-1739

251-3381

150-1915

166-2253

153-1995

125-1267

1

7

7

9

1

7

7

Legend: 1 – Very Highly Resistant     2 – Highly Resistant                3 – Resistant       4 – Intermediate Resistant

                         5 – Intermediate Average     6 – Intermediate Susceptible   7 – Susceptible   8 – Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 4.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Out of 216 clones tested, 167 were rated resistant, 41 moderate and 8 susceptible to the disease (Table 3).

 

       Table 3.            Rating of 1997 series of clone (Plant cane) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

78-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

368-2215

363-2161

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

 

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

97-405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

405-2383

191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2
(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)5

(0)5

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

             Clone             Rating             Clone               Rating

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(6)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

326-1901

213-1223

612-3601

617-3661

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

387-2281

353-2141

(0)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(4)5

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(3)2

(4)5

(7)8

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

            652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

4-0075

            (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

             328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

481-2909

24-0117

Thailand

                (0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(5)5

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(7)8

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

(0)2

             763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

            (0)2

(4)5

(0)2

(0)2

(4)5

              Australia

Saipan Yellow

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

 

                (0)2

(0)2

9

0

 

                Note: Number in parenthesis is the true rating of the clone

                Legend:       2 – Resistant                    5 – Moderate              8 – Susceptible

 

  1. 5.    Downy mildew resistance trial 1997 series (Ratoon)Nora Meneses

 

One hundred forty two clones, 3 foreign varieties and 2 standard varieities were rated for resistance to the disease.  Out of 142 entries, 49 clones were very highly resistant, 2 highly resistant, 21 resistant, 25 intermediate resistant, 5 intermediate average, 9 intermediate susceptible, 12 susceptible, 5 highly susceptible and 14 very highly susceptible.  Thailand variety was intermediate resistant to the disease, Australia intermediate susceptible, and Saipan Yellow was rated susceptible       (Table 4).

 

      Table 4.          Reaction of 1997 series clones (Ratoon) to downy mildew.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction

97-74-0411

104-0527

43-0239

4

1

9

368-2215

363-2161

405-2383

1

8

3

              149-0727

54-0329

126-0671

254-1409

116-0609

150-0729

28-0423

62-0383

137-0687

160-0793

168-0891

37-0215

125-0665

122-0659

137-0693

37-0209

164-0855

43-0265

119-0649

119-0651

126-0673

137-0707

161-0821

137-0705

74-0407

166-0881

193-1019

252-1391

329-2005

240-1303

311-1711

378-2259

326-1901

213-1123

612-3601

617-3661

505-3075

573-3463

550-3349

564-3429

648-3861

512-3161

671-3941

742-4463

                  1

1

4

3

1

1

4

4

3

1

9

1

4

9

4

6

4

5

4

7

1

3

1

4

1

9

4

7

7

2

7

9

1

7

1

6

4

   6

   1

  7

  1

  1

  4

  3

             191-1001

227-1195

402-2343

353-2135

402-2339

386-2275

405-2375

227-1215

240-1301

340-2015

320-1841

293-1627

234-1237

213-1125

321-1861

299-1643

411-2417

280-1527

290-1617

414-2473

423-2497

414-2457

742-4461

720-4343

423-2509

758-4507

728-4371

722-4351

690-4107

693-4155

220-1165

240-1297

4-0075

763-4549

475-2887

974-0029

12-0105

693-4151

466-2825

438-2621

429-2543

320-1829

280-1529

278-1523

7

3

1

4

1

3

4

1

4

4

1

4

7

3

6

3

1

4

1

1

4

2

3

1

5

6

3

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

1

3

7

9

1

5

7

1

 

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone               Reaction
 

652-3873

688-4069

615-3637

482-2911

550-3363

591-3541

612-3605

585-3501

500-3043

634-3783

671-3933

647-3859

579-3493

589-3519

519-3205

647-3855

316-1783

424-2515

795-4649

442-2709

473-2869

474-2871

7-0099

1-2909

481-2909 Thailand

Australia

Saipan

 

1

3

8

1

4

1

3

3

1

1

1

1

3

8

8

4

9

4

9

6

1

8

3

7

4

6

7

387-2281

            353-2141

328-1939

346-2059

387-2279

411-2425

344-2047

342-2039

411-2427

4-0031

784-4597

416-2743

411-2423

737-4435

342-2041

696-4191

4-0043

37-0207

37-0203

474-2871

4-0021

829-4691

7-0097

24-0117

Phil 7464

Phil 6111

9

1

9

3

4

3

6

3

6

1

3

9

1

1

5

7

1

9

9

4

6

9

1

7

9

1

                 Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                    2 – Highly Resistant                    3 – Resistant

                            4 – Intermediate Resistant                  5 – Intermediate Average            6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                            7 – Susceptible                                   8 – Highly Susceptible                 9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 6.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon)Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 64 clones evaluated, 2 were rated resistant, 6 intermediate resistant, 9 intermediate average, 10 intermediate susceptible, 19 susceptible, 7 highly susceptible and 11 very highly susceptible to yellow spot (Table 5)

 

     Table 5.  Reaction of 1995 series clones (Ratoon) to yellow spot.

 

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction
 

94-403-2697

94-628-4001

94-608-3919

95-286-1483

8

4

7

4

 

95-248-1045

95-248-1021

95-469-3027

95-311-1833

9

5

9

8

            95-280-1431

94-272-1619

94-290-1815

95-288-1529

95-286-1485

94-608-3931

95-39-0045

94-136-0801

94-500-3509

94-136-0813

94-434-3045

     94-148-0889

            94-192-1103

94-562-3797

94-739-4203

   94-32-0135

 

 

7

9

7

3

5

4

9

9

6

5

5

5

7

4

6

8

          95-286-1513

95-125-0183

95-249-1051

95-207-0591

95-279-1421

95-220-0705

95-131-0741

95-357-2143

95-469-3025

95-24-1029

95-250-1135

95-272-1363

95-222-0743

95-249-1045

95-439-2859

 95-250-1145

 

9

9

6

8

7

8

7

7

6

7

7

7

7

6

7

9

              Clone             Reaction             Clone           Reaction

94-390-2549

94-494-3453

95-279-1413

95-336-2021

94-137-0819

95-241-0887

94-88-0435

95-474-3105

95-365-2195

95-469-3065

95-223-0769

95-136-0309

 

9

7

3

4

8

6

7

5

5

4

7

6

 

95-279-1403

95-149-0501

95-127-0203

95-585-3877

95-274-0941

95-725-4627

95-502-3165

95-39-0045

95-302-1687

95-279-1405

95-291-1819

Phil 7464

7

7

8

7

9

5

7

6

6

6

5

9

Legend:

                            1 – Very Highly Resistant                     2 – Highly Resistant                 3 – Resistant

                           4 – Intermediate Resistant                    5 – Intermediate Average        6 – Intermediate Susceptible

                           7 – Susceptible                                     8 – Highly Susceptible             9 – Very Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 7.    Yellow spot resistance trial 1996 series (Plant cane)Nora S. Meneses

 

Among the 66 clones tested, 19 were found moderate and 47 susceptible to the disease (Table 6).

 

Table 6. Reaction of 1996 series clones (Plant cane) to yellow spot.

 

             Clone             Reaction               Clone             Reaction

96-0509

96-3239

96-0953

96-1491

(7)8

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

96-0099

96-4077

96-4053

96-0123

(6)5

(4)5

(9)8

(9)8

           96-3087

96-1781

96-1789

96-3275

96-1183

96-0961

96-2805

96-2697

96-2717

96-2983

96-2441

96-2583

96-2711

96-2255

96-0097

96-3957

96-4057

96-0507

96-2691

96-0015

96-0503

96-0477

96-0423

96-3421

96-3267

96-3363

96-3717

96-3297

96-0475

 

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(7)8

(9)8

(8)8

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(9)8

(9)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

(8)8

(6)5

(9)8

(8)8

(8)8

(7)8

(9)8

(5)5

(9)8

            96-4135

96-3361

96-4109

96-4111

96-4273

96-4409

96-4455

96-4233

96-4503

96-4595

96-4483

96-3283

96-4495

96-1253

96-3289

96-3007

96-3263

96-3079

96-1531

96-1497

96-3161

96-3197

96-0799

96-3341

96-1487

96-0579

96-3219

96-3165

96-0637

Phil 7464

(6)5

(4)5

(7)8

(8)8

(6)5

(6)5

(8)8

(4)5

(6)5

(5)5

(8)5

(4)8

(6)5

(7)5

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(8)8

(7)8

(7)8

(7)8

(5)5

(7)8

(6)5

(5)5

(7)8

(5)5

(9)8

Legend:         2 -  Resistant                       5 – Moderate                  8 – Susceptible

                            Note: Number in parenthesis is the actual rating of the clone

 

 

 

 

  1. 8.    Leaf scorch resistance trial 1994 series (Ratoon)Grignion L. Rosales

 

Out of 68 clones tested, 63 were found highly resistant to the disease while 5 were rated intermediate average (Table 7).

 

      Table 7.  Reaction of the 1994 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

   

94-18-0025

94-20-0029

94-21-0043

94-23-0057

94-24-0069

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

94-25-0075

94-34-0159

94-38-0177

94-44-0221

94-51-0243

94-63-0279

94-69-0327

94-71-0395

94-90-0441

94-103-0655

94-134-0759

94-134-0769

94-135-0791

94-146-0865

94-154-0961

94-171-1005

94-181-1087

94-224-1341

94-224-1345

94-243-1435

94-245-1443

94-248-1473

94-258-1499

94-259-1505

94-278-1361

94-289-1803

94-308-1917

94-320-2033

94-355-2391

94-365-2339

94-384-2445

94-397-2629

94-418-2765

94-420-2779

94-426-2823

94-426-2841

94-428-2917

94-455-3199

94-460-3237

94-461-3261

94-462-2683

94-473-3365

94-498-3491

94-504-3531

94-534-3629

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

 

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

94-539-3641

94-558-3747

94-561-3781

94-562-3797

94-563-3807

94-600-1863

94-622-3971

94-702-4149

94-744-4235

94-791-4341

94-600-265

94-149-0913

94-75-0395

94-282-1745

94-300-1873

94-400-2649

8583-1

Phil 6111

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

 

 

  1. 9.     Leaf scorch resistance trial 1995 series (Ratoon) Grignion L. Rosales

 

Twenty eight clones of the 1995 series were rated highly resistant, 8 intermediate average and 12 highly susceptible to leaf scorch (Table 8).

 

Table 8.  Reaction of the 1995 series (Ratoon) to leaf scorch.

 

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-32-0135

94-136-0813

94-494-3453

94-500-3509

94-608-3919

94-628-4001

94-125-0183

95-223-0769

95-474-3105

94-136-0801

94-290-1815

94-291-1819

94-608-3931

95-132-0203

95-247-0941

95-249-1045

95-250-1133

95-250-1145

95-272-1383

95-279-1413

95-279-1421

95-280-1431

95-286-1485

95-469-3025

95-469-3027

95-469-3065

95-502-3165

95-585-3877

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Highly Resistant

Clone/Variety

Reaction

 

 

94-88-0435

94-139-4203

94-434-3045

95-131-0741

95-136-0309

95-248-1025

95-365-2195

95-725-4627

95-39-0045

94-137-0819

94-148-0889

94-192-1103

94-390-2549

95-248-1021

95-248-1029

95-357-2143

95-439-2859

94-3929

94-403-2697

94-562-3797

Phil 6111

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Intermediate Average

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

Highly Susceptible

 

  1. 10.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on the yield of sugarcane in  ratoon  cropNora S. Meneses & Melanie C. Alba

 

The experiment was carried to 1st ratoon to further evaluate the effect of integrated management of downy mildew on yield of Phil 7464, a very highly susceptible variety to downy mildew.

 

Results of the experiment showed a considerable percent infection of downy mildew disease in all treatments employed.  Although insignificant results were obtained among treatments, the highest infection was observed in the control with 32.94% while chemical control + seed selection + sanitation + rouging and hotwater  treatment + seed selection + sanitation + rouging obtained infection of 24.63% and 27.44%, respectively.  This simply shows that integrating control measures with chemical and hotwater cannot guarantee control of downy mildew up to the fist ratoon crop.

 

The integration of hotwater + seed selection + sanitation + rouging resulted on an increase in yield of 14.47 TC/Ha and 30.85 LKg/Ha over the control.  The treatment integrating chemical control with seed selection, sanitation & rouging likewise yielded better than the control.

 

  1. 11.  Evaluation on the effect of integrated management of white grubs (Plant cane)Rosenie G. Entima & Melanie C. Alba

 

Results of the evaluation showed no significant differences on percent grub mortality and yield of Phil 8583 in all treatments.  However, the results revealed that using control measures against white grub mortality infestation increased sugar yield than no control.

 

Among the control strategies employed, chemical control using Diagan 5G obtained the highest mean grub mortality of 96.30% followed by Metarrihizium anisopliae + liming + cultivation (88.83%), M. anisopliae (84.06%), liming (78.64%), entomopathogenic nematodes (78.45%), chemical control + liming  (74.58%), entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anisopliae (74.58%), cultivation (69.33%), liming + cultivation (69.00%), chemical control + cultivation (68.80%), and entomopathogenic  nematodes + liming + cultivation  (65.73%).  The mortality rates among treatments did not reveal significant differences but higher than the control of 61.34%.

 

The treatment that gave the highest yield was with the integration of M. anisopliae + liming + cultivation with the yield difference of 35.34 TC/ha and 90.12 LKg/ha followed by entomopathogenic nematodes + M. anesopliae with 31.70 TC/ha and 79.00 LKg/ha; entomopathogenic  nematodes, 29.70 TC/ha and 73.24 LKg/ha; liming, 26.33 TC/ha  and 73.51 Lkg/ha; entomopathogenic  + liming + cultivation, 25.90 TC/ha and 61.51 LKg/ha; cultivation, 24.67 TC/ha and 65.99 LKg/ha; chemical + liming 24.70 TC/ha and 61.48 LKg/ha; M. anisopliae, 21.47 TC/ha and 56.64 LKg/ha; liming + cultivation , 20.03 TC/ha and 52.74 LKg/ha;  chemical control , 19.43 TC/ha and 55.93 LKg/ha; and chemical control + cultivation, 8.03 TC/ha and 18.18 LKg/ha.

 

  1. 12.  Effect of Canegard against pineapple disease of sugarcane (Plant cane)Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The effect of different rates of Canegard on germination and yield of sugarcane was tested as preventive and curative control measures against pineapple disease Ceratocystis paradoxa Moreau.

 

The curative measure of treatments with fungicides as highly significant difference over control (no chemical) but no significant differences as preventive measure 1-1/2 months after planting (MAP).  Germination increased 2 MAP but the curative measure has not maintained its significant differences.  It was the preventive measure that has significant differences over the control.  Treatments with fungicides were comparable with Benlate on percent germination and sugar yield of both measures.

 

The economic analysis reveals that Canegard as curative measure at 1,500 ml/200 liters water is more profitable than the preventive measure against pineapple disease.

 

  1. 13.  Screening of fungicides against pineapple diseaseMelanie  C. Alba, Rodolfo V. Estioko & Nora S. Meneses

 

The efficacy of Bumper 25EC (Propiconazole), Canegard, Antracol 75% WP, Bayleton 25% WP and Benlate 50% WP were evaluated in the laboratory and field trials.

 

Each bioassayed chemical was evaluated at four varying concentrations for the control of pineapple disease on the growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa on PDA at 5 and 12 days.  The most effective was Bumper at 300 ppm followed by 300 ppm Bayleton.  Also significantly inhibiting effectively the growth of the fungus but at lesser extent were 1% Canegard and 200  ppm Benlate (Table 9).

 

In the field at different concentrations of the fungicides (Table 10), the germination of Phil; 8943 two months after planting ranged from 81.2% – 97.9% (Table 11).  Percent germination was sustained until 2 ½ months after planting but was observed to have decreased at 3 months after planting.

 

More tillers were counted from treatments with high percentage of surviving stools after 3 1/2 months particularly with 9.6 g Benlate, 160 ml Canegard, 6.64 g Bayleton and 6.64 g Bumper (Table 12).

 

Table 9.  Growth of Ceratocystis paradoxa and percent germination in different          

                fungicides concentrations including control under laboratory conditions. c/

 

Fungicides

Concentration

(ppm; %)

Fungus Growth

(cm)

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

 

 

 

50

100

150

250

Control

5.72b

 4.07ab

2.95a

  3.30ab

 4.30ab

 

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

Control

1.72b

 1.62bc

1.12b

 0.55a

4.30d

 

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

Control

3.20a

2.70a

3.17a

2.95a

4.30b

 

 

Bumper

100

200

250

300

Control

1.15b

0.80b

0.57ab

0.12a

4.30c

 

 

Canegard

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Control

3.12a

3.42a

3.57ab

3.50a

4.30b

           c/ Fungus growth measured after 5 days on Antracol, Bayleton, Benlate and Canegard and 12 days

               on Bumper germination count after 30 days; analysis was done separately for each fungicides.

 

 

Table 10.   Concentrations/dosages of fungicides used in the laboratory and field trial for the control of pineapple disease.

 

 

Laboratory Test (ppm)

Field Trialb/  (gm (ml/16 li water)

Fungicides      a       b       c       d      a       b       c       d
 

Antracol 25% WP

50

100

150

250

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

 

Bayleton 25% WP

50

100

150

250

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Benlate 50% WP

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

 

Bumper 25% EC

100

200

250

300

3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

 

Canegard (%)

0.5

100

1

2

80

160

240

320

    b/ Concentrations (ppm) are equivalent dosages (gm (ml/16 li water) in Field Trial; Canegard     

       prepared based  on 1% solution (10 ml/1000 ml water).

 


 

Table 11. Germination (5) of Phil 8943 treated with different fungicides at

               1, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2 and 3 months after planting under field conditions.

 

 

Fungicides

Dosage

(gm;ml/16 li H2O

Germination (%) months after planting

1

1-1/2

2

2-1/2

3

 

 

Antracol 75% WP

1.14

2.28

3.42

5.70

86.4

81.2

85.4

86.4

91.6

87.5

88.5

90.6

92.7d

87.5c

91.6c

93.7e

93.7b

89.3c

92.7b

93.7b

91.6

86.6

91.6

87.5

 

Bayleton 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

85.4

72.9

77.0

86.4

89.5

78.1

88.5

90.6c

91.6c

81.2a

87.5c

93.7b

89.5c

82.2e

87.5c

89.5

90.8

81.2

86.6

 

Benlate 50%  WP

3.20

6.64

8.00

9.60

81.2

76.0

84.3

90.6

88.5

80.2

88.5

95.8

91.6c

82.2b

89.8c

97.9f

92.7b

82.2e

90.6c

96.8a

87.5

82.5

89.5

95.8

 

Bumper 25% WP

3.20

6.64

9.60

16.0

82.2

86.4

84.3

88.5

88.5

89.5

91.6

88.5

90.6c

94.7e

93.7e

89.5c

91.6c

95.0a

91.6c

93.7b

89.5

90.8

90.8

88.7

 

Canegard

  80

160

240

320

80.2

81.2

75.0

77.0

87.5

91.6

82.2

88.5

90.6c

96.8f

84.3b

87.5c

89.5c

97.9a

87.5c

89.5c

87.5

92.9

82.5

86.6

   Control

-

72.6

82.0

84.5b

84.8d

83.3

      F-value

ns

ns

1.82*

1.77*

ns

      C.V. (%)

10.9

7.8

7.3

6.9

7.4

 

Table 12.  Number of tillers in different treatments.

 

Fungicides

 

 

Dosage (gm;ml/16 li H2O

 

Tiller Count

 

Antracol 75% WP

                   1.14

2.28

3.42

5.7

                151b

145d

145d

147d

 

Bayleton 25% WP

                     3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                137e

152b

122g

132f

 

Benlate 50% WP

                     3.2

6.64

8.0

9.6

                124h

118f

135f

162a

 

Bumper 25% EC

                      3.2

6.64

9.6

16.0

                140e

148c

138e

139e

 

Canegard

                       80

160

240

320

                139e

151b

131f

135f

   Control                   124h
      F-value                   2.42**
      C.V. (%)                   10.4

                      d/ Rating of pineapple disease infection on canepoints: 1. Slightly infected or rotting at both ends,

                   2. Less severely infected  or rotting advancing towards nodes, and 3. Severely infected or

                   rotting includes nodes.

 

  1. 14.    Yield reduction in plant and ratoon crops in sugarcane due to locust infestation: A  

        simulation model – Melanie C. Alba & Teresita B. Banas

 

The study was conducted using simulation model of locust infestation at different growth stages and degree of damage on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

Simulation of locust damage was done at three growth stages of sugarcane as follows: 3, 5 and 7 months after planting.  The different leaf damages were 0%, 5-10%, 20-30%, 40-50%, 60-70%, 80-80% and 100%.  Figure 5 at the last page.

 

Results of the experiment showed that simulation of 100% locust damage had no significant reduction in yield at 7 months after planting (MAP) both in plant and ratoon crops.  However, significant reduction was observed when plants had 100% defoliation at 3 and 5 MAP.  At 3 MAP, yield reduction in the plant cane was 17.07% TC/ha and 17.60% LKg/ha while in the ratoon crop, 30.57% TC/ha and 30.85% LKg/ha.  With 5 MAP, reduction was 17.15% TC/ha and 20.82% LKg/ha in plant cane and 1.7% TC/ha and 4.32 LKg/ha in ratoon (Table 13)

 

It was further observed that ratoon crop suffered greater yield reduction when defoliated 100% at 3 MAP compared to plant cane.  However, at 5 MAP reduction was lesser in ratoon compared to plant cane.

 

 

Table 13.   Percent and actual yield reduction with 100% defoliation due to locust

                       infestation based on simulation model during 3 and 5 MAP of plant

                       growth on plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane.

 

 

Cropping

Yield Reduction

3 MAP

5 MAP

Tonnage

LKg/ha

Tonnage

LKg/ha

 

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

%

Actual

Plant

17.07

17.96

17.60

40.09

17.15

20.90

20.82

56.12

Ratoon

30.57

36.16

30.85

78.91

  1.71

  1.69

  4.32

  9.41

Diff.

13.50

18.20

13.25

38.82

15.44

19.21

16.50

46.71

 

 

15. Smut resistance trial 1996 series (PYT-Ratoon) Nora S. Meneses

 

Of the 68 clones evaluated, 57 were found very highly resistant, 5 intermediate resistant, 1 intermediate average, 1 intermediate susceptible and 3 susceptible to smut (Table 14).

 

Table 14.  Rating of 1996 series clones (PYT-Ratoon) to smut.

 

             Clone             Rating             Clone             Rating

96-3239

0503

3165

2717

0477

1253

3267

3717

3161

Thailand

3297

2691

2255

4047

3341

0423

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

96-3275

4409

2697

3079

3289

1531

4495

1497

0953

3197

2583

0099

3007

0799

1781

2441

1

1

4

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3361

5957

4053

4595

4273

4223

4483

0123

4135

3421

0097

0579

4109

4455

0319

4529

4111

0509

3263

Australia

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

1

1

1

3087

1789

0961

3283

4503

0637

3219

2983

2711

0475

4057

0507

0015

1491

3363

1183

2805

1487

Saipan

Phil 56226

1

1

1

7

1

1

6

1

4

1

1

1

5

1

7

4

1

1

8

6

Legend:  1 – Very Highly Resistant    2 – Highly Resistant    3- Resistant    4- Intermediate Resistant

 

SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

 

  1. 1.    Response of Phil 90-0345 To Varying Levels of NPK Fertilization Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

The experiment was conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from November 1999 to November 2000 to evaluate the response of Phil 90-0345 to NPK fertilization.

 

Phil 90-0345 gave the highest yield of 134.49 TC/Ha LKg and 298.64 LKg/Ha at 200 kg N/Ha fertilization, however these parameters were comparable with 100 and 150 kg N/Ha.

 

High TC/Ha and LKg/Ha were due to longer, heavier and number of millable stalk at 200 kg N/ha.

 

LKg/TC was not significantly affected by N fertilization with 2.33 as the highest value obtained.

 

There was a positive linear relationship and close association on both TC/Ha and LKg/Ha against N rates with a significant r-value of 0.99 and 0.98 respectively.

 

TC/Ha, LKg/ha and LKg/TC were not significantly affected by P and K fertilization.

 

Stalk diameter, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk did not differ with both P and K fertilization.  On the other hand K affected stalk length but not by P fertilization.

 

Application of increasing levels of N resulted to increasing percentage of N in the TVD leaf blade at 6th month of growth.  Highest concentration was obtained at 200 kg N/ha where the highest cane and sugar yield were likewise obtained.  This N concentration was likewise comparable with the value obtained at 100 and 150 kg N/ha fertilization.

 

In P and K series treatment despite the constant N fertilization, percentage concentration of N in TVD leaf blade differed.  Highest concentration of N in TVD leaf blade was observed both at zero P and K, but this value was not reflected on tonnage unlike the N series.

 

Percentage concentration of P in TVD leaf blade was comparable among the different rates of N, P and K fertilization.  These results were also reflected on the non-significant differences on tonnage and sugar yield.

 

In like manner, percentage concentration of K in TVD leaf blade was likewise comparable on the three series of fertilization.

 

Highest net profit of Php 92,446.92 was attained at 200 kg N/ha with an ROI of 143.8%.

 

  1. 2.    Response of Phil 8839 ratoons to varying levels of NPK fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam R. M. Bombio, S.B. Tahum and G.L. Talam

 

This study was conducted at the La Ganja Agricultural Research and Extension Center (LGAREC), La Carlota City, Negros Occidental, to evaluate the response of Phil 8839 ratoons to various NPK levels in Guimbalon clay loam soil.

 

Results showed that stalk length and stalk weight did not differ among the various levels of NPK during plant cane, fist ratoon and third ratoon while at second ratoon significant differences were observed in these two parameters.  It was also observed that withholding K fertilization in Guimbalon clay loam soil significantly decreased the stalk weight of Phil 8839 second ratoon.

 

Stalk diameter on the other hand were comparable in all four croppings, however the number of millable stalks differed on plant cane, first ratoon and third ratoon while comparable results were obtained on the second ratoon.  There was a reduction of 4.1% in the mean millable stalks of the first ratoon, but an increase of 9.70% was obtained in the second ratoon while in the third ratoon similar number was obtained with the plant cane.

 

Sugar rendement (LKg/TC) of all croppings were comparable except for the first ratoon.  Results seemed to indicate that limiting amount of N and K at 200 N level resulted to a significantly lower LKg/TC of Phil 8839 first ratoon.

 

Tonnage (TC/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings, however in the third ratoon, cane yield of all nitrogen treated plants irrespective of rate were comparable but were significantly higher than O N.  Tonnage yield of three rations were lower than the plant cane.  The percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 32.9%, 26.8% and 34.9% respectively.

 

Sugar yield (LKg/ha) significantly differed in all four croppings.  The highest sugar yield in all croppings was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK level.  This was due to heavier stalk weight and more number of millable stalks in this treatment.  LKg/ha of the ratoons were lower than the plant cane.  The average percentage reduction of the first, second and third ratoon was 39.1%, 21.6% and 33.6% respectively.

 

Generally the reduction on sugar yield in all croppings was due to the decreasing tonnage of the ratoon crops brought about by shorter, lighter and smaller stalks of the ratoons even if the number of millable stalks was not affected.  It was further noted that withholding K fertilization rather than P decreased cane and sugar yield of Phil 8839 ratoons.

 

The highest total net benefit and ROI was obtained at 200-0-200 NPK treatment and the lowest net benefit and ROI was obtained at 0-150-200 treatment.

 

  1. 3.    Influence of varying levels of nitrogen, time of fertilization and age of harvest on growth and Yield of Phil 8839 ratoon Rosario M. Bombio, Solena B. Tahum and Nimfa D. Navarro

 

Two sets of experiment were conducted at SRA-LGAREC, La Granja, La Carlota City, from Sept. 1999 to Nov. 2000, to determine the proper age of harvest of sugarcane ratoon in relation to the levels of N and time of fertilizer application.

Highest tonnage (TC/ha) and sugar obtained when canes were harvested at 12 months after rationing (MAR) in all levels of N fertilization.

 

Although not significantly different tonnage mean average of 114.6 at 12 MAR harvest was higher than 9, 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 22.03, 12.71 and 3.92 TC/Ha respectively.

 

On the other hand, mean average sugar yield of 255.19 at 12 MAR harvest was significantly higher than 9 MAR but comparable with 10 and 11 MAR harvest by 56.65, 36.42 and 11.71 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of ratoon canes harvested at different age and carrying levels of N showed comparable results.

 

Highest mean average in TC/ha and  LKg/ha were obtained when ratoon canes were fertilized immediately after stubble shaving and harvested at 12 MAR.

 

Canes fertilized after stubble shaving gave the highest mean average of 128.69 TC/Ha and 291.14 LKg/ha while ratoon fertilized at 2, 3, 4 and 5 MAR gave 120.40, 123.41, 121.58 and 107.79 TC/Ha respectively.

 

Cane harvested at 12 MRA gave the highest mean average of 152.45 TC/ha and comparable with 11 MAR harvested with 125.09 TC/ha but significantly higher than the 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 119.00 and 97.23 TC/ha respectively.

 

Sugar yield mean average of canes harvested at 12 MAR was 318.94 LKg/Ha that was significantly higher than 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest with 275.00, 261.41 and 214.44 LKg/Ha respectively.

 

LKg/TC of canes fertilized at 5 MAR was significantly lower than canes fertilized after stubble shaving.

 

Although not significant canes harvested are 12 MAR have higher LKg/TC than the 11, 10 and 9 MAR harvest.

 

Highest net income and ROI was attained at 100 kg N/ha fertilization and harvested 12 MAR.  On the other hand sugarcane harvested at 12 MAR gave the highest average net income and ROI irregardless of the time of fertilization and the lowest was obtained at 9 MAR.

 

  1. 4.    Magnesium fertilization of sugarcaneMila C. Gerardino, Solena B. Tahum and George L. Talam

 

Response of Phil 8477 to application of magnesium was evaluated in Guimbalaon soil in La Granja Agricultural Research and Extension Center in La Carlota City and Hda. Louisiana in Bgy. Maao, Bago City.  The soils contain 74 and 32 ppm Mg. respectively.  The experiments were conducted from October 1998 to July 2001.  Four (4) levels of Mg were applied: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg Mg/Ha.  These treatments including a 0 Mg 0 NPK plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four (4) times.

 

Application of the different levels of Mg had no significant influence on cane yield, sugar yield and juice quality of Phil 8477 although the Mg content of both soils were considered below the critical level of Mg for sugarcane.  Generally, there was an observed increase in yield in both plant and ratoon cane with the application of 50 kg Mg/ha but not above this level.

 

There was also an observed increase in soil Mg even in Mg-untreated plots.

 

  1. 5.    Response of sugarcane to application of potassium phosphateRosario M. Bombio, George L. Talam, Dr. Rodrigo E. Tapay

 

Although not significant the results of the experiment showed that application of potassium phosphate improved the stalk length, weight per stalk and number of millable stalk of Phil 8943.

 

Improvement in these parameters was due to increased availability of the OM, P, K, Ca and Mg in the soil.  pH of the soil likewise improved while aluminum decreased.

 

Based on the results it is recommended that further study will be conducted up to harvest since the improvement of weight per stalk and number of millable stalk at 1 liter per hectare potassium phosphate although projected to give the highest tonnage at harvest yet this projection may not be conclusive because the experiment was harvested at sixth month.

 

 

  II.  INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 2001

 

      RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.    Lactic Acid from Molasses

 

A total of fifteen (15) runs were conducted using Lactobacillus delbreukii in aqueous molasses and molasses/coco water solutions containing 9,9,10,11 and 12% sugar as invert. The additives used were 2% nitrogen, 1% phosphate and 8.3% invertase per 35 g molasses.  The incubation temperature was 45oC. Best yields were obtained at 10% sugar level for all substrates.  Coconut water was found to support lactic acid production. Substrates – Molasses in Coco water gave higher yields for all sugar levels.  Supplementing the molasses/coco water solution with invertase further increased the yield but only up to 10% sugar level. The presence of higher glucose/fructose levels seemed to inhibit lactic acid production.  All substrates gave decreasing yields at 11 and 12% sugar.

 

  1. 2.    Organimat and Horticulture Blocks (HB) from Bagasse

 

The project involves the development of Horticulture Blocks (HB) and organimat from bagasse. In making horticulture blocks, whole bagasse was ground, mixed with water, molded and air dried for one (1) week.  A total of 35 application runs were conducted using vegetable seeds and plantlets of ornamental plants for the initial application tests. Regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to a ratio of 1:2 and 1:5 by weight HB to BOF. Mixtures were distributed into plastic seedling bags. Using soil as the control, results showed that plants grown in the HB-BOF mixtures were healthier and taller than those grown in soil.

 

For the  succeeding application tests, regenerated blocks were mixed with BOF to the ratio of 1:1 up to 1:5 parts HB to BOF.  Twenty (20) tomato seeds were planted per bag and the number of germinated seedlings were noted after one (1) week.  Growth in height (cm) was monitored for four weeks.  Results showed that 1:5 HB-BOF proportion gave the highest number of seedlings and highest seedlings growth.

 

For the organimat, bagasse was washed thoroughly with water, air dried, cut into 12 inches long strips and secured by wire to fit hanging baskets.  For the application tests, baskets were filled with soil as planting material and planted with ornamental plants. It was observed that bagasse organimat can hold and blends well with soil.

 

  1. 3.    Handmade Paper from Bagasse and Waste Papers

 

A process for the production of handmade paper from bagasse and waste paper (old magazine and office wastes) was developed. Bagasse pulp was mixed with waste paper pulp in several proportions. The sheets were analyzed for tensile strength and for number of sheets formed per run.

 

Eight (8) test runs were conducted on mixtures of different proportions of bagasse and pulp from old magazine.  Additives were added to four (4) trial runs.  Results showed that the 40:60 ratio of bagasse to magazine pulp with and without additives gave the highest tensile strength, however, the paper made without additives appear to be more stronger than the ones made with additives.

 

  1. 4.    Efficacy Trial of Bio-organic Fertilizer on Sugarcane Plant. 

 

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Central Azucarera de La Carlota Bio-organic Fertilizer (SRA Technology) on sugarcane. Nine (9) treatments were laid out on a Guimbalaon clay soil at Bgy. Najalin, La Carlota City in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times (3x) from March 2000 to February 2001.  Bio-organic fertilizer application increased the organic matter content of the soil.  This considerable increase is an indication that BOF application may be able to restore the ecological balance of the soil ravaged by excessive cultivation and chemical fertilization.

 

  1. 5.    Recovery of Anti-oxidants from Molasses. 

 

The project involves the recovery of phenolic compounds through fermentation of molasses. Phenolic compounds are one of the phytonutrients responsible for giving sugarcane its odor, flavor and color. These phytonutrients contribute to the plant’s natural defense system and could also prevent certain diseases in humans including cancer and heart disease.

 

  1. 6.    Improving Centrifugal Operations Through Innovative Fugalling Technique

 

Purging Efficiency (P.E.) is a significant control figure in the efficient operation of centrifugal operation.  It is a measure of the level of impurity removal that has been achieved during the centrifuging process.  P.E. for the three (3) runs obtained similar trends, as the washing time increases, P.E. also increases. Based on the data and results presented, water washing is better than syrup washing. The only chance of syrup as an alternative medium is in terms of steam savings specially if the factory is practicing longer washing time.

 

  1. 7.    An Inquiry into the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Installing Cane Cleaning Stations for the Local Sugar Industry. 

 

From the comparisons and discussions presented between wet and dry cleaning, a conclusion was reached – that technically, dry cleaning is the most effective technique suitable for the local condition.  The second potion of the study, i.e. the economic feasibility cannot be established clearly due to unavailability of data on costing.

 

  1. 8.    Performance Rating of Mills’ Clarification Technology Non-Pol Ratio as Index of Clarification Efficiency

 

An evaluation or assessment of the mills clarification performance on the basis of non-pol and non-sugar ratios, and other clarification data that affect BHR and / or other recovery efficiency figures.  In this study, five (5) cooperator sugar mills were considered namely, Capiz, URSUMCO, CAT, Fist Farmers and Caneland.

 

  1. 9.    The Rate of Dextran Formation in Various Stages of Sugar Processing 

 

The study deals with the identification, quantification and monitoring of dextran levels in various stages of raw sugar manufacture to be able to control or minimize its infestation.

 

  1. 10.  Collaborative Study with MWCI & Basecom – Composting Sludge in Combination with Sugar Milling B-products

 

An experiment was conducted to utilize sludge in combination with bagasse and mudpress in the production of bio-organic fertilizer.  All the treatments were composed 4 to 8 weeks after incubation except for the control which extended beyond 8 weeks of incubation period.  The shortest composting period was registered at 4 weeks when sludge application was doubled.  All the rest were composted at 5 weeks and 8 weeks time.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

 

  1. 1.  Annual Compendium of Performance – Philippine Sugar Refineries Year 1999

 

An annual publication that embodies data and information on operating sugar refineries either culled or computed from refinery statement.  Copies are distributed to the contributing refineries and various SRA units. This publication is made available to various sugar industry constituent seeking access to data and information of this kind.

 

  1. 2.  Annual Synopsis of Production and Performance Data for Philippines Raw Sugar Factories CY 1999-2000

 

A technical publication on production and performance statistics of operating sugar mills excerpted or computed from their respective final weekly factory repots for the season being reviewed.  Data and information therein are made available to various industry clientele for whatever downstream activities these data may be of use thereof.

 

  1. 3.  Standardization of Report/MI Instruments and Data Logs for the Raw sugar Factories. 

 

A revised factory statement and worksheet to standardized production and performance format was formulated for implementation at the local sugar industry.

 

  1. 4.  Rationalization of Cane Handling with Milling Practice.

 

The study has achieved the objective of identifying the cane handling system best suited for the local sugar industry and the importance of a handling program for an efficient milling operation.  Several recommendations were listed down in the report to establish and attain such objective.

 

  1. 5.  Cost of Efficiency Improvement of Raw Sugar Factories

 

A cost benefit analysis to provide mill management with an insight on the potential gains from such investment opportunity was undertaken.  The study dealt with the efficiency improvement in four (4) modules throughout the sugar factory areas of  operations.  

 

6.    Standardization of Refinery Reports/Statement

 

Refineries having different technologies employed in clarification and decolorization process have different material nomenclature and efficiency formula.  Hence, a standardization of Refinery Reports/Statements was conducted in coordination with PASRI headed by Mr. Apolinario Blanco and all Refinery Superintendents. The agreed standardized refinery report/statements is due for implementation. One refinery had already used the standardized form for refining year 2000.

 

  1. 7.    Capacity Utilization Gauged from the Weather Window

 

A new formula for capacity utilization of milling plants is proposed based on the allowable milling days due favorable delivery conditions as low moisture level.  The proposed formula in effect accounts for the stoppage and delays due to weather.

 

  1. 8.    Monitoring of Processes and Systems Audit of Sugar Mills 

 

The activities deal with identifying the mills and/or refineries and their facilities capable of producing Direct Consumption Sugar (DCS), intermediate to raw and refined sugars with the end view of strengthening the quedan system.  The comprehensive information is needed for a clear cut policy on DCS sugar in relation to its compliance with SRA regulatory policy and in setting up quality standard to DCS.